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    18 August 2021, Volume 25 Issue 23 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Cold therapy promotes self-limited recovery of delayed-onset muscle soreness
    Jiang Xiaoyan, Zhu Haifei, Lin Haiqi, Lin Wentao
    2021, 25 (23):  3609-3613.  doi: 10.12307/2021.027
    Abstract ( 379 )   PDF (778KB) ( 50 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: High-intensity eccentric exercise can induce delayed-onset muscle soreness in skeletal muscles. Cold therapy is a non-drug treatment that can weaken blood lactic acid, relieve fatigue, reduce muscle inflammation, promote skeletal muscle regeneration and speed up recovery time after exercise. Cold therapy is a commonly used physical therapy to prevent and treat delayed-onset muscle soreness, but it is unclear how the body makes adaptive adjustment to achieve self-limited recovery under low temperature stress. 
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of cold therapy on the self-limited recovery of delayed-onset muscle soreness.
    METHODS: Non-long-term (n=24) and long-term exercise (n=24) male high school students acted as the subjects, and were randomized into non-long-term exercise control group, non-long-term exercise + ice massage group, non-long-term exercise + immersion in cold water group, as well as long-term exercise control group, long-term exercise + ice massage group, long-term exercise + immersion in cold water group, with 8 students in each group. All subjects performed in-situ vertical jump to simulate the high-intensity eccentric exercise, followed by no intervention, ice massage, and immersion in cold water, respectively. The trial was approved by the Ethic Committee of the School of Physical Education, Guangdong Maoming Preschool Teachers College on March 1, 2019, with an approval No. GPNCM-IACUC-2019-S03001.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: For non-long-term exercisers, cold therapy could effectively eliminate blood lactic acid after exercise (P < 0.05), significantly reduce the surface temperature of the lower limbs at 30 minutes after exercise (P < 0.05), and significantly decrease subjective muscle pain within 24-96 hours after exercise (P < 0.05). For long-term exercisers, cold therapy had no effect on blood lactic acid level and muscle pain level (P > 0.05). Therefore, cold therapy can resist and delay the exercise fatigue phenomenon of non-long-term exercise adolescents after one-time high-intensity exercise, promote the self-limited recovery of the body, and reduce the risk of exercise. 
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    Application of High Resolution reconstruction algorithm in precision CT scans of the middle and inner ears
    Xie Jingshu, Zhang Xianglin, Liu Jinlei, Wen Jing
    2021, 25 (23):  3614-3618.  doi: 10.12307/2021.028
    Abstract ( 231 )   PDF (1323KB) ( 28 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: For the imaging of ossicular chains, muscles, bony labyrinths, ligaments and other structures, conventional thin-slice CT scans are difficult to achieve the most ideal results.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of High Resolution (HR) precise tomographic reconstruction algorithm in thin-layer CT scan of the middle and inner ears.
    METHODS: Thin-layer scanning of the inner ear was performed in 21 volunteers. All scanned images were reconstructed by two reconstruction algorithms. The study group was reconstructed by 0.275 mm HR precision tomography, and the control group was reconstructed by 0.55 mm conventional thin layer. The images were processed by multiplanar reconstruction technology, and the display rates of anterior malleolar ligament, posterior anvil ligament, superior malleolar ligament and lateral malleolar ligament were calculated, and the image display effects of ossicular chain, muscle, labyrinthine and ligament were scored subjectively. The volume CT dose index volume and dose length product were recorded, and the effective dose was calculated. The study protocol was implemented in line with the ethic requirements of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, and all the subjects were fully informed of the study procedures.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All anatomical structures could be seen in axial and coronal images of HR precision tomography reconstruction and conventional thin-layer reconstruction (P > 0.05). In axial and coronal images, the display quality of the middle and inner ear structure in the study group was significantly better than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The effective dose of precision tomography in middle and inner ear was (1.19±0.26) mGy. To conclude, precision tomography has higher image resolution, by which we can observe the structures of the middle and inner ears more clearly.
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    Changes of osteogenic growth factors in the broken end of bone nonunion under stress
    Liu Jinwei, Chen Yunzhen, Wan Chunyou
    2021, 25 (23):  3619-3624.  doi: 10.12307/2021.029
    Abstract ( 232 )   PDF (2139KB) ( 17 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Existing animal experiments have shown that there are a certain number of osteoblasts and osteogenic growth factors in the fibrous tissue of the fractured bone end, and moreover, the number of blood vessels around the fractured end is not statistically different from that in the healed tissue.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of osteogenic growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor β1, in the broken end of bone nonunion under mechanical stress. 
    METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to build the nonunion models. Nonunion models were established with self-made adjustable compressive external fixation. Then 40 rat models were selected for the experiment and were randomized into an experimental group and a control group. Then low-intensity high-frequency mechanical stress was applied to the experimental group, while nothing done to the control group. After 3 months, osteogenesis at the broken end of bone nonunion was assessed by radiological and histological observations. The changes of osteogenic growth factors, bone morphogenetic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor β1 at the broken end of bone nonunion were detected by immunochemistry and RT-PCR.   
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The consequences of radiography and histology showed that the broken end was sealed, with no bone bridge linking and connective tissue filled the broken gap between bone nonunion after 12 weeks. Then the gap became vague under mechanical stress after 4 weeks and was flocculent after 8 weeks. Unilateral osseous bridge connected the ends after 12 weeks. The radiographic score of the experimental group at the 12th week was significantly higher than that at the 4th and 8th weeks as well as that of the control group (P < 0.05). The results of RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed the expression of bone morphogenetic protein reached the peak at the 8th week. Gene amplification of vascular endothelial growth factor reached the peak at the 4th week and its expression peaked at the 8th week. The expression of transforming growth factor β1 kept smooth tendency. Compared with the control group, the expression of these osteogenic growth factors was significantly higher in the experimental group (P < 0.05). To conclude, the expression and gene amplification of bone morphogenetic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor β1 could be obviously increased between the ends under mechanical stress, osteogenic tissue was found at the broken end. The consequences indicate that low-intensity mechanical stress has a positive relationship with osteogenesis.
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    Effect of antioxidant mixture on structural degeneration of an osteoarthritis rat model
    Luo Anyu, Liu Hanlin, Xie Xiaofei, Huang Chen
    2021, 25 (23):  3625-3629.  doi: 10.12307/2021.030
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (852KB) ( 33 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological process of osteoarthritis, leading to local inflammation and matrix degradation. Previous studies have shown that antioxidants such as quercetin and vitamin C are potential candidates for treating osteoarthritis. 
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quercetin, vitamin C and desferrioxamine mesylate mixture can delay disease progression in rats with post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: The anterior cruciate ligament was cut off in 10 Sprague-Dawley rats to induce osteoarthritis. Animal models were randomized into two groups (n=5 per group). Twenty weeks after operation, 50 μL of normal saline or antioxidant mixture was slowly injected into the affected joint, once a week for 4 successive weeks. The antioxidant mixture consisted of 1 g/L dihydroxyquercetin, 30 g/L vitamin C and 200 mg/L desferrioxamine mesylate. Gait analysis was performed before treatment, 1 week and 5 weeks after treatment. Micro-CT examination and histology scoring were performed 5 weeks after treatment. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Gait analysis showed that intra-articular injection of antioxidant mixture did not improve pain-related limb laziness index (P=0.449). However, 5 weeks after treatment, the limb laziness index in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.047). Five weeks after treatment, microcomputed tomography analysis showed that there was no significant difference in any parameters between the treatment group and the control group (P > 0.05). There were severe histopathological changes of osteoarthritis in both groups. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores showed no significant difference in both groups (P=0.382). In conclusion, intra-articular injection of antioxidant mixture containing quercetin, vitamin C and desferrioxamine does not delay the progress of osteoarthritis in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. Future studies should aim to determine whether administration of antioxidants and prolonged drug retention time in early osteoarthritis can effectively delay the progress of osteoarthritis.
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    Transforming growth factor beta combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces the proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells
    Zhou Wu, Wang Binping, Wang Yawen, Cheng Yanan, Huang Xieshan
    2021, 25 (23):  3630-3635.  doi: 10.12307/2021.031
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 29 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Growth factors are one of the key elements for bone formation, remodeling and repair. The combination of multiple growth factors to induce osteogenic differentiation of bone stem cells has certain advantages compared with single ones. However, what combination of concentrations can play the best inducing effect has not been fully documented.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of transforming growth factor-β combined with bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse MC3T3-E1 cells.
    METHODS: Different concentrations of transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein-2 were combined to cultivate MC3T3-E1 cells. The cells were then divided into six groups, including one control group and five experimental groups, and were tested at different time points. The proliferation of the cells was determined by MTT method. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Runx2 and osteocalcin gene expression. Alkaline phosphatase staining was used to observe the viability and function of osteoblasts. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the amount of calcium nodules.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Whether transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein-2 were used alone or in combination could significantly promote the proliferation of MC3T3-E1cells, promote the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin, and increase the alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization ability (P < 0.05). The osteogenic effect of two growth factors in combination was positively correlated with the concentration. Even the combination at a low concentration can achieve or surpass the effect of single use. The optimal combined concentration was 1 μg/L for transforming growth factor-β and 100 μg/L for bone morphogenetic protein-2. Therefore, transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic protein-2 used alone or in combination can significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenesis of osteoblasts, which focus on different aspects and interact with each other at different stages of proliferation and differentiation. Within the concentration range of this study, 1 μg/L transforming growth factor-β plus 100 μg/L bone morphogenetic protein-2 show the best promotion effect.
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    Achyranthes bidentata alcohol extract inhibits extracellular matrix degradation of the cartilage by regulating synovial fibroblast exosomes
    Gao Kun, Chen Dayu, Zhang Yong, Liu Weidong, Sun Shufen, Lai Wenqiang, Ma Dujun, Wu Yihong, Lin Zhanpeng, Jiang Yinglu, Yu Weiji
    2021, 25 (23):  3636-3640.  doi: 10.12307/2021.032
    Abstract ( 249 )   PDF (849KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Achyranthes bidentata can inhibit extracellular matrix degradation of the cartilage and promote the repair of articular chondrocytes. Exosomes widely exist in the synovial fluid of the knee joint and carry a large number of cytokines to play specific biological functions and regulate matrix metalloproteinase. Achyranthes bidentata is speculated to play a role in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis through exosomes
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Achyranthes bidentata alcohol extract can regulate exosomes of synovial fibroblasts to inhibit extracellular matrix degradation of the cartilage.
    METHODS: Synovial fibroblasts were cultured and treated with PBS, 100 mg/L Achyranthes bidentata alcohol extract or 10 mmol/L glucosamine. Exosomes were extracted from the cell supernatant, and labeled as EXOs-PBS, EXOs-Achyranthes bidentata, and EXOs-glucosamine. Rabbit models of knee osteoarthritis were constructed, and EXOs-PBS (blank control group), EXOs-Achyranthes bidentata (experimental group), and EXOs-glucosamine (positive control group) were injected into the articular cavity of the rabbit models, respectively, once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. The joint mobility was measured before and after treatment. Degree of improvement of joint adhesion was calculated. Synovial fluid of the knee joint was extracted to detect matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 9 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Articular cartilage matrix was extracted to detect cartilage matrix glycosaminoglycan content using DMB staining kit.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The exosomes of synovial fibroblasts were successfully extracted, and the improvement of joint adhesion in the experimental group was (74.60±8.05)%, which was significantly higher than that in the blank control group [(54.00 ±6.96)%, P < 0.05). The levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 in the knee joint fluid of model rabbits in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the blank control group (P < 0.05). The content of glycosaminoglycan in articular cartilage matrix of model rabbits in the experimental group was (330.83±26.71) mg/L, which was significantly higher than that in the blank control group [(258.21±41.76) mg/L, P < 0.05). The above results of the experimental group were basically the same as those of the positive control group (P > 0.05). Achyranthes bidentata alcohol extract can treat exosomes of synovial fibroblasts, alleviate knee joint mobility of knee osteoarthritis rabbits, reduce the levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 in synovial fluid of the knee joint, inhibit the degradation of extracellular matrix and protect the articular cartilage.
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    Optimal power load forecasting of the skeletal muscle based on back propagation neural network
    Liang Meifu, Qu Shuhua
    2021, 25 (23):  3641-3647.  doi: 10.12307/2021.033
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1353KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Optimal power load strength training can effectively increase the output power of skeletal muscle, promote health and improve sports performance. However, how to quickly determine the optimal power load is often a difficult problem in the practice of strength training, and is also a hot topic in the research of scholars at home and abroad.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the mathematical relationship between maximum strength, height, weight and optimal power load by using back propagation neural network modeling, so as to build a model to predict the optimal power load. 
    METHODS: Fifty-two subjects (46 subjects for test, 6 subjects for forecast) were recruited. The maximum strength test and maximum power output test were carried out on the subjects to construct the optimal power load forecasting model based on error back propagation correction training algorithm, and the trained back propagation neural network model was used to predict the optimal power load in the new sample to explore the prediction effect of the model. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Using the strong self-learning and reasoning ability of back propagation neural network, the optimal power load forecasting model was constructed with 3 input layers, 10 hidden layers and 1 output layer. In terms of the prediction accuracy of different strength training methods, the mean relative error of bench press throw and half squat is 9%, and the mean absolute error is 3.79 kg and 6.91 kg respectively. Back propagation neural network prediction method can effectively predict the optimal power load, which makes the determination method of optimal power load more diversified and intelligent.

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    Dynamic changes of mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle after acupuncture intervention in rats with heavy load exercise-induced injury
    Bai Shengchao, Gao Yang, Wang Bo, Li Junping, Wang Ruiyuan
    2021, 25 (23):  3648-3653.  doi: 10.12307/2021.034
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (2761KB) ( 21 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A heavy load exercise may lead to skeletal muscle damage and the mitochondrial dysfunction. As an important treatment measure, acupuncture should play a certain role in the repair of injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the damage of skeletal muscle mitochondria in different phases after a heavy load exercise and acupuncture intervention, and further explore the role of acupuncture in preventing and treating exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. 
    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, an acupuncture group, an exercise group and an exercise+acupuncture group. Among them, exercise and exercise+acupuncture groups performed a single bout heavy load exercise; and acupuncture and exercise+acupuncture groups performed acupuncture intervention. The acupuncture, exercise and exercise+acupuncture groups were further divided into 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours groups according to the time points of sampling after the intervention. The ultrastructural changes of skeletal muscle mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The fluorescence ratio of JC-1 was detected by fluorescent enzyme labeling technique. The content of cytoplasmic cytochrome C and mitochondrial function index, the activity of succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were determined by ELISA.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After exercise, the mitochondrial ultrastructure was obviously damaged (severest at 12-24 hours), the cytoplasmic cytochrome C content was increased (P < 0.05), and the JC-1 ratio and succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity were decreased (P < 0.05). The mitochondria were normal after acupuncture, and there was no significant changes in each test index (P > 0.05). Acupuncture intervention decreased the ultrastructural damage of skeletal muscle mitochondria, reduced the cytoplasmic cytochrome C content (P < 0.05), and increased the JC-1 ratio and succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity (P < 0.05). To conclude, after a bout of eccentric exercise, the mitochondria have different degrees of damage and temporal changes, which peak from 12 to 24 hours. Acupuncture alone cannot cause obvious damage of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Acupuncture intervention can effectively improve mitochondrial damage caused by exercise and promote the recovery of mitochondrial function after exercise.
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    Serine/threonine protein kinases can promote bone destruction in mouse models of chronic periapical periodontitis
    Yang Caihui, Liu Qicheng, Dong Ming, Wang Lina, Zuo Meina, Lu Ying, Niu Weidong
    2021, 25 (23):  3654-3659.  doi: 10.12307/2021.035
    Abstract ( 258 )   PDF (996KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of periapical periodontitis are bone destruction and formation of inflammatory granulation tissue. Studies have found that serine/threonine protein kinases (AKT) can promote osteoclast differentiation.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of AKT in mice with experimental periapical periodontitis.
    METHODS: Twenty-five C57BL/6J wild-type female mice were selected, and the animal model of periapical periodontitis was established in 20 mice by pulpectomy to expose the pulp cavity of bilateral mandibular first molars. The remaining five mice without pulpectomy were used as the healthy control group. Five mice from the experimental group were randomly killed  to separate the mandible and prepare frozen sections at each observational time, including 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after pulpectomy. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the inflammation of the mouse apical tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the expression and distribution of AKT. Enzyme histochemical staining was used to observe the expression of osteoclasts in the mouse apical tissue. Correlation between AKT and osteoclast expression was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that in the healthy control group, only a small amount of inflammatory cells were seen in the tissues around the apex, and the periodontal tissue was intact. At 1 week after the pulpectomy, the periodontal ligament in the periapical tissue was slightly widened, and there were a small amount of infiltrated neutrophils. At 2 weeks after pulpectomy, the width of the periodontal ligament increased significantly, and a large number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes infiltrated in the tissues around the apex, and obvious alveolar bone resorption appeared. At 3 to 4 weeks after the pulpectomy, mainly due to lymphocyte infiltration, the range of inflammation continued to expand, the range of alveolar bone resorption was more obvious, and the periodontal ligament width continued to widen. These indicated the successful establishment of the animal model of chronic periapical periodontitis in mice. The results of AKT immunohistochemical staining showed that there were only a few positive cells in the healthy control group; the expression of AKT in the experimental group began to increase at 1 week after pulpectomy, peaked at 2 weeks after pulpectomy, and then decreased at 3-4 weeks after pulpectomy. The number of AKT positive cells in the experimental group was higher than that in the healthy control group. There was no significant difference in the experimental group between 1 and 4 weeks after pulpectomy, and significant differences were observed in the experimental group at other observational times after pulpectomy. The results of enzyme histochemical staining showed that the number of osteoclasts had a certain trend with time, which reached the peak at 2-3 weeks after pulpectomy, and decreased at 4 weeks after pulpectomy. There was a moderate correlation between AKT absorbance value and osteoclast count (r=0.634, P < 0.001). To conclude, AKT is expressed in mice with chronic periapical periodontitis, and the expression is increased. AKT participates in the progression of chronic periapical periodontitis, and may promote bone destruction of periapical periodontitis.
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    Sevoflurance combined with xenon pretreatment protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model
    Fan Junchao, Chen Yong, Song Junjie
    2021, 25 (23):  3660-3665.  doi: 10.12307/2021.036
    Abstract ( 237 )   PDF (1670KB) ( 37 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious nerve tissue injury. Both sevoflurane and xenon have been reported to have a certain protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury of viscersl organs, but whether the combination of the two can alleviate spinal cord injury is still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect and mechanism of sevoflurane combined with xenon pretreatment in the rats with spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. 
    METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion group (IR), sevoflurane pretreated group (SI), xenon pretreated group (XI), sevoflurane and xenon pretreated group (SXI), PI3K inhibitor LY294002 group (SXI+LY), with 10 rats in each group. Sham group received sham operation, and the other groups received modeling operation for spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. SI group, XI group, SXI group and SXI+LY group were pretreated with 3.4% sevoflurane, 50% xenon, combination of sevoflurane and xenon, sevoflurane combined with xenon and LY294002 (the inhibitor of PI3K) respectively. The hindlimb motor function of rats was evaluated using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores. Normal neurons and apoptosis of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord were detected by Nissl staining and TUNEL staining. The expression and phosphorylation levels of PI3K, AKT and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in spinal cord tissue were detected by western blot. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The BBB scores for hindlimb motor function in the SI, XI and SXI groups were significantly higher than that in the IR group, and that of SXI group was significantly higher than that of SI group and XI group, while the BBB score in the SXI+LY group was significantly lower than that in the SXI group (all P < 0.001). Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the apoptotic index of anterior horn cells in the SI group, XI group and SXI group was significantly lower than that in the IR group, that in the SXI group was significantly lower than that in the SI group and XI group, while that in the SXI+LY group was significantly higher than that in the SXI group (all P < 0.001). The expression of p-PI3K, p-AKT and p-CREB in spinal cord tissue was significantly increased in the SI group, XI group and SXI group as compared with the IR group, with a highest expression level in the SXI group, and the expression in the SXI+LY group was significantly lower than that in the SXI group (all P < 0.001). Therefore, pretreatment using sevoflurane combined with xenon has a better protective effect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury than using single drug, and the mechanism may be related to the effect on PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway. 
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    Pretreatment with ginkgo biloba extract 50 alleviates radiation-induced acute intestinal injury in mice
    Zuo Zhenkui, Han Jiarui, Ji Shuling, He Lulu
    2021, 25 (23):  3666-3671.  doi: 10.12307/2021.037
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (2691KB) ( 29 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Acute intestinal injury may be triggered by high doses of radiotherapy to the chest, pelvis, abdomen, and total body. Previous studies have shown that ginkgo biloba extract 50 (GBE50) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but its role in the treatment of radiation-induced acute intestinal injury is yet unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of GBE50 against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury in mice. 
    METHODS: Twenty-seven mice were randomly divided into control group, radiation group and GBE50 treatment group, with nine rats in each group. Pathological changes of the jejunum were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis in crypts and villi was evaluated by TUNEL staining. The expressions and distributions of Ki67, olfactomedin 4 and lysozyme in small intestine tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Claudin-1, Zonula Occludens-1 and Lgr5 in small intestine tissue were detected by western blot. Malondialdehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity in small intestine tissue were detected by corresponding kit methods. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the radiation group, GBE50 pretreatment significantly reduced the pathological changes and cell apoptosis caused by radiation in mice, improved the regeneration ability of intestinal stem cells after radiation, and reduced the destruction of intestinal epithelial barrier and oxidative stress induced by radiation. Therefore, all the results indicate that GBE50 pretreatment can alleviate radiation-induced acute intestinal injury in mice.
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    Regulatory mechanism of Shenshuai Yin on cell apoptosis in the kidney of chronic renal failure rats
    Zhang Liang, Ma Xiaoyan, Wang Jiahong
    2021, 25 (23):  3672-3677.  doi: 10.12307/2021.038
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (1111KB) ( 59 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in animals have explored the pathway of apoptosis in the endoplasmic reticulum after treatment with Shenshuai Yin for chronic renal failure. However, the mechanism of cell apoptosis through other pathways remains to be studied.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory mechanism of renal cell apoptosis of chronic renal failure rats through Fas/FasL pathway. 
    METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a Niaoduqing group and a Shenshuai Yin group. A rat model of chronic renal failure was established by intragastric administration of adenine suspension 200 mg/kg per day. Rats in the Shenshuai Yin group were given Shenshuai Yin 33.3 g/kg per day by gavage. Rats in the Niaoduqing group were given Niaoduqing granule 2.25 g/kg per day by gavage. Rats in the blank group and model group were given 0.9% sodium chloride injection 8 mL/kg by gavage. Treatments in each group were conducted once a day for 4 consecutive weeks. After treatment, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were detected. Renal histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis in renal tissues was evaluated by TUNEL staining. The protein levels of Fas, FasL, Caspase8 and Caspase3 were detected by western blot. An approval by the Animal Ethics Committee of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was given with an approval No. 21000092017044.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared to the blank group, the levels of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were significantly increased in the model, Niaoduqing and Shenshuai Yin groups (P < 0.01), the apoptotic index of renal cells was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the protein levels of Fas, FasL, Caspase3 and Caspase8 were significantly increased (P < 0.01). The above indexes of Niaoduqing group and Shenshuai Yin group were all significantly improved as compared to the model group (P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the Niaoduqing group and Shenshuai Yin group (P > 0.05). To conclude, Shenshuai Yin can reduce renal cell apoptosis and improve renal function in chronic renal failure rats. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of Fas/FasL mediated apoptosis pathway by Shenshuai Yin.
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    Effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus mediated nerve growth factor gene transfection on oligodendrocyte apoptosis and myelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice
    Xie Yang, Lü Zhiyu, Zhang Shujiang, Long Ting, Li Zuoxiao
    2021, 25 (23):  3678-3683.  doi: 10.12307/2021.039
    Abstract ( 240 )   PDF (1599KB) ( 36 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has an inhibitory effect on normal neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving the ability to repair cell damage, and playing a therapeutic role in some autoimmune diseases.  
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus mediated nerve growth factor (Ad-NGF) on apoptosis and myelination of oligodendrocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. 
    METHODS: Thirty female healthy C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal group, EAE group and transfection group, with 10 mice in each group. In the EAE group and transfection group, EAE models were made in mice using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide immunoassay. Three days after modeling, mice in the EAE group were injected normal saline via the tail vein for 21 continuous days, while those in the transfection group were injected Ad-NGF via the tail vein for 21 continuous days. All the mice were executed at the peak period of the disease. LFB staining was used to observe the morphology and pathology of myelin tissue. Immunofluorescence method was used to observe the expression and co-localization of apoptotic protein Caspase3 and oligodendrocytes in spinal cord tissue. RT-PCR method was used to detect the mRNA levels of NGF and myelin alkali in spinal cord tissue. Western blot assay was used to detect the protein levels of NGF and Caspase3 in spinal cord tissue. ELISA was used to measure the level of myelin basic protein in spinal cord tissue. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Southwest Medical University (approval No. 201912-8).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: LFB staining showed significant demyelination changes in the EAE group, while the demyelination was significantly improved in the transfection group. Caspase-3 aggregation was obviously observed in oligodendrocytes of EAE group, but not in transfection group. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA levels of myelin basic protein and NGF were significantly lower in the EAE group than the normal control and transfection groups (P < 0.05). Western blot results revealed that in the EAE group the level of Caspase3 protein was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the level of NGF significantly reduced as compared with the normal control and transfection groups (P < 0.05). ELISA results showed that the level of myelin basic protein in the EAE group was significantly lower than those in the normal control and transfection groups (P < 0.05). To conclude, the Ad-NGF transfected by external turnover has preventive and control effects on the EAE mouse model, and its mechanism may be related to upregulation of NGF level, down-regulation of Caspase3 in oligodendrocytes, and promotion of myelin basic protein expression, thereby improving demyelination.
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    Mechanism of anodic block electrical stimulation of sacral nerve root to reconstruct bladder function
    Yan Peng, Ma Yufei, Cui Jingfu, Hao Shaofei, Liu Jinhui, Guan Chunlei, Wang Xiaoran, Yang Xiaoyu
    2021, 25 (23):  3684-3689.  doi: 10.12307/2021.040
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (1255KB) ( 34 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Our previous findings have shown that anodic block electrical stimulation of sacral nerve root can adjust urine storage and urination, but the specific molecular mechanism is unknown.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and nerve growth factor in the bladder detrusor using immunohistochemistry from the perspective of protein function and to explore the mechanism of anodic block electrical stimulation of sacral nerve root on bladder function reconstruction. METHODS: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into control group (n=10), spinal cord injury group (n=10) and electrical stimulation group (n=10). In the latter two groups, animal models of post-spinal cord injury neurogenic bladder were made using spinal cord clippings. In the electrical stimulation group, the sacral nerve root was subjected to an intermittent electrical stimulation (300 μs, 1.05 mA, 20 Hz), 5 seconds on and 10 seconds off for 120 hours. Then, the bladder detrusor was harvested. The expression of nerve growth factor and neurotransmitter receptor in neurogenic bladder detrusor was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by immunohistochemistry from the perspective of protein function
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the spinal cord injury group, there was a significantly smaller, dark-brown bladder, with reduced number of vessel plexuses on the tissue surface. The bladder boundary was blurred, with some adhesion to the surrounding tissue, and partial fibrosis and tissue necrosis on the section surface were observed. The morphology of the control group and the electrical stimulation group was relatively consistent, both with enlarged bladder volume and light red in color. Abundant arteriovenous networks were visible on the surface of the tissue. The boundary was clear. Residual urine amount was increased in the tissue. The color was yellowish and transparent. There was no abnormality in the section compared with the surrounding tissues. Immunohistochemical findings shown that the expression of M2 receptor, P2X3 receptor and nerve growth factor receptor in bladder detrusor muscle in the spinal cord injury group was significantly higher than that in the electric stimulation group and control group (P < 0.05), while the expression of M3 receptor and β2-AR receptor in bladder detrusor muscle in spinal cord injury group was significantly lower than that in the electric stimulation group and control group (P < 0.05). To conclude, electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve root by anodic block can adjust the expression of nerve growth factor and neurotransmitters in neurogenic bladder, thereby influencing the systolic and diastolic function of bladder detrusor, improving bladder compliance and remodeling the function of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury. 
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    Integrative analysis of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in synovium of patients with osteoarthritis by multiple microarrays
    Liu Jinfu, Zeng Ping, Nong Jiao, Fan Siqi, Feng Chengqin, Huang Jiaxing
    2021, 25 (23):  3690-3696.  doi: 10.12307/2021.041
    Abstract ( 247 )   PDF (2632KB) ( 51 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases in the old adults, and currently there is no effective treatment.
    OBJECTIVE: To identify differentially expressed genes and related signaling pathways in synovial tissue of osteoarthritis, elucidate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and seek for effective drug targets.
    METHODS: Ten related data sets were collected from GEO database, including 120 synovial tissue samples from patients with osteoarthritis and 85 samples from normal subjects, and the differentially expressed genes were identified. Genetic ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed on these differentially expressed genes. The protein-protein interaction network of differentially expressed genes was constructed using Cytoscape software, and module analysis was performed to screen key genes. Through the Drugbank database, approved drugs for osteoarthritis were screened, and the target genes for these drugs were mined in the Drug Gene Interaction database.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 25 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 20 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (SPP1, matrix metalloproteinase 1, matrix metalloproteinase 9, etc.) and 5 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (APOD, FKBP5, ZBTB16, etc.). GO functional enrichment analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in the metabolism of extracellular matrix (e.g., collagen catabolism, extracellular matrix catabolism, collagen metabolism, extracellular structure, and tissue and protein metabolism). KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly concentrated in the “interleukin-17 signaling pathway” and “rheumatoid arthritis.” Through the Drugbank database and the Drug Gene Interaction database, a total of 50 approved osteoarthritis drugs and their corresponding 209 target genes were identified. SPP1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were the intersection genes of the differentially expressed genes and the target genes of the osteoarthritis drug chondroitin sulfate, triamcinolone and celecoxib, and glucosamine. To conclude, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis may be related to the degradation of extracellular matrix induced by the genes expressed in the synovial membrane. SPP1, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 may be effective molecular targets for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Effects of different-intensity swimming exercises on spatial learning and memory ability and the expression of Orexin A in the rat cerebellum
    Lu Jie, Li Xue, Wang Lu, Fan Jia, Zhang Yeting, Lu Xiaobin, Yuan Qiongjia
    2021, 25 (23):  3697-3703.  doi: 10.12307/2021.042
    Abstract ( 244 )   PDF (1347KB) ( 59 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Exercise can improve people's cognitive ability, but the specific mechanism is not clear in the cerebellum. Studies have been reported that Orexin A is related to learning and memory.  
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of two different kinds of swimming exercise interventions on the spatial learning and memory ability and the expression of Orexin A in the rat cerebellum so as to explore the potential mechanism of exercise intervention effect on learning and memory abilities. 
    METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, including normal group (n=10), moderate load exercise group (n=13) and overload exercise group (n=13). We built the animal model by swimming. The rats in the normal group were fed normally for 8 weeks. The rats in moderate load exercise group were performed by the moderate load exercise intervention for 8 weeks, while those of the overload exercise group were subjected to overload exercise intervention for 8 weeks. The weights of three groups of rats were weighed every day. The 8-day Morris water maze test was performed to test the escape latency and the number of crossing the platform in the three groups of rats. Rat’s cerebellum and blood were collected 24 hours later. The serum testosterone level, Orexin A mRNA expression in the cerebellum and immunofluorescence expression of Orexin A in the cerebellum were detected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: On the 1st day, the moderate load exercise group took the shortest time to navigate the platform among the three groups of rats. The average escape latency of moderate load exercise group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference in the average escape latency between overload exercise group and normal group (P > 0.05). Spatial exploration experiment was designed for 1 day, and the average number of crossing the platform in the moderate load exercise group was significantly higher than that in the normal group (P < 0.05), while the average number of crossing the platform in the overload exercise group was significantly lower than that in the normal group and moderate load group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the expression of Orexin A mRNA in moderate load exercise group was significantly higher than that in the normal group (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal group, the expression of Orexin A mRNA in the overload exercise group was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence assay revealed that Orexin A protein was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm of cerebellar nerve cells, surrounding the nucleus. Compared with the normal group, the mean absorbance value of Orexin A in the moderate load exercise group was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the mean absorbance value of Orexin A in the overload exercise group was not significantly lower (P > 0.05). Therefore, long-term moderate load exercise training can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of rats, and the molecular mechanism may be the high expression of Orexin A in the cerebellum. Based on the intensity of moderate-load exercise training, with the increase of exercise load, long-term overload exercise training can decrease the expression of Orexin A mRNA in the cerebellum and the spatial memory ability of rats.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Molecular mechanism of anhydroicaritin in the treatment of osteoarthritis: an analysis based on network pharmacology and bioinformatics
    Chen Feng, Zhang Xiaoyun, Chen Yueping, Liao Jianzhao, Li Jiajun, Song Shilei, Lai Yu
    2021, 25 (23):  3704-3710.  doi: 10.12307/2021.043
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (1817KB) ( 40 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Modern pharmacological studies have shown that anhydroicaritin has an estrogen-like effect and plays a very positive role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Because of anhydroicaritin's unclear mechanism underlying the treatment of osteoarthritis at the molecular level, network pharmacology and bioinformatics are introduced to explain the potential molecular mechanism of anhydroicaritin in the treatment of osteoarthritis. This can provide a theoretical basis for future drug development and disease treatment.
    OBJECTIVE: To preliminarily analyze the key molecular mechanism of anhydroicaritin in the treatment of osteoarthritis based on network pharmacology and bioinformatics, thereby providing new potential targets in treating osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: The pharmacokinetic properties of anhydroicaritin were assessed using TCMSP database. The GEO databases were searched for chips related to anhydroicaritin and osteoarthritis. The differentially expressed genes were analyzed by R language. Then protein-protein interaction networks of anhydroicaritin and osteoarthritis-related differential genes were respectively constructed to screen the hub genes of anhydroicaritin in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and molecular docking verification between anhydroicaritin and hub genes was performed. Finally, the DAVID database was used to enrich the hub genes for GO and KEGG pathway analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The oral bioavailability and drug-likeness of anhydroicaritin were 45.41% and 0.44, respectively. The anhydroicaritin and osteoarthritis chips numbered GSE85871 and GSE1919 respectively were obtained in the GEO database, and the R language analysis screened out 152 and 
    1 142 differential genes, respectively. The GeneMANIA database was used to construct the protein-protein interaction networks of the targets of anhydroicaritin and osteoarthritis, and 44 hub genes were merged by R language. We used molecular docking to find that anhydroicaritin and hub genes have good binding activity. The enrichment analysis of the DAVID database showed that the biological process of anhydroicaritin in the treatment of osteoarthritis included responses to calcium and metal ions, steroid hormone, and organophosphorus. The signaling pathway mainly involved included MAPK signaling pathway, osteoclast differentiation signaling pathway, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and interleukin-17 signaling pathway. Network pharmacology and bioinformatics could be used to effectively analyze the original gene chip data of GEO database, which could not only identify the known signal pathways related to the treatment of osteoarthritis with anhydroicaritin, but also find out some new pathways or biological processes. Anhydroicaritin is expected to be a new molecule in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Development of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in recent 10 years: a visual analysis using CiteSpace
    Fan Jin, Zeng Luyao, Zhong Dongling, Li Yuxi, Tian Yanping, Huang Yijie, Jin Rongjiang
    2021, 25 (23):  3711-3717.  doi: 10.12307/2021.044
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (1898KB) ( 60 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a new non-invasive monitoring method for brain activities. fNIRS shows unique advantages for brain imaging and belongs to a new research hotspot in the field of brain science.
    OBJECTIVE: Based on CiteSpace knowledge map, to conduct metrology, co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, cluster analysis of related international research, in order to explore the progress and hotspots of fNIRS research in the past 10 years, hoping to provide some guidance for future research.
    METHOD: The Web of Science was searched for relevant literature included in the Science Citation Index Expanded from 2010 to 2020. Authors, countries, institutions and keywords were taken as nodes for co-occurrence analysis using CiteSpace software. Cited journals and references were used for co-citation analysis, and keywords were clustered and burst-analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 1 734 papers were included. Fallgatter AJ was the representative of the high yield authors. The high yield countries were the United States, Japan and China. The high yield institutions were Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Drexel University and University College London. From the perspective of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, it is predicted that fNIRS research on the various mechanisms of different brain regions, especially the frontal cortex, fNIRS research on the detection of individual differences in infants and children, and research on fNIRS combined with other brain functional imaging techniques are still hot topics in the future. CiteSpace-based visual analysis of fNIRS literature included in the Web of Science in the past 10 years indicates a rapid development of fNIRS technique. This study directly reveals the authors and institutions that can cooperate, and predicts the research focus of fNIRS, which provide references for future topic selection and research direction of fNIRS research.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Research status and development trend of pelvic reconstruction techniques: a bibliometric and visual analysis
    Yang Qin, Zhou Honghai, Chen Longhao, Zhong Zhong, Xu Yigao, Huang Zhaozhi
    2021, 25 (23):  3718-3724.  doi: 10.12307/2021.045
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1529KB) ( 118 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: There is no objective and systematic analysis of data reported in the literature regarding pelvic reduction techniques, which is not conducive to the rapid and intuitive understanding of relevant research trends.
    OBJECTIVE: To search Chinese and English databases for all research data on pelvic reduction techniques, and to analyze the current regional characteristics, research status and development trends of pelvic reduction techniques.
    METHODS: A search of CNKI and Web of Science was performed for all relevant literatures on pelvic reduction published from inception to March 26, 2020. CiteSpace software was used to perform a document visual analysis in terms of publication year, country, journal content as well as author cooperation, document types, and key words. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In total, 149 articles were included, and the number of publications was generally on the rise. The number of publications was the most in the United Stated, with the highest citations, whereas China ranked 5th, with mutual references with the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia ranking at the top. The research hotspots in this field mainly include the application of pelvic reduction techniques to deal with diseases of orthopedics and traumatology, and American chiropractic treatments for pelvic reduction that affect the reproductive and urinary systems in men and women. The clinical application of pelvic reduction techniques was relatively simple in the early stage, and mostly limited to related diseases of orthopedics and traumatology. With the development and maturity of medical technology, related reduction techniques have developed to focus on orthopedics and traumatology, rehabilitation, as well as rehabilitative therapies for diseases in gynecology, obstetrics, urology, and sports. With the continuous deepening of research on pelvic reconstruction techniques, increasingly closed exchanges between China and foreign countries and more complete data sharing platform, related applications and research prospects look promising. Existing pelvic reduction techniques focus on the displacement of bony joints, whereas further exploration on the long-term efficacy is warranted. Pelvic reduction makes some changes in tissue structure displacement, which influences vascular hemodynamics, nerve conduction, biochemical factors and signal pathways. This may be the future direction of in-depth research.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Bibliometric and visual analysis of international literature addressing ischemic stroke rehabilitation in recent 10 years
    Huang Maomao, Hu Yue, Wang Binchuan, Zhang Chi, Xie Yujie, Wang Jianxiong, Wang Li, Xu Fangyuan
    2021, 25 (23):  3725-3733.  doi: 10.12307/2021.046
    Abstract ( 290 )   PDF (2718KB) ( 69 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The ischemic stroke rehabilitation is the hotspot of the current research and much new cognition about it has been yielded in the past decade. so it is necessary to analyze the research regarding ischemic stroke rehabilitation qualitatively and quantitatively.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze publications of ischemic stroke rehabilitation in detail, to explore the main research forces and research status in the past decade, and to identify the current research hotspots and frontiers in this field. 
    METHODS: The literatures on ischemic stroke rehabilitation published from 2010 to 2019 were retrieved in Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection (SCI-EXPANDED) on February 1, 2020. The global literatures and the first 100 articles with the most citations were analyzed based on WoS, involving the number of annual publications, authors, journals, institutions, countries/territories, funding, and citations. CiteSapace software was used to analyze global literature data and generate the visual atlas.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 3 098 literatures were obtained. The number of publications increased gradually from 175 in 2010 to 442 in 2017, with 367 in 2018 and 424 in 2019. The United States Department of Health Human Services financed the most studies. A total of 775 journals published literature in this field. Journal of Stroke Cerebrovascular Diseases was the journal with the largest number of publications (n=150), and the most cited journal was Stroke (5 999 citations). A total of 82 countries/territories, 4 015 institutions, and 14 676 authors published literature in this field. The top three countries and institutions with the most publications were the United States, China, Canada, and the University of Toronto, the Capital Medical University, and the University of Calgary. Kirton A and Bernhardt J were the most productive (n=25) and influential (903 citations) authors, respectively. The article of Feigin VL, et al. published in Lancet in 2014 was the most representative reference. Therapeutic-induced mechanism, corticospinal tract damage, cell-based therapy, consensus-based core recommendation, and motor function recovery are the basic frameworks in this field. The hotspots in this field mainly focus on patient individual treatment, gait, and cell-based therapy. Cost, nitric oxide synthase, functional MRI, long-term potentiation, neural regeneration and aphasia were the research frontiers. The rehabilitation of ischemic stroke showed great potential for development. We found that the development directions of this field mainly focus on the dysfunction of patients after ischemic stroke, specific effective rehabilitation interventions such as brain stimulation, cell therapy, and the effects of rehabilitation measures on neuroprotection, angiogenesis, hemodynamics and other specific mechanisms. Global scientific research cooperation is necessary to promote further development in the field of ischemic stroke rehabilitation.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Ferroptosis and stroke
    Zhu Rui, Zeng Qing, Huang Guozhi
    2021, 25 (23):  3734-3739.  doi: 10.12307/2021.047
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (840KB) ( 106 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of toxic lipid reactive oxygen species, which is closely related to the occurrence and development of stroke.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent researches regarding ferroptosis in stroke and summarize the occurrence and development of ferroptosis and the application prospects of ferroptosis inhibitors in stroke, in order to provide theoretical basis and new the treatment of strategies for targeting ferroptosis in the treatment of stroke.
    METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, WanFang, and CNKI databases were searched for relevant literatures. Then we used Mesh tool to search for “ferroptosis” and “stroke” to refine the search terms, and then searched by subject terms (title/abstract). Search terms were “stroke; CVA; cerebrovascular accident; brain hemorrhage; brain infarction; cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; cerebral I/R injury; cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; CI/R; ferroptosis; oxytosis” in English and Chinese, respectively. The retrieval time was from January 1, 2000 to June 25, 2020. Finally, 59 articles were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ferroptosis, as an atypical cell death mode newly discovered in recent years, has been confirmed to be involved in the occurrence and development of stroke. Iron chelator is a classic iron death inhibitor that has been shown to improve nerve function damage in basic research, but there are still some therapeutic limitations in clinical practice. Therefore, a new strategy for the treatment of stroke by targeting ferroptosis represents the direction of our future exploration.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Advances in the mechanisms of optic nerve regeneration
    Li Shanshan, You Ran, Guo Xiaoxiao, Zhao Lu, Wang Yanling, Chen Xi
    2021, 25 (23):  3740-3745.  doi: 10.12307/2021.048
    Abstract ( 517 )   PDF (829KB) ( 61 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The optic nerve has been widely used as a main carrier for promoting or inhibiting axon regeneration in the central nervous system.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress in the mechanism of optic nerve regeneration
    METHODS: PubMed, CNKI, and WanFang database were searched for relevant studies using the keywords of “optic nerve, axon regeneration, retinal ganglion cell” in English and Chinese, respectively. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although retinal ganglion cells in adults show no capacity to regenerate their axons following optic nerve damage, in the past several decades, studies have shown that retinal ganglion cells have the potential to partially regenerate axons under proper conditions. Recently, some degree of regeneration has been achieved through a segment of peripheral nerve grafted to the optic nerve, or the optic nerve itself by factors associated with intraocular inflammation, or by applying trophic factors, blocking suppressors of axon growth or altering levels of the intracellular signaling pathway. Combinatorial treatments that include two or more of these factors enable some retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons from the eye through the entire length of the optic nerve and across the optic chiasm. In some cases, regenerating axons have been shown to innervate the appropriate central target areas and elicit postsynaptic responses. Thus, progress in optic nerve regeneration holds promise not only for visual restoration but also for improving outcomes after injury to other parts of the mature central nervous system.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Interpretation of diagnostic criteria for cervicogenic headache: challenges and understandings in diagnosis and differential diagnosis
    Liu Zhiwei, Xie Rui, Sun Kai, Li Kaiming, Wang Xiongwei, Zhan Jiawen, Zhu Liguo
    2021, 25 (23):  3746-3751.  doi: 10.12307/2021.049
    Abstract ( 327 )   PDF (746KB) ( 40 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: As a common type of headache, the morbidity of cervicogenic headache ranges from 1.0% to 4.1%. Many authoritative international organizations have issued the diagnostic criteria for cervicogenic headache. However, due to the overlapping symptoms between cervicogenic headache and other headache types, these diagnostic criteria are difficult to fully perform the differential effect.
    OBJECTIVE: To interpret the contents of relevant diagnostic criteria, sort out the development context, and explain the difficulties and challenges in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cervicogenic headache, so as to provide clues for further clinical and scientific research work.
    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI were searched for articles related to the diagnostic criteria for cervicogenic headache using the keyword of “cervicogenic headache” in English and Chinese, respectively. There was no limitation for retrieval time. Based on the relevant literature reports, the controversial items were analyzed by interpreting the relevant diagnostic criteria, and the problems leading to the diagnosis dilemma were summarized at the same time. The overlapping symptoms and distinguishing difficulties between cervicogenic headache and other-type headaches were analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The convergence of upper cervical afferent nociception into the trigeminal-cervical nucleus provides the anatomical basis for the frequent coexistence of headache and neck pain. Primary and secondary headaches may occur in the same patient at the same time. Focusing on only one type of headache may lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, resulting in ineffective treatment. Local anesthesia blockage alone cannot exclude the existence of other types of headache. Neurologists and physicians from pain clinic should work together to identify the etiology of patients with concurrent headache and neck pain, and headaches should be treated in a multidisciplinary manner. A simple diagnosis of cervicogenic headache or a similar headache may result in inadequate treatment.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Exercise activates skeletal muscle satellite cells: exercise prevention and treatment for age-related sarcopenia and muscle injury 
    Wang Zhen, Lin Haiqi, He Fei, Lin Wentao
    2021, 25 (23):  3752-3759.  doi: 10.12307/2021.050
    Abstract ( 330 )   PDF (894KB) ( 86 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is the main tissue to maintain human health, and sarcopenia affects people’s health and quality of life. Muscle satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells activated to proliferate and differentiate when stimulated by exercise, promote muscle hypertrophy, and delay the occurrence of sarcopenia.
    OBJECTIVE: To provide exercise prevention and treatment guidance for age-related sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and muscle injury repair, and provide theoretical support for subsequent research.
    METHODS: CNKI, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched for relevant documents published from 2010 to 2020 with the keywords of “skeletal muscle, satellite cells, proliferation, differentiation, muscle repair, scrcopenia” in Chinese and English, respectively. After initial screening of titles and abstracts, 100 articles were included for review. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There are many studies on the proliferation and differentiation of exercise-activated muscle satellite cells. Compared with endurance exercise (aerobic), resistance exercise has a significant effect. Different types of exercises can activate the proliferation and differentiation of different types of muscle satellite cells. Factors such as exercise intensity, load threshold, exercise time and frequency all influence the degree of satellite cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. Research on the interaction between exercise-activated muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation signaling pathways is insufficient, and it is found that exercise can regulate muscle extracellular matrix, oxidative stress levels, and autophagy to improve sarcopenia. How exercise activates the signal pathways of muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation to effectively promote synergy requires more in-depth research and exploration.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Effectiveness of intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid versus placebo in the treatment of early and mid-stage knee osteoarthritis: a Meta-analysis based on randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trials
    Yang Wei, Chen Zehua, Yi Zhiyong, Huang Xudong, Han Qingmin, Zhang Ronghua
    2021, 25 (23):  3760-3766.  doi: 10.12307/2021.051
    Abstract ( 369 )   PDF (917KB) ( 56 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: With the widespread use of intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of early and mid-stage knee osteoarthritis, the controversy about its efficacy has become increasingly fierce; however, there is a lack of evidence-based medical evidence from high-quality randomized controlled double-blind clinical trials. Based on the double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials regarding intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of early and mid-term knee osteoarthritis, this study aimed to clarify the objective curative effect and offer evidences for the clinical application.
    METHODS: CNKI, WanFang, Duxiu Academic, Chaoxing Journal, VIP, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus were searched for the relevant articles addressing intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate for knee osteoarthritis. And we screened double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials. According to the Cochrane Handbook 6.1, a risk of bias assessment tool (Risk of bias table 2, RoB2) was used to strictly evaluate the quality of the included papers, most of which are of high quality. The data of sensitive indicators that reflect therapeutic efficacy were extracted, and integrated for evaluation using the Meta-analysis. 
    RESULTS: A total of 11 double-blind randomized controlled clinical studies were included, involving 3 034 patients. Meta-analysis results indicated that more OMERACT-OARSI responders of the sodium hyaluronate group than the control group at the end of each study (relative ratio (RR)=1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.18, P=0.000 6), at 3 months after injection (RR=1.10, 95 %CI: 1.02-1.18, P=0.02) and at 6 months after injection (RR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.14, P=0.03). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at 1 month after injection. Changes in the painful Visual Analogue Scale score relative to the baseline were significantly better in the sodium hyaluronate group than the placebo group at 1 (mean difference (MD)=2.71, 95% CI: 1.35-4.07, P < 0.000 1) and 6 months after injections (MD=3.14, 95% CI: 0.81-5.47, P=0.008). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups at 3 months after injections (MD=0.42, 95% CI: -3.17 to 4.02, P=0.82). The overall patient satisfaction and the changes relative to the baseline in the sodium hyaluronate injection group were significantly better than those of the placebo group. However, there was no difference in the use of analgesics in emergency situations and treatment-related adverse events between the two groups.
    CONCLUSION: Based on double-blind randomized controlled clinical data, it is shown that intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate is effective for early and mid-term knee osteoarthritis patients half a year later, and can significantly improve joint pain and patient treatment experience. The long-term effect needs to be further confirmed.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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    Selection of modeling methods for acute compressive spinal cord injury: a network Meta-analysis
    Xu Weilong, Zuo Yuan, Xin Daqi, He Chenyang, Zhao Peng, Shi Ming, Zhou Boyuan, Liu Yating, Zhao Yan
    2021, 25 (23):  3767-3772.  doi: 10.12307/2021.052
    Abstract ( 220 )   PDF (860KB) ( 33 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Generating an acute compressive spinal cord injury model with an aneurysm clip is a simple and effective modeling method. However, to create the animal model of acute compressive spinal cord injury, many experimental studies have utilized diverse modeling methods according to different closure force aneurysm clips and duration, including aneurysm clipping with 30 g compression force to compress the spinal cord for 60 seconds (30 g, 60 s); aneurysm clipping with 70 g compression force to compress the spinal cord for 30 seconds (70 g, 30 s); aneurysm clipping with 70 g force to compress the spinal cord for 60 seconds (70 g, 60 s); compressing the spinal cord to 1/2 of its diameter for 30 seconds by aneurysm clips (1/2, 30 s). The present study aimed to assess whether there is a significant difference among these modeling methods, and to determine the method that is most suitable to establish the clamp-type spinal cord injury model.
    METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang databases was conducted for relevant studies from their inception dates to October 1, 2019. The included literatures were initially screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and data extraction and quality evaluation were performed subsequently. The paired Meta-analysis, subgroup analysis, and network Meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects of different modeling methods on the limb function of spinal cord injury rats.
    RESULTS: Fourteen articles with a total of 714 Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study. All the included articles were scored 6-8 for quality evaluation. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores of the four modeling methods in the 1st week after modeling ranked as follows: sham operation group > 30 g, 60 s group > 1/2, 30 s group > 70 g, 60 s group > 70 g, 30 s group. The BBB score in the 30 g, 60 s group was significantly higher than that in the 1/2, 30 s group, 70 g, 60 s group and 70 g, 30 s group at 1 week postoperatively (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses suggested an association of locomotor recovery of spinal cord injury with the sex of rats. Differences in circadian activities of rats also affected the BBB scores.
    CONCLUSION: The four modeling methods described in the study can be used to create the animal model of acute compressive spinal cord injury. Comparison of the four modeling methods has revealed that the best way to create a clamp-type spinal cord injury model is to compress the spinal cord for 60-second aneurysm clipping with a closing force of 30 g. It is recommended to use female rats for modeling, but further research and verification are needed.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松;组织工程

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