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    08 February 2024, Volume 28 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Effect of eccentric training combined with different frequency whole body vibration training on patellar tendinopathy
    Jiang Zihao, Wang Guanglan, Chen Peng, Sun Xianghong, Wang Ting, Jia Shaohui, Zheng Cheng
    2024, 28 (4):  493-498.  doi: 10.12307/2024.211
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 132 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have investigated the effects of whole body vibration training at different frequencies on muscle strength, but less is reported on the differences in the efficacy of vibration training at different frequencies on patellar tendinopathy.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of eccentric training of quadriceps combined with different frequency of whole body vibration training on patellar tendinopathy.
    METHODS: From April to June 2022, 48 patients with patellar tendinopathy were recruited from Wuhan Sports University and randomly divided into eccentric training group (n=12), 30 Hz group (n=12), 40 Hz group (n=12), and 50 Hz group (n=12). The eccentric training group only completed eccentric training of the quadriceps. The 30 Hz, 40 Hz and 50 Hz groups performed the whole body vibration training with the amplitude of 2 mm and frequencies of 30 Hz, 40 Hz and 50 Hz respectively on the basis of the eccentric training of the quadriceps. The intervention lasted for 8 weeks, three times a week. Before and after the intervention, the patients' surface electromyography signals of the quadriceps, kinematics and dynamics data of knee joint at the time of landing in deep jump and the time of peak vertical ground reaction, Visual Analogue Scale score, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Patellar score were evaluated.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 8 weeks of intervention, compared with the eccentric training group, the median frequency of the lateral and medial femoris muscles were significantly higher in the 40 Hz and 50 Hz groups (P < 0.05). At the time of landing, the knee joint flexion angle and external rotation moment in the 40 Hz and 50 Hz groups were significantly lower than those in the eccentric training group (P < 0.05), while the knee joint flexion angle in the 50 Hz group was significantly lower than that in the 30 Hz group (P < 0.05). At the peak moment of vertical ground reaction, the knee extension torque in the 40 Hz group was significantly lower than that in the eccectric training group (P < 0.05); the knee flexion angle and knee extension torque in the 50 Hz group were 
    significantly lower than those in the eccentric training group (P < 0.05). The Visual Analogue Scale scores in the 50 Hz and 40 Hz groups were significantly lower than those in the eccentric training group (P < 0.05). The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Patellar score in the 50 Hz group was significantly higher than that in the eccentric training group and 30 Hz group (P < 0.05). To conclude, eccentric training of the quadriceps combined with 50 Hz whole body vibration training can significantly improve quadriceps’ strength, endurance and activation rate of the vastus lateralis muscle, reduce the pain of knee joint, and improve the function of the knee joint in patients with patellar tendinopathy.
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    Knockdown of circRNA WD repeat containing protein 1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of chondrocytes in knee osteoarthritis
    Shen Feiyan, Yao Jixiang, Su Shanshan, Zhao Zhongmin, Tang Weidong
    2024, 28 (4):  499-504.  doi: 10.12307/2024.323
    Abstract ( 239 )   PDF (1619KB) ( 53 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in a variety of diseases or tumors, and recent findings have revealed that circRNAs are abnormally expressed in knee osteoarthritis and are involved in disease progression through microRNA/mRNA regulation.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of circRNA WD repeat containing protein 1 (circ-BRWD1)/miR-488-3p/DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) on the proliferation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of circ-BRWD1, miR-488-3p, DNMT3A in knee osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Cells were divided into si-NC group, si-circ-BRWD1 group, vector group, circ-BRWD1 group, si-circ-BRWD1+anti-miR-NC group, si-circ-BRWD1+anti-miR-488-3p group, miR-NC group, miR-488-3p group, anti-miR-NC group, anti-miR-488-3p group, miR-488-3p+vector group, miR 488-3p+DNMT3A group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect circ-BRWD1, miR-488-3p, DNMT3A expression, MTT and flow cytometry assay were used to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Western blot assay was used to detect DNMT3A and proliferation/apoptosis-related protein expression. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to Dual luciferase reporter assay to detect the targeting relationship of circ-BRWD1 with miR-488-3p and miR-488-3p with DNMT3A.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: circ-BRWD1 and DNMT3A were highly expressed and miR-488-3p was lowly expressed in knee osteoarthritis chondrocytes compared with normal chondrocytes. Knockdown of circ-BRWD1 or overexpression of miR-488-3p inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in knee osteoarthritis chondrocytes. circ-BRWD1 targeted negative regulation of miR-488-3p and inhibition of miR-488-3p reversed the effect of circ-BRWD1 knockdown on chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in knee osteoarthritis. miR-488-3p targeted negative regulation of DNMT3A and upregulation of DNMT3A reversed the effect of miR-488-3p overexpression on chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in knee osteoarthritis. circ-BRWD1 could regulate the expression of DNMT3A by regulating miR-488-3p. To conclude, knockdown of circ-BRWD1 inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and induces apoptosis in knee osteoarthritis, and the mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of miR-488-3p/DNMT3A axis.
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    Effect of intraarticular injection of different concentrations of ozone on condylar histology of rats with early temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis
    Maisituremu·Heilili, Zhang Wanxia, Nijiati·Nuermuhanmode, Maimaitituxun·Tuerdi
    2024, 28 (4):  505-509.  doi: 10.12307/2023.989
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (1088KB) ( 28 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: It has been proved in clinical and animal experiments that intraarticular injection of medical ozone can effectively improve the symptoms of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and slow down the progression of the disease. However, the optimal concentration and range are still controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of intraarticular injection of different concentrations of medical ozone on the condylar cartilage of rats with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis. 
    METHODS: Of the 42 rats, 6 rats were randomly selected as the healthy control group, and the remaining rats were given one-time injection of sodium iodoacetate into the joint cavity to establish the temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis model. Of the 36 rats successfully modeled, 6 rats were selected as the model control group, and the remaining 30 were randomly divided into 20, 30, 40 mg/L medical ozone groups, with 10 rats in each group. After successful modeling, the rats in the medical ozone groups were given intra-articular injection of 20, 30, 40 mg/L medical ozone oxygen once a week for 3 weeks, respectively, and the model and healthy control groups were injected with equal volume of saline. One week after the final injection, unilateral temporomandibular joint tissues were taken, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor in condylar cartilage was measured by ELISA. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and saffron O-fast green staining were performed on the contralateral temporomandibular joint tissues. The modified Mankin’s score was applied to evaluate the degree of histopathological changes in the temporomandibular joint.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the healthy control group, the vascular endothelial growth factor level in the condylar cartilage of rats was significantly increased in the model control and 20, 30, 40 mg/L medical ozone groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the model control group and 40 mg/L medical ozone group, the vascular endothelial growth factor level in the condylar cartilage of rats was significantly decreased in the 20 and 30 mg/L medical ozone groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the 30 mg/L medical ozone group, the vascular endothelial growth factor level in the condylar cartilage of rats was significantly decreased in the 20 mg/L medical ozone group (P < 0.05). Histological observations showed that the modified Mankin’s scores in the 20, 30, and 40 mg/L medical ozone groups and the model control group were higher than those in the healthy control group (P < 0.05), while the modified Mankin’s scores in the 20 and 30 mg/L medical ozone groups were lower than those in the model control group and the 40 mg/L medical ozone group (P < 0.05). To conclude, intraarticular injection of medical ozone at mass concentrations of 20 and 30 mg/L significantly alleviated the progression of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in rats, especially when 20 mg/L medical ozone was injected. However, the degree of osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint of rats was aggravated when the mass concentration of ozone increased to 40 mg/L.
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    The role of BMAL1 and MyoD in exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage
    Liu Zhiyang, Fu Zeting, Xia Yu, Ding Haili
    2024, 28 (4):  510-515.  doi: 10.12307/2023.957
    Abstract ( 236 )   PDF (1695KB) ( 21 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A high-load exercise can trigger the degradation of titin, leading to skeletal muscle damage. MyoD participates in skeletal muscle generation and plays an important role in the repair of skeletal muscle damage. 
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression changes of MyoD, BMAL1 and titin in skeletal muscles at different times during a high-load exercise, as to clarify the role of MyoD and BMAL1 in exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. 
    METHODS: Twenty-four 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=4) and an exercise group (n=20). Rats in the exercise group were subjected to downhill running (90 minutes). Soleus muscle samples were collected at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The mRNA expressions of BMAL1 and MyoD were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The ultrastructure of skeletal muscle fibers was observed by transmission electron microscope. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the co-localization of MyoD and BMAL1 as well as BMAL1 and titin. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After the single high-load centrifugal exercise, the sarcomere of the soleus muscle was widened and the Z-line was blurred and water wave-like, both of which were most serious at 12 hours after exercise and basically recovered at 72 hours. The results of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR showed that BMAL1 mRNA expression in the exercise group increased first and then tended to normal, while the mRNA expression of MyoD decreased first and then increased. Immunofluorescence co-localization observation indicated that the co-localization of BMAL1 and MyoD was obviously observed at 12 and 24 hours after exercise, and the co-localization of BMAL1 and titin was observed at 0, 12, and 24 hours. All the findings indicate that MyoD and BMAL1 are jointly involved in the repair of exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage probably via titin.
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    Evaluation of rat osteoarthritis chondrocyte models induced by interleukin-1beta
    Qiao Hujun, Wang Guoxiang
    2024, 28 (4):  516-521.  doi: 10.12307/2024.226
    Abstract ( 218 )   PDF (1205KB) ( 47 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Establishing a chondrocyte model of osteoarthritis is of great significance for further explaining the pathological process of osteoarthritis and evaluating and screening the therapeutic drugs of osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of interleukin-1β to induce osteoarthritis models in rat chondrocyte models, thereby providing a reference for further exploration of drug treatment of osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from the hip cartilage of 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats by mechanical shearing and enzymatic digestion, and then identified. Chondrocytes were randomly divided into three groups: control group, 5 ng/mL interleukin-1β-induced group, 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β-induced group, with induction times of 24 and 48 hours. Chondrocyte proliferation activity was detected by MTT. Real-Time PCR was used to detect the expression of type II collagen, Aggrecan, sex-determining region Y-box protein 9 (Sox9), matrix metalloproteinase 13, and a disintegrin and metaloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs-5 (Adamts5) mRNA. Western blot was used to detect the expression of type II collagen, Sox9, matrix metalloproteinase 13 and Adamts5.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Primary rat chondrocytes were successfully isolated and cultured. Induction of chondrocytes by interleukin-1β at 10 ng/mL for 24 hours could significantly reduce cell proliferation and viability (P < 0.05), while the 5 ng/mL interleukin-1β-induced group required 48 hours of induction to cause a significant decrease in cell proliferation and viability. Real-Time PCR results showed that compared with the control group, 5 or 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β induction for 24 and 48 hours significantly reduced the expression levels of type II collagen, Aggrecan, Sox9 mRNAs (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and Adamts5 mRNAs (P < 0.05). Compared with the 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β-induced group, 5 ng/mL interleukin-1β induction significantly increased the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and Adamts5 in chondrocytes after 48 hours of induction (P < 0.05). Western blot results showed that compared with the control group, 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β induction for 24 hours and 5 ng/mL interleukin-1β induction for 48 hours significantly decreased the protein expression of type II collagen and Sox9 in chondrocytes (P < 0.05), and significantly increased the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and Adamts5 (P < 0.05 ). To conclude, compared with 5 ng/mL interleukin-1β, 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β may have more obvious effects on chondrocytes for 24 hours, while 5 and 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β have similar effects after 48 hours of intervention.
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    Changes in pulmonary pericytes and tube formation of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in mouse models of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia
    Hu Guangzhi, Lu Hongyan
    2024, 28 (4):  522-527.  doi: 10.12307/2024.994
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1432KB) ( 86 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary pericytes are located at the concavity where pulmonary vessels are interconnected, which is closely related to the formation and stability of pulmonary vascularization. However, there are few studies on how pulmonary pericytes affect the activity of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the quantity of subgroups of pulmonary pericytes and endothelial cells in different stages of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia and to explore the effects of PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+ pericytes on the early tube-forming activity of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells.
    METHODS: (1) Animal experiment: Twelve newborn C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normoxia and hyperoxia groups within 24 hours of birth, with six mice in each group. Mice in the hyperoxia group were exposed to an 85% O2 environment to build the mouse models of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, while those in the normoxia group were fed in the same room air. The lung tissues of the mice in the two groups were taken at 7 and 14 days after birth. The pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Three subgroups of pulmonary pericytes were measured by flow cytometry: PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA-, PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+, and PDGFR-β+NG2-α-SMA+ cells. (2) Cellular experiment: Passage 3 PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+ pericytes were co-cultured with mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (experimental group) at a ratio of 1:4. Mouse pulmonary vascular endothelial cells cultured alone were used as controls. The tube-forming difference between two groups was analyzed after 15 hours of co-culture.
    RESULT AND CONCLUSION: (1) Animal experiment: Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed that on day 7, the lung tissue of mice in the normoxia group had regular structure, obvious alveolar structure, and uniform size, while the number of alveoli in the lung tissue of mice in the hyperoxia group was less and the morphology of alveoli was irregular. On day 14, the alveoli of mice in the normoxia group gradually developed and matured, the alveolar structure gradually became regular and uniform in size, and the alveolar density gradually increased. The lung tissue structure of mice in the hyperoxia group was relatively disordered and the alveolar formation was delayed with the size gradually increasing and the alveolar structure being simplified. Flow cytometry results indicated that the number of PDGFR-β+NG2-α-SMA+ and PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+ pericytes was increased in the hypoxia group compared with the normoxia group (P < 0.01), while the number of PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA- pericytes and pulmonary vascular endothelial cells was decreased (P < 0.01, P < 0.04). (2) Cellular experiment: In the control group, the pulmonary vascular endothelial cells arranged in cords and extended around, and lumen-like structures formed in some areas. In the experimental group, PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+ pericytes and their pseudopodia were not observed, the irregular grid structure of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells was significantly less than that of the control group, and the endothelial cells mainly clustered in clumps. To conclude, α-SMA+ pericyte subgroups are predominant in mice with broncho-pulmonary dysplasia. PDGFR-β+NG2+α-SMA+ pericytes can directly inhibit the tube-forming activity of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, which may be involved in the process of abnormal vascularization in broncho-pulmonary dysplasia.
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    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid treats spinal cord injury by reducing apoptosis of spinal cord neurons under glucose and oxygen deprivation
    Chen Zepeng, Hou Yonghui, Chen Shudong, Hou Yu, Lin Dingkun
    2024, 28 (4):  528-534.  doi: 10.12307/2024.216
    Abstract ( 238 )   PDF (2027KB) ( 86 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid is a hydrophilic bile acid derivative that has neuroprotective effects in a variety of neurological disease models. However, there are few reports on the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on spinal cord injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on apoptosis of spinal cord neurons under hypoglycemic and hypoxic conditions, as well as the effect on recovery of motor function in mice after spinal cord injury.
    METHODS: (1) In vitro experiment: Primary spinal cord neurons were isolated from C57 BL/6 mouse embryos at 13.5 days of gestation. After 72 hours of culture, the cells were divided into three groups. In the normal group, cells were cultured in Neurobasal complete medium that was incubated in a CO2 incubator (5% CO2 + 95% air) for 24 hours. In the oxyglucose-deprived group, sugar-free Neurobasal medium was added and incubated in a triple-gas incubator (94% N2+5% CO2+1% O2) for 12 hours, and then the medium was replaced with Neurobasal complete medium and incubated in a CO2 incubator for 12 hours. In the experimental group, the treatment procedure was approximately the same as that in the oxyglucose-deprived group, except that taurodeoxycholic acid was added along with the sugar-free Neurobasal medium. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis, cell counting kit-8 assay was applied to detect cell activity, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect cellular β-microtubule protein expression. (2) Animal experiment: Sixty C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, spinal cord injury group and experimental group, with 20 mice in each group. Animal models of T9-T10 spinal cord injury were established using Allen’s percussion method in the spinal cord injury group and the experimental group. Starting from the 1st day after modeling, taurodeoxycholic acid solution was given by gavage in the experimental group and normal saline was given by gavage in the sham-operated and spinal cord injury groups once a day for 14 consecutive days. Spinal cord tissue repair was assessed using behavioral and histological methods.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In vitro experiment: TUNEL staining, cell counting kit-8 and immunofluorescence staining showed that compared with the normal group, the number of apoptotic cells was higher (P < 0.01), while cell activity and β-microtubule protein expression were lower in the oxyglucose-deprived group (P < 0.01); compared with the oxyglucose-deprived group, the number of apoptotic cells was lower (P < 0.01), while cell activity and β-microtubule protein expression were higher in the experimental group (P < 0.01). Animal experiment: The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores in the open field test and hind limb footprint experiments showed that the mice in the experimental group had better recovery of walking and motor functions than those in the spinal cord injury group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that significant deformities and cavities were observed at the site of spinal cord injury and the number of nerve cells was significantly reduced in the spinal cord injury group. Compared with the spinal cord injury group, the experimental group showed a significant reduction in the area of spinal cord injury, less spinal cord deformity, fewer cavities, and an increase in the number of nerve cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the number of neuronal nucleus-labeled neuronal cells in the spinal cord injury group was less than that in the sham-operated group (P < 0.01), and the number of neuronal nucleus-labeled neuronal cells in the experimental group was higher than that in the spinal cord injury group (P < 0.01). To conclude, tauroursodeoxycholic acid could effectively reduce glucose/oxygen deprivation-induced apoptosis of spinal cord neurons and axonal loss, and promote the recovery of motor function in mice with spinal cord injury.
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    Analysis of serum differential proteomics in patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy
    Bu Xianzhong, Bu Baoxian, Xu Wei, Zhang Chi, Zhang Yisheng, Zhong Yuanming, Li Zhifei, Tang Fubo, Mai Wei, Zhou Jinyan
    2024, 28 (4):  535-541.  doi: 10.12307/2023.844
    Abstract ( 244 )   PDF (1290KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The specific molecular mechanism of the transformation from normal healthy people to acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy has not been clear, which needs to be further studied.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential expression of serum proteomics between normal healthy people and patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, and to find and identify potential specific serum markers between them.
    METHODS: The serum samples of eight patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and eight normal healthy people were collected, and the proteomic screening and analysis were performed by tandem mass tag combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology, in order to explore and identify serum proteins differentially expressed in patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 183 significantly differential proteins were screened by tandem mass tag technology, and 11 significantly differential proteins were identified (P < 0.05). Compared with normal healthy people, three differential proteins were significantly up-regulated, including human leukocyte antigen-A, secretoglobin family 1a member 1, and protein 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, and seven differential proteins were significantly down-regulated, such as immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3, skin factor, and myosin light chain 3, in patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that these differential proteins participated in antigen binding, immunoglobulin receptor binding and other molecular functions. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that among the common differential proteins between normal healthy people and patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, HLA-A, HPD, PSMA3, DMKN, SCGB1A1, and MYL3 were located at the nodes of the functional network, and were closely related to the systems of body immunity, cellular inflammatory response, energy metabolism, and mechanical pressure. The significantly differential proteins HLA-A, HPD and MYL3 were verified by western blot, and the results were consistent with those of proteomics. To conclude, tandem mass tag combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology can be used to find the differentially expressed proteins in serum between normal healthy people and patients with acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. It is preliminarily believed that HLA-A, HPD and MYL3 may be specific serum markers of acute cervical spondylotic radiculopathy, providing a new direction for further research on its pathogenesis.
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    Comparison of protocols for constructing animal models of early traumatic knee osteoarthritis
    Liu Yuhan, Fan Yujiang, Wang Qiguang
    2024, 28 (4):  542-549.  doi: 10.12307/2024.275
    Abstract ( 236 )   PDF (1940KB) ( 75 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Current osteoarthritis modeling methods include anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and ACLT combined with medial meniscal anterior horn resection. ACLT requires excessive postoperative exercise, which is time and labor-intensive. Complete removal of anterior horn of the medial meniscus can cause collateral damage and increase variability in modeling outcomes, requiring higher surgical skills from the surgeon.
    OBJECTIVE: To modify and simplify the traditional method to create animal osteoarthritis model and compare osteoarthritis symptoms of different modeling methods under a low-load exercise environment. 
    METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned in four groups (n=12 per group): sham operation (complete exposure of the knee cavity of the left hind limb followed by suturing the joint cavity and skin), ACLT, ACLT+anterior horn resection (removal of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus) and ACLT+anterior horn tear (anterior horn tear of the medial meniscus). At 4 weeks after modeling, the rats were euthanized and their knee specimens were collected for gross observation, X-ray and CT scans, pathological observation, and PCR detection.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Gross observation: Mild meniscal wear was observed in the ACLT group. In the ACLT+anterior horn tear group, severe wear of the lateral condyle articular surface, mild wear of the medial condyle articular surface, severe meniscal wear, and full wear of the medial meniscus were observed. The ACLT+resection group showed severe wear of the lateral condyle articular surface, mild wear of the medial condyle articular surface, absence of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus, and meniscus wear area > 50%. Imaging examinations showed no significant difference among the four groups. However, the anterior tibial translocation sign was observed in the three operation groups and the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was missing in the ACLT+anterior horn resection group. Histopathological section observation: Hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and Sirius red staining showed smooth joint surfaces in the sham operation group and ACLT group; cartilage damage and matrix degradation were evident in the ACLT+anterior horn tear and ACLT+anterior horn transection groups, with less cartilage damage and matrix degradation in the ACLT+anterior horn tear group. PCR results showed higher mRNA expressions of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 and lower mRNA expressions of aggrecan in the ACLT+anterior horn tear group and ACLT+anterior horn resection group than in the sham operation group and ACLT group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of interleukin 6, matrix metalloproteinase 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 were higher in the ACLT + anterior horn resection group than in the ACLT +anterior horn tear group (P < 0.05). To conclude, ACLT alone is less likely to induce osteoarthritis with obvious cartilage wear. ACLT combined with anterior horn resection or tear of the medial meniscus can induce obvious symptoms of osteoarthritis and achieve similar modeling effects. 
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    Effect of ferroptosis mediated by glutathione peroxidase 4 in the occurrence and progression of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis
    Zhang Yaru, Chen Yanjun, Zhang Xiaodong, Chen Shenghua, Huang Wenhua
    2024, 28 (4):  550-555.  doi: 10.12307/2024.215
    Abstract ( 260 )   PDF (1724KB) ( 78 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Synovitis plays a leading role in the early progression of knee osteoarthritis and is a potential early therapeutic target. However, the mechanism of synovitis remains unclear. In animal models, increased systemic iron and intracellular iron uptake can induce and exacerbate osteoarthritis, but the association with ferroptosis in synovitis remains unclear. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of ferroptosis in the development and progression of synovitis in osteoarthritis. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ferroptosis mediated by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in the development of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis. 
    METHODS: The synovial tissues of 43 patients with osteoarthritis who underwent arthroscopic or joint replacement surgery and 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injury or ligament tear were collected and divided into three groups according to the Kellgren-Lawrence grading of X-ray images: normal control group (KLG 0, n=10), early knee osteoarthritis group (KLG 1, 2, n=20) and late knee osteoarthritis group (KLG 3, 4, n=23). Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the severity of synovitis in each group, and iron deposition in the synovium in each group was evaluated by Prussian blue staining. The expressions of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain Family Member 4 (ACSL4), GPX4, cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor α in the synovium were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins ACSL4 and GPX4. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal control group, iron content in synovial tissue was increased in the knee osteoarthritis groups, and iron deposition in the late knee osteoarthritis group was higher than that in the early osteoarthritis group. ACSL4 was highly expressed in the synovial tissue of knee osteoarthritis compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01), and GPX4 was lowly expressed in the synovial tissue of knee osteoarthritis (P < 0.01). The expression level of ACSL4 increased with the progression of osteoarthritis, while the expression level of GPX4 decreased with the progression of osteoarthritis. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 in the synovium of osteoarthritis was significantly higher than that in the normal synovium, and the expression was the highest in the early stage of osteoarthritis, which was significantly different from that in the advanced stage of osteoarthritis (P < 0.01). The expression of tumor necrosis factor α in the synovium of osteoarthritis was significantly higher than that in the normal synovium, but there was no significant difference between early and late osteoarthritis groups (P > 0.05). To conclude, the deposition of iron exists in the synovial tissue of osteoarthritis and ferroptosis is involved in the occurrence and progression of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis.
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    Effects of maternal high-fat diet and exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in male offspring mice
    Zhu Xiaofeng, Chen Weiwei, Huang Jian
    2024, 28 (4):  556-561.  doi: 10.12307/2023.986
    Abstract ( 228 )   PDF (1586KB) ( 21 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In the offspring of obese mothers, some metabolic genes are “silent” under certain environmental influences. These “silent” genes may be “awakened” under the acquired environment and then cause metabolic regulation disorders.
    OBJECTIVE: In the case of offspring with different diets, to explore the metabolic genetic effects of long-term high-fat and exercise intervention in female mice. 
    METHODS: Seventy 3-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were divided into high-fat diet (HFD) and high-at exercise groups (high-fat diet+exercise, HFD-Ex), and they gave birth naturally after 16 weeks of intervention. After 4-week lactation, 16 male offspring mice from each group were randomly selected. Totally 32 offspring mice were randomly divided into 4 subgroups and given high-fat diet or standard chow diet for 6 weeks: HFD-HFD, HFD-Ex-HFD, HFD-standard chow diet, and HFD-Ex-standard chow diet. The offspring mice were subjected to glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test in the 10th week, followed by body composition analysis and sacrifice. Western blot was used to determine the level of p-Akt in the liver. Immunofluorescence of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was used to analyze the expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortion. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under the high-fat diet, compared with the HFD group, the offspring of the HFD-Ex group had significantly improvements in glucose metabolism, body mass, and body composition (P < 0.05). Under the standard chow diet, compared with the HFD group, the expression of neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of the HFD-Ex group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of pro-opiomelanocortion was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05). In the case of insulin (-), the expression of phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) protein in the liver showed no significant difference between the two groups, but in the case of insulin (+), there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). In the high-fat diet mode, the metabolic protection effect of the maternal long-term exercise may gradually weaken with the prolongation of the offspring’s high-fat exposure; in the standard chow diet mode, the maternal long-term exercise can improve the central regulation of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity of the male offspring.
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    Effect of ganoderma spore on mitochondrial autophagy and apoptosis in testicular tissue of diabetic rats
    Xue Jingwen, Wang Fangfang, Zhang Xin, Pang Ruifeng, Wang Xiaoye, Ma Xiaoru
    2024, 28 (4):  562-568.  doi: 10.12307/2023.969
    Abstract ( 194 )   PDF (1436KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: As a common complication of diabetes mellitus, male reproductive disorders have received increasing attention in recent years. Ganoderma spore have hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but the regulatory mechanism for diabetic testicular tissue has not been fully elucidated. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ganoderma spore on the PTEN-induced kinase 1/E3 ubiquitin ligase pathway and cell apoptosis in testicular tissue of diabetic rats.
    METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, high fat and high sugar group, diabetic group and ganoderma spore group, with 10 rats in each group. The latter three groups were given high fat/high sugar diet until the end of the experiment. After 1 month of high fat/high sugar diet, the diabetic and ganoderma spore groups were given intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg per day) to establish type 2 diabetic rat models. After successful modeling, the ganoderma spore group was intragastrically given ganoderma spore (300 mg/kg per day), and the other groups were given the same amount of normal saline for continuous 12 weeks. The sperm number and morphology were detected. The histopathological changes of the testicle were observed. Serum testosterone and oxidative stress levels in testicular tissue were measured. The levels of PTEN-induced kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin ligase, and anti-nucleoporin p62 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin ligase, anti-nucleoporin p62, programmed cell death-1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II/I, caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 3 were detected by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal group and the high fat and high sugar group, the diabetic group had decreased sperm number (P < 0.01), increased sperm malformation rate (P < 0.01), and decreased serum testosterone level (P < 0.01). Compared with the diabetic group, ganoderma spore intervention could increase the sperm number (P < 0.05), decrease the malformation rate (P < 0.01), and increase the serum testosterone level (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal group and the high fat and high sugar group, the malondialdehyde level in testis tissue was increased in the diabetic group (P < 0.01), while the levels of glutathione deoxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the diabetic group, the malondialdehyde level in testis tissue was decreased in the ganoderma spore group (P < 0.01), and the levels of glutathione deoxidase and superoxide dismutase increased (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the normal group and the high fat and high sugar group, the positive expressions of PTEN-induced kinase 1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase in testicular tissue were decreased in the diabetic group, while the positive expressions of anti-nucleoporin p62 were increased. Compared with the diabetic group, the positive expressions of PTEN-induced kinase 1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase in testicular tissue e were increased in the ganoderma spore group, while the positive expression of anti-nucleoporin p62 was decreased. Western blot assay results indicated that compared to the normal group and the high fat and high sugar group, the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase, programmed cell death-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II/I protein were decreased in the diabetic group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while the expressions of anti-nucleoporin p62, caspase3 and cleaved-caspase3 were increased (P < 0.01). Compared with the diabetic group, ganoderma spore intervention could elevate the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 and E3 ubiquitin ligase, programmed cell death-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II/I protein (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) as well as reduce the expressions of anti-nucleoporin p62, caspase3 and cleaved-caspase3 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Overall, ganoderma spores may activate the PTEN-induced kinase 1/E3 ubiquitin ligase pathway to enhance autophagy in testicular tissue and reduce apoptosis in tissue cells, so as to protect testicular tissue.
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    Consistency of gingival thickness measurement based on cone-beam CT imaging and cone-beam CT superimposed intraoral scan imaging
    Song Yiwei, Lin Xiangxiang, Zhang Jianan, Chen Jue, Lu Haiping
    2024, 28 (4):  569-573.  doi: 10.12307/2024.218
    Abstract ( 212 )   PDF (1134KB) ( 54 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Gingival thickness is an important indicator to determine gingival phenotype. The correct evaluation of gingival phenotype is helpful for the smooth going of periodontal surgery, implant implantation and orthodontic treatment. The search for a comfortable, accurate and convenient method of measuring gingival thickness has always been a research hotspot in this field.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the gingival thickness in different dental positions and to study the consistency of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image and digital intraoral scanners and cone-beam computed tomography (DIS-CBCT) superimposition image for measuring gingival thickness and determining whether the gingiva is thick or thin.
    METHODS: Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females) with complete maxillary dentition were recruited. The thickness of the gingiva 2 mm below the buccal gingival margin of 160 teeth was measured by CBCT image and DIS-CBCT digital superimposition image. Gingival thickness was used to determine whether the gingiva was thick or thin. Paired t-test was used to analyze the differences in gingival thickness measured by the two methods. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the gingival thickness results of the two methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-AItman chart were used to analyze the repeatability and consistency in measuring gingival thickness using the two methods. Kappa value was used to analyze the consistency in determining whether the gingiva was thick or thin using the two methods.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The gingival thickness measured by CBCT image and DIS-CBCT digital superimposition image was (1.47±0.39) and (1.42±0.36) mm, respectively (t=5.673, P < 0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the gingival thickness measured by the two methods was positively correlated (r=0.968, P < 0.001). In the CBCT group, the values of intraobserver and interobserver ICC were 0.980-0.982 and 0.984, respectively; in the DIS-CBCT group, the values of intraobserver and interobserver ICC were 0.941-0.984 and 0.964, respectively (P < 0.001). The intergroup ICC value of gingival thickness measured by the two methods was 0.967 (P < 0.001). Bland-AItman analysis showed that 4.37% (7/160) of the points measured by both methods for gingival thickness was outside the 95% limits of agreement. There were 71 cases of thick-gingiva and 89 cases of thin-gingiva measured by CBCT imaging, and 59 cases of thick-gingiva and 101 cases of thin-gingiva measured by DIS-CBCT digital superimposition image. The Kappa value of the two groups was 0.845 (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that there is a significant difference in the thickness measurement of the gingiva 2 mm below the gingival margin between the CBCT group and the DIS-CBCT group, but the correlation is very strong. The repeatability and consistency of gingival thickness measurement are both high, and there is a good consistency between the two methods when used to determine whether the gingiva is thick or thin. 
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    Mammalian target of rapamycin in relation to exercise, high fat/high salt diet, and aging
    Wang Shijie, Wen Dengtai, Wang Jingfeng, Gao Yinghui
    2024, 28 (4):  574-580.  doi: 10.12307/2023.896
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (980KB) ( 35 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Aging is an irreversible process that is characterized by genes, diet and environment. As a central regulator of growth and development, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) can regulate the negative effects caused by aging, exercise and poor diet, which are correlated with the activity of mTor and its complexes. However, the relationship between these factors, such as mTor and the effect of exercise on aging, is still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between exercise, high fat/high salt diet and mTor in aging, so as to have a more comprehensive understanding of the prevention and treatment mechanism of aging. 
    METHODS: (1) Literature retrieval was conducted in the core database of Web of Science and CNKI, using the keywords of “mTor gene, exercise, high fat/high salt diet, aging,” thereby providing theoretical support for this review. (2) Comparative analysis provided a theoretical basis for this thesis by carefully reading the obtained effective literature and comparing the differences among various literatures. (3) Through the comparative analysis of similarities and differences between the included articles, we could define each index and their relationship, so as to clarify the ideas of this review. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: mTor is closely related to aging. Through the literature analysis, we believe that two complexes of mTor, mTorC1 and mTorC2, play important roles in aging, exercise and skeletal muscle growth and development. In addition, mTor-mediated S6K1, Akt, FOXO, and 4E-BP1 signaling pathways are strongly associated with exercise, high-fat diet, high-salt diet, and skeletal muscle/heart aging.
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    Application of brain-computer interface technology based on electroencephalogram in upper limb motor function rehabilitation of stroke patients
    Zhang Ming, Wang Bin, Jia Fan, Chen Jie, Tang Wei
    2024, 28 (4):  581-586.  doi: 10.12307/2023.865
    Abstract ( 391 )   PDF (968KB) ( 84 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Current rehabilitation programs are effective in treating post-stroke sequelae, but the treatment cycle is long and the labor cost is high. Brain-computer interface technology can be used for the treatment of post-stroke patients by extracting signals from the brain’s neural activity through special equipment and converting this signal into commands that can be recognized by a computer.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize the application of brain-computer interface technology in the upper limb motor function rehabilitation of stroke patients in recent years and to explore the clinical value of brain-computer interface technology in the upper limb function rehabilitation of stroke patients.
    METHODS: CNKI and PubMed were retrieved for relevant literature published from 2000 to 2022. The keywords were “stroke, electroencephalogram, brain-computer interface, upper limb, virtual reality technology, functional electrical stimulation, exoskeleton” in Chinese and “stroke, brain-computer interface, computer assistance, upper limb, virtual reality technology, functional electrical stimulation, exoskeleton” in English. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The brain-computer interface has shown promise for the restoration of upper limb motor function in stroke patients and has been shown to produce results that are unattainable with conventional treatments, and is well worth further research and promotion, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Also the ability to accurately decode all degrees of freedom of upper limb movements to provide flexible and natural control remains a challenge from the perspective of brain-computer interface systems that capture electroencephalogram signals from patients. Future research should focus on clarifying the specific neural mechanisms by which brain-computer interface technology facilitates upper limb motor recovery after stroke and identifying rehabilitation options such as brain-computer interfaces combined with external devices to facilitate upper limb motor function recovery in stroke patients.
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    The mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in osteoporosis and its prevention and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine
    Wei Yuanxun, Chen Feng, Lin Zonghan, Zhang Chi, Pan Chengzhen, Wei Zongbo
    2024, 28 (4):  587-593.  doi: 10.12307/2023.864
    Abstract ( 273 )   PDF (1107KB) ( 189 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the Notch signaling pathway plays a varying role in osteoporosis, and in-depth research in this field is of great significance to the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Traditional Chinese medicine has become the focus of research in today’s society due to its obvious multi-faceted, multi-level benefits in alleviating osteoporosis with less adverse effects.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize domestic and international literature to further understand the connection between the Notch signaling pathway and osteoporosis and to elucidate the mechanism by which traditional Chinese medicine prevents and treats osteoporosis via the Notch signaling pathway.
    METHODS: CNKI, WanFang, and VIP were searched with the keywords of “Notch, osteoporosis, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, signaling pathway, traditional Chinese medicine, pill, experiment” in Chinese. PubMed, Nature, and Embase were retrieved using the keywords of “Notch, osteoporosis, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, mesenchymal stem cells, signal pathway, traditional Chinese medicine, pill, experiment” in English. The search time was from database inception to October 2022.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The Notch signaling pathway plays a role in the development and progression of osteoporosis to varying degrees by regulating the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The Notch signaling pathway regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts by directly or indirectly regulating key cytokines such as Notch1, Jagged1, Hes, Hey, macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nuclear factor-κB receptor-activating factor ligand, which in turn promotes or inhibits bone formation and ultimately has a certain effect on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The active ingredients of Chinese herbs are mostly extracted from herbs for kidney tonifying, such as Epimedium, Cortex Eucommiae, Malaytea Scurfpea Fruit, Eleutherococcus Senticosus, Ligustrum Lucidum. Moreover, herbal compounds and preparations have the effect of tonifying kidney and strengthening bone, which provides more herbal options and directions for the subsequent study of Notch signaling pathway toward the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Current studies on traditional Chinese medicine mainly focus on active ingredients and single herbal extracts, with relatively few clinical trials on Chinese herbal compounds and preparations. Fewer studies have been conducted on the regulation of Notch signaling pathways by acupuncture, manipulation, and integrated Chinese and Western medicine to prevent and treat osteoporosis. Therefore, there is a need to explore the mechanisms by which traditional Chinese medicine technology-based therapies and integrated Chinese and Western medicine regulate the Notch signaling pathway to treat osteoporosis.
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    Role and application of early transient presence of M1 macrophages in bone tissue engineering
    Yang Yuqing, Chen Zhiyu
    2024, 28 (4):  594-601.  doi: 10.12307/2023.849
    Abstract ( 223 )   PDF (1198KB) ( 105 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Early transient presence of M1 macrophages can play a beneficial role after the implantation of bone tissue engineering materials. Recently, strategies for manipulating M1 macrophages to produce an early moderate inflammatory response have been extensively studied and many research advances have been made in the design of bone tissue engineering materials.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of early transient presence of M1 macrophages in bone tissue engineering and recent research advances in the strategy for activating early transient presence of M1 macrophages in the field of bone tissue engineering.
    METHODS: Relevant literature included in PubMed, WanFang database, and CNKI Database from January 2012 to October 2022 was searched. Search terms were “M1, macrophage, bone immunoregulation, bone defect, osteogenesis, osteoimmunology, angiogenesis” in English and Chinese. After excluding articles irrelevant to the research purpose and repetitive articles, 63 papers were finally included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The early transient presence of M1 macrophages play a key role in bone tissue engineering by promoting angiogenesis, facilitating osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and promoting an M2 macrophage phenotype. Strategies for inducing and activating early transient presence of M1 macrophages can modulate the local immune microenvironment for bone defect repair in a manner consistent with early natural bone healing, including modulation of the physicochemical properties of bone tissue engineering materials to promote appropriate M1 macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, sequential delivery of cytokines, microRNAs or bioactive ions to facilitate the M1-to-M2 transition of macrophages, and controlled release of anti-inflammatory substances to achieve the maintenance of early inflammatory responses.
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    Progress in epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling in the occurrence and development of aortic aneurysms
    He Yuanjie, Chen Yuheng, Zhao Yongchao, Wang Zhenglong
    2024, 28 (4):  602-608.  doi: 10.12307/2023.866
    Abstract ( 195 )   PDF (1003KB) ( 27 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Epigenetics, as an important regulation mode of gene expression network, has been proved to play an important role in the occurrence and development of aortic aneurysm mediated by vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the epigenetic regulation mechanism underlying vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling during the occurrence and progression of aortic aneurysm.
    METHODS: Related articles published from 1970 to 2022 were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI databases. The keywords were “Aortic aneurysm, Vascular smooth muscle, Smooth muscle cells, Epigenetic, DNA methylation, Histone modification, Non coding RNA” in English and Chinese. Ultimately, we included 71 articles for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Epigenetic modification can influence the occurrence and progression of aortic aneurysm by targeting vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling and extracellular matrix degradation. Targeted epigenetic modification can play a key role in aortic aneurysm treatment, delaying the disease and improving the prognosis. Epigenetic related enzymes, such as DNA methylesterases and histone-modifying enzymes, can influence the progression of aortic aneurysm by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling, including cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, and can be used as targets for drug therapy. The research of epigenetic modification on aortic aneurysm is still in the basic research stage and some epigenetic modification mechanisms have not yet been explored. With the development of medical research, targeted epigenetic modification is expected to achieve new breakthroughs in the treatment of aortic aneurysm and clinical transformation.
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    Signaling pathways in the mechanism underlying active ingredients of Chinese medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis
    Liu Luxing, Di Mingyuan, Yang Qiang
    2024, 28 (4):  609-614.  doi: 10.12307/2023.897
    Abstract ( 247 )   PDF (1163KB) ( 23 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease of skeletal muscle, and the incidence of osteoarthritis is increasing yearly, but its pathogenesis is not clear. The commonly used drugs for osteoarthritis include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoid. Adverse drug reactions to these drugs can reduce patient compliance and ultimately affect the efficacy of treatment. Active ingredients in Chinese medicine are closely scrutinized for their safety and other characteristics.
    OBJECTIVE: Through reviewing the research progress in the effect of active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine on osteoarthritis-related signaling pathways, to provide ideas and theoretical basis for the research, development, and application of new drugs in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, and GeenMedical were searched for relevant literature in the last 10 years. The key words were “OA, osteoarthritis, traditional Chinese medicine, active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, chondrocyte, inflammation, signal pathways, mechanism” in Chinese and English. We excluded the irrelevant repetitive and older literature, and finally included 63 articles for further review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine regulate the levels of inflammatory factors, promote the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, regulate the apoptosis of chondrocytes, and delay the degeneration of chondrocytes through Wnt/β-catenin, NK-ΚB, P38 MAPK, PI3K/AKT, JAK2/STAT3 and other signaling pathways, thus slowing the progression of osteoarthritis.
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    Functions and roles of connective tissue growth factor in nervous systems
    Ma Sicong, Chen Jing, Li Yunqing
    2024, 28 (4):  615-620.  doi: 10.12307/2023.962
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (838KB) ( 32 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that connective tissue growth factor not only participates in the development of neurons, but also participates in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, depression, epilepsy, etc. It can also be used as a therapeutic target to develop related drugs, thereby improving the patients’ quality of life.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biological functions of connective tissue growth factor and the mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative diseases and depression, as well as the progress in intervention with connective tissue growth factor and related emerging treatments.
    METHODS: The first author searched relevant articles published from January 1996 to December 2022 in PubMed and Web of Science. The key words were “connective tissue growth factor, nervous system, depression, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, FG-3019” in English. After reading, screening and sorting, the articles consistent with the content of the review were collected. Finally, 51 articles were selected for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Connective tissue growth factor participates in multiple biological activities such as fibrosis, cell adhesion, and cell development under different conditions through four different structural domains. Connective tissue growth factor is up-regulated in lesion sites of neurodegenerative diseases, depression and epilepsy. After interfering with the expression of connective tissue growth factor, the symptoms improve or disappear, suggesting that connective tissue growth factor plays an important role in the progression of these diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies and intervention targets around connective tissue growth factor is very promising therapeutic research. More research is needed to identify the mechanism of action to transfer from basic medical studies to clinical studies and to achieve safer and more effective treatments.
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    Mechanism of negative pressure wound therapy in the auxiliary treatment of bone and soft tissue infection
    Xing Hao, Meng Qingfeng, Chang Zhengqi
    2024, 28 (4):  621-626.  doi: 10.12307/2023.959
    Abstract ( 240 )   PDF (962KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: As the population ages at an accelerated rate in China, the incidence of bone and soft tissue infections is likewise on the rise. Bone and soft tissue infections can involve all bone and surrounding soft tissues, including the periosteum, cortex, cancellous bone and bone marrow. Examples of such infections include diabetes foot, osteomyelitis, surgical incision infection, and infection around joint prostheses. Owing to the intricate pathogenesis and challenging treatment, it has become increasingly noteworthy in clinical settings. Negative pressure wound therapy is a modern wound treatment which has been gaining popularity, especially in the area of bone and soft tissue infection.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the global research progress in the utilization of negative pressure wound therapy for treating bone and soft tissue infection in recent years.
    METHODS: Relevant articles in Chinese and English published in PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI from 1990 to 2022 were retrieved. Search terms were “negative pressure wound therapy, vacuum assisted closure, negative pressure, osteomyelitis, bone infection” in English and Chinese, separately. A total of 711 articles were initially retrieved, out of which 65 articles were included for further review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Negative pressure wound therapy, as an auxiliary approach to treating wounds, has a range of positive effects such as stabilizing wounds, diminishing edema, decreasing bacterial load, encouraging granulation tissue and angiogenesis, enhancing tissue perfusion, modulating peripheral nerves, modulating biological immunity and promoting the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. This is a more effective method for managing complex wounds, such as bone and soft tissue infections, than traditional dressings with one-dimensional benefits. Numerous studies, both basic and clinical, have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy in the auxiliary treatment of bone and soft tissue infections.
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    Mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine monomers in the treatment of osteoarthritis by targeting autophagy
    Yan Binghan, Li Zhichao, Su Hui, Xue Haipeng, Xu Zhanwang, Tan Guoqing
    2024, 28 (4):  627-632.  doi: 10.12307/2023.950
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (1258KB) ( 86 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Increasing studies have shown that autophagy plays an important role in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and moderate autophagy can preserve the normal physiological function of osteoarticular chondrocytes. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) monomers can target and modulate autophagy to treat osteoarthritis, and their characteristics such as single components, clear efficacy, low price, and easy availability have obvious benefits in the treatment of osteoarthritis. 
    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of TCM monomers on the targeted regulation of autophagy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and the research progress, with a view to laying a foundation for the treatment of osteoarthritis and even other bone metabolic diseases. 
    METHODS: Relevant literature published from January 2012 to October 2022 was retrieved in PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, and WanFang using the keywords of “traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal monomer, autophagy, osteoarthritis” in English and Chinese. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed, and 63 relevant articles were finally included by screening through reading the title, abstract, and full-text content. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: TCM monomers can treat osteoarthritis by targeting autophagy to inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis, protect cartilage extracellular matrix, reduce inflammation and antagonize oxidative stress injury. Different TCM monomers can regulate autophagy in the same way, and the same TCM monomers can affect autophagy in different ways. The combination of multiple monomers and the multi-target and multi-pathway regulation of autophagy by TCM monomers remain to be explored. The regulation of autophagy by TCM monomers can provide new ideas and strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis. Moderate regulation of autophagy by TCM monomers to keep the autophagic flux unimpeded may be the key to treating osteoarthritis.
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    Animal models of femoral bone defects: preparation status and characteristics
    Zhou Shibo, Guan Jianbin, Yu Xing, Zhao He, Yang Yongdong, Liu Tao
    2024, 28 (4):  633-638.  doi: 10.12307/2023.862
    Abstract ( 292 )   PDF (875KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The repair and clinical outcome of bone defects remains a hot and difficult area of clinical research, which is a common problem that plagues clinicians. Constructing suitable, reproducible and infinitely close to clinical animal experimental models and their scientific evaluation are essential for further clinical treatment of related diseases.
    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the preparation methods and characteristics of common animal models of femoral bone defects and to assess their strengths and weaknesses, thereby providing some reference for relevant researchers to select appropriate animal models of femoral bone defects.
    METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, and CNKI were retrieved for relevant literature published from January 1, 2000 to August 1, 2022. The keywords were “bone defect, bone, bones, defect, defects, defective, animal model, animal, model, laboratory, laboratory animal, animal laboratory” in English and “bone defect, animal model, experiment” in Chinese.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Twenty-seven randomized controlled animal experiments involving rats, mice, New Zealand rabbits, and sheep were included, analyzed and assessed. The most common types of bone defects were cylindrical bone defects and segmental osteotomy bone defects, generally found in the middle and distal femur. These models are mostly used to evaluate the effects of bone repair materials, drugs, drug-loaded active substances and physical therapy on bone defect repair and explore defect healing mechanisms, particularly the weight-bearing bone defect repair mechanism. Different defect kinds and femoral bone defect ranges have been found in different animal experiments. Researchers can select the suitable animal model and bone defect type based on the goal of the experiment and then set an acceptable bone defect value. Current studies have shown that cylindrical and segmental osteotomy-induced bone defects, mainly in the distal and middle femur, are mostly used in the animal models of femoral bone defects and that the surgical methods and postoperative management are more mature and operable to provide mature experimental animal models. In terms of cylindrical bone defects, rats and New Zealand rabbits are more suitable, whereas segmental osteotomy has no special requirements and all types of animals can meet the experimental requirements.
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    Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of terlipatide and bisphosphate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis fractures
    Abuduwupuer·Haibier, Alimujiang·Yusufu, Maihemuti·Yakufu, Maimaitimin·Abulimiti, Tuerhongjiang·Abudurexiti
    2024, 28 (4):  639-645.  doi: 10.12307/2024.963
    Abstract ( 230 )   PDF (2263KB) ( 19 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of terlipatide and bisphosphate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis fractures through a Meta-analysis.
    METHODS: By searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, CNKI, WanFang and VIP databases, 18 randomized controlled studies on terlipatide and bisphosphate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis fractures were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Endnote X9 software was used to manage the literature and Revman 5.3 software was used to perform a Meta-analysis on the extracted data. The incidences of vertebral fracture, non-vertebral fracture and adverse reaction in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients treated with terlipatide and bisphosphate were analyzed.
    RESULTS: A total of 18 randomized controlled studies were included, of which 10 were of medium and high quality and 8 were of low quality. Meta-analysis results showed that the fracture incidence in the teriparatide group [risk ratio (RR)=0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.66, P < 0.000 01] was lower than that in the bisphosphonate group, and teriparatide was superior to alendronate in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (RR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.35-0.69, P < 0.000 1) and other bisphosphonates (RR=0.58, 95%CI: 0.49-0.70, P < 0.000 01). During the follow-up over 18 months, teriparatide was superior to bisphosphonates in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (RR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.48-0.69, P < 0.000 01). In addition, we found that teriparatide was superior to bisphosphonates in preventing vertebral fractures (RR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.37-0.62, P < 0.000 01) and non-vertebral fractures (RR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.51-0.78, P < 0.000 1) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Teriparatide was superior to bisphosphonates in increasing lumbar bone density [odds ratio=4.16, 95%CI: 2.96-5.36, P < 0.000 1) and femoral neck bone density (odds ratio=1.02, 95%CI: 0.04-2.01, P=0.04). There was no significant difference in adverse reactions between teriparatide and bisphosphonates (RR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.85,1.06, P=0.37).
    CONCLUSION: Teriparatide is superior to bisphosphonates in preventing vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, but the safety and adverse drug reactions of teriparatide and bisphosphonates are basically similar. Teriparatide is superior to bisphosphonate in preventing fracture and improving lumbar and femoral neck bone density regardless of short-term (< 18 months) or long-term (≥ 18 months) use.
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    Effect of minimalist shoes on foot muscle morphology: systematic evaluation and Meta-analysis
    Bai Xiaotian, Chen Zhaoying, Song Yiling, Wang Ye, Liu Jingmin
    2024, 28 (4):  646-650.  doi: 10.12307/2024.232
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (1115KB) ( 36 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: With the popularity of simulated barefoot running, minimalist shoes have become a new way of foot exercise. As an important muscle group of the foot, the maintenance of foot muscle morphology is important for the execution of foot functions. In this paper, by combing the literature about the effect of minimalist shoes on foot muscle morphology in recent years, we systematically evaluate the effect of minimalist shoes on foot muscle morphology compared with traditional running shoes. 
    METHODS: The relevant articles published from 2012 to 2022 were searched in Chinese and English databases (PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, CNKI and WanFang databases) with “minimal shoes, minimal footwear, minimalist shoes, minimalist footwear, foot muscle, feet muscle” as Chinese and English keywords, respectively. Meta-analysis, sensitivity tests were performed on the included literature using Review Manager 5.4.1 and Stata 14 software, the Egger method was used to test for publication bias in the literature, and Meta-regression was used to identify the subgroups with heterogeneity.
    RESULTS: Compared with traditional running shoes, minimalist shoes increased muscle circumference of the abductor hallucis [standardized mean difference=2.034, 95% confidence interval (1.192, 2.877), Z=4.73, P < 0.001]. And the results were not reversed after clipping and patching, with a more robust combined effect size (P < 0.05). For the toe short flexors, the total combined effect size did not show a difference between traditional running shoes and minimalist shoes [standardized mean difference=0.470, 95% confidence interval (-0.45, 1.39), Z=1.00, P=0.318].
    CONCLUSION: Compared with traditional running shoes, minimalist shoes intervention can effectively improve muscle circumference of the abductor hallucis, but the promoting effect on the flexor digitorum brevis muscle is not obvious. Running in minimalist shoes has positive implications for the maintenance of the medial longitudinal arch, but it is necessary to enrich the research content of minimalist shoes on different foot muscles and different populations in order to further explore the mechanisms by which minimalist shoe interventions promote foot function.
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    Rehabilitative efficacy of kinesio taping following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a Meta-analysis
    Wang Juan, Wang Ling, Zuo Huiwu, Zheng Cheng, Wang Guanglan, Chen Peng
    2024, 28 (4):  651-656.  doi: 10.12307/2024.240
    Abstract ( 285 )   PDF (1640KB) ( 104 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have shown that kinesio taping has positive effects in elevating muscle strength, improving joint stability and reducing pain and oedema in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, existing studies have divergent results on the clinical efficacy of kinesio taping. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the effect of kinesio taping in postoperative rehabilitation period following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
    METHODS: Randomized controlled trials about the effects of kinesio taping on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were electronically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases, from database inception to December 06, 2022. The outcome measures included six continuous variables: quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, knee swelling, knee range of motion, Lysholm knee function score, and Visual Analogue Scale score. EndNote X9.1 was used to screen the literature. The Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and Jadad Scale were used to evaluate the quality of the included literature. RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 6 randomized controlled trials involving 252 patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were finally included. There were 126 cases in control group and 126 in kinesio taping group. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, kinesio taping significantly improved hamstring strength [standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12 to 1.23, P=0.02) and reduced Visual Analogue Scale score [mean difference (MD)=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.04 to -0.08, P=0.02). However, for quadriceps strength, knee swelling, knee range of motion, and Lysholm knee function score, kinesio taping did not show significant difference from the control group (P > 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Kinesio taping may help to improve hamstring strength and reduce pain in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, it cannot significantly improve quadriceps strength, knee swelling, knee range of motion, and functional scores.
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