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    28 April 2018, Volume 22 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Urtica extracts induce periosteal cell proliferation and differentiation: tissue-engineered bone construction and ultrastructural changes
    Xu Bing1, Liu Yuan2
    2018, 22 (12):  1805-1810.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0196
    Abstract ( 330 )   PDF (1346KB) ( 248 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Urtica, a traditional Chinese herbal, holds anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects, but its influence on periosteal cells is little reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proliferation and differentiation of human periosteal cells induced by urtica and to construct tissue-engineered bone by periosteal cells in vitro, thereby providing theoretical basis for the application of urtica in bone tissue engineering.
    METHODS: Human clavicle periosteum was obtained. Primary periosteal cells were cultured by tissue culture method in vitro, passaged, and the 3 generations of periosteal cells were seeded into cell culture plate, and treated with urtica extracts (10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 g/L, experimental group), 50 μg/L bone morphogenetic protein-7 (positive control group) or purified water (control group). The absorbance values of periosteal cells were measured by MTT assay, and the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and calcium nodules were detected by alkaline phosphatase staining and Von Kossa staining at 1, 4, 7 and 9 days after culture. 10-4 g/L urtica extracts and bone morphogenetic protein-7 were added into the three-dimensional polyclonal lactone scaffold and periosteal cells to construct tissue-engineered bone. After 24 days of culture, the morphological changes of periosteal cells were observed under electron microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: MTT results revealed that the absorbance values of periosteal cells in the experimental and positive control groups were significantly higher than those in the control group at different time points (P < 0.05); the order of absorbance values was as follows: 10-4 group > 10-5 group > 10-6 g/L group (P < 0.05), suggesting 10-4 g/L was the optimal concentration. The positive rates of alkaline phosphatase and calcium nodules in the experimental and positive control groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05), but the experimental and positive control groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, there were abundant microvilli on the cell membrane, the mitochondria matrix was dense and appeared with crista, and active proliferation and differentiation of cells were detected. The number of mitochondria in the experimental and positive control groups was significantly more than that in the control group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that periosteal cells can be induced by urtica to amplify and differentiate into osteoblasts, and construct tissue-engineered bone in the three-dimensional polyclonal lactone scaffold.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    A magnetic resonance imaging study to compare structural changes of the temporomandibular joint disk during mandibular advancement between Angle Class I and Class II in adult males
    Tang Qian1, Fang Zhi-xin1, Zhou Yan1, Bai Bin2, Huang Min-fang1
    2018, 22 (12):  1811-1816.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0197
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (1243KB) ( 206 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Mandibular advancement devices are commonly used in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. But wearing with mandibular protraction appliance makes the mandible in an abnormal position, and inevitably affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). As one of the important components of the TMJ, can structural changes of the joint disk impair the TMJ? Are there any differences in the TMJ structure between Angle Class I and Class II? What will happen to the TMJ structure in the Angle Class I and Class II during mandibular advancement? Is there a same law of TMJ changes for Angle Class I and Class II? All of these are undetermined systematically.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the changes in the structure of TMJ disk and the differences during mandible advancement between Angle Class I and Class II adult males.
    METHODS: Forty non-apnea adult males were divided into two groups (n=20 per group), including Class I and Class II groups, according to the Angle’s classification and sagittal skeletal facial type. Each volunteer was scanned by MRI in three positions, including central occlusion (F0), 75% of the maximum mandible advancement (F75) and maximum of the mandible advancement (F100). These indexes that were correlated with morphology of the joint disk in different mandible advancement positions were measured and calculated by MRI, and then analyzed statistically.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In F0, the ratio of disk anterior displacement in the Class II group was higher than that in the Class I group (P < 0.01). The angle A was decreased as the mandible advanced in both groups from F0 to F75 (P < 0.01). The rotational angular dimension was increased as the mandible advanced, and the sizes from F0 to F100 were bigger than those from F0 to F75 (P < 0.05). Some differences existed in the structure of TMJ disk between Angle Class I and II adult males. In summary, appropriate mandibular advancement may play a positive role in patients with anterior displacement of the joint disk, but excessive mandible advancement is likely to impair the TMJ disk.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Osthol effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts based on endoplasmic reticulum stress
    Zheng Su-yang1, Ma Yong1, 2, Guo Yang1, Wang Li-ning1, Pan Ya-lan1
    2018, 22 (12):  1817-1822.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0802
    Abstract ( 296 )   PDF (5994KB) ( 295 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Osthol has been reported to promote osteogenesis by increasing osteoblast proliferation, but the anti-osteoporosis mechanism underlying osthol is poorly understood.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of osthol on the proliferation and differentiation of rat osteoblasts in vitro and to explore its mechanism of anti-osteoporosis effect.
    METHODS: Rat osteoblasts were isolated by secondary enzyme digestion and identified by alkaline phosphatase staining and mineralized nodule staining. There were five groups: blank control, solvent control, β-estradiol as well as low-, medium- and high-dose osthol groups. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 assay, and cell differentiation was evaluated by detection of alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodule staining. The expression levels of GRP78, PDI and CHOP were detected by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Osthol at the concentrations of 1x10-4 and 1x10-5 mol/L could inhibit osteoblast proliferation. 1x10-4 mol/L osthol could increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts and enhance osteoblastic mineralization. Meanwhile, 1x10-4 mol/L osthol was able to down-regulate the expression level of GRP78 and up-regulate the expression levels of PDI and CHOP. To conclude, osthol can promote osteoblast differentiation and inhibit osteoblast proliferation probably by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Chondrogenic progenitor cells isolated from the fascia of skeletal muscle
    Xiang Yong, Li Guang-heng
    2018, 22 (12):  1823-1828.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0198
    Abstract ( 1232 )   PDF (4406KB) ( 184 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Muscle derived cells in the skeletal muscle have the ability to differentiate into chondrocytes under the induction of bone morphogenic protein 4 and transforming growth factor β3. However, due to the complexity of the skeletal muscle (consisting of muscle fiber, fascia, blood vessel and nerves), the origin of cells has not been identified.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the potential for chondrogenic differentiation of fascia-derived cells (FDCs) in order to clarify the chondrogenic ability of the cells derived from the skeletal muscle. 
    METHODS: The fascia was isolated from the rat gluteus maximus, and was then cultured in chondrogenic medium containing bone morphogenic protein 4 and transforming growth factor β3. Samples were harvested on day 14. The chondrogenic differentiation of FDCs was identified by alcian blue, hematoxylin-eosin and safranin O stainings. Cell markers were investigated by immunostaining using the antibodies for desmin, CD34, vimentin, vWF and a-SMA. Immunostaining was used to assay the chondrogenic potential of FDCs cultured with L6 rat myoblasts at varying ratios (1:0, 4:1; 1:1, 1:4 and 0:1). 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: FDCs harvested from the skeletal muscle displayed chondrogenic differentiation and formed cartilaginous tissue when cultured for 14 days in chondrogenic medium after alcian blue and safranin O stainings. Cells isolated from the fascia were negative for desmin, CD34, vWF and a-SMA, but over 90% of the cells were positive for vimentin. Mixed FDC and L6 myoblast pellets showed chondrogenic potential decreased with the increasing ratio of L6 myoblasts. From the analysis of cell surface marker of FDCs in the skeletal muscle, immunostaining, and the comparison with L6 rat myoblasts, it shows that FDCs are the seed cells with chondrogenic potential in the skeletal muscle.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Osteochondroprogenitor cells: isolation, identification and chondrogenesis under the induction of transforming growth factor beta3
    Zuo Wei, Cheng Wen-jun, Jiao Jing, Huang Yu-cheng, Xiao Fei, Wang Jun-wen
    2018, 22 (12):  1829-1834.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0199
    Abstract ( 305 )   PDF (5495KB) ( 259 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Precartilaginous stem cells exist in articular cartilage, which may become potential seed cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) has positive regulation effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of precartilagious stem cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of TGF-β3 on the chondrogenesis of osteochondroprogenitor cells.
    METHODS: CD146+ chondrocytes were isolated from the patients with advanced osteoarthritis, and were then identified. CD146+ chondrocytes were cultured in the normal medium (blank control group), chondrogenic induced medium (control group), chondrogenic induced medium containing 2.5 and 10 μg/L recombinant human TGF-β3, respectively. The immunohistochemistry of collagen II and aggrecan was performed, and the related gene expression was tested by real-time quantitative PCR after 4 weeks of culture.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When chondrogenic differentiation was performed, the number of cell pellets in the 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group was greater than that in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group, and the number of cell pellets in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group was greater than that in the control group. The expression levels of collagen II and aggrecan in the 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group was significantly higher than that in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of collagen II and aggrecan in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the expression levels of collagen II and aggrecan mRNA in the 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group were significantly higher than those in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group (P < 0.05), but the expression level of SOX-9 showed insignificant difference between two groups (P > 0.05), and the expression level of SOX-9 in the 10 and 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05); the expression levels of collagen II and aggrecan mRNA in the 2.5 μg/L TGF-β3 group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that osteochondroprogenitor cells with stem cell characteristics exist in the residual articular cartilage of the patients with advanced osteoarthritis. TGF-β3 has the ability of promoting chondrogenic differentiation of osteochondroprogenitor cells, which may be an ideal cytokine for cartilage tissue engineering.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Isokinetic strength of the trunk and lower limbs in basketball players
    Yang Xue-qing, Cheng Liang
    2018, 22 (12):  1835-1840.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0200
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (1930KB) ( 228 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of comparative data concerning isokinetic muscle strength of elite female basketball players with different athletic levels.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of muscle strength of trunk and lower limbs of elite female basketball players, and to compare the difference in the muscle strength between elite athletes and first-class athletes.
    METHODS: Sixteen Sichuan Provincial (first-class group), and 17 members of the national team (elite group) female basketball athletes were enrolled, and the flexion and extension muscle strength of trunk, hip, knee and ankle joints in different angular velocity (60(°)/s, 5 times; 240(°)/s, 25 times) were detected using the German IsoMed 2000 isokinetic testing.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The right hip extensor and flexor force absolute power, bilateral knee flexor and extensor force and absolute flexion explosive, bilateral ankle flexor and extensor and the explosive force in the elite group were significantly higher than those in the first- class group (P < 0.05).The trunk flexor strength, left hip extensor force and absolute outbreak right hip extensor force and explosive force in the elite group were significantly higher than those in the first-class group (P < 0.01). In the elite group, the hip knee ankle muscle: the absolute strength of flexor 5.0:3.6:1, flexor extensor 5.0:3.2:1 explosive force, absolute force 2.4:1.6:1, extensor explosive force 2.0:1.3:1; in the first-class group had 6.3:3.8:1 absolute strength of flexor flexor, explosive force 6.6:4.2:1, 2.3:1.8:1 absolute extensor force, and 1.8:1.5:1extensor explosive. There were significant differences in the antagonistic/active muscle ratios of torso explosive force, absolute strength of bilateral hip and knee joint and explosive force between two groups (P < 0.05). The lower extremity joint contralateral homonymous muscle in both groups was less than 10%. The trunk flexor and extensor, bilateral hip extensor and bilateral ankle extensor endurance in the elite group were significantly higher than those in the first-class group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that with the increase of test angle, both groups showed a decrease in trunk and lower limb flexor extensor peak torque to different extents. The lower limb contralateral homonymous muscle was < 10% in both groups. Additionally, the first-class athletes should strengthen the trunk flexor strength, hip flexor and extensor force and absolute power, absolute knee extensor force and ankle flexion, absolute strength and explosive force exercises, also need to increase trunk flexor and extensor, hip and ankle extensor endurance training.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Measurement and correlation analysis of vermilion and facial skin color
    Jiang Cai-di, Wang Da-lin, Wang Shao-hai, Liu Jun, Li Hong-jiao
    2018, 22 (12):  1841-1845.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0201
    Abstract ( 389 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 180 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Prosthesis simulation is critical for maxillofacial defects caused by maxillofacial tumor and trauma. Few studies have been reported on the vermilion color, much less the correlation between facial skin color and vermilion color.
    OBJECTIVE: To collect thecolorimetric values of human vermilion and facial skin, so as to determine the colorimetric value range and its relevance.
    METHODS: The colorimetric values of vermilion and facial skin in 202 volunteers were measured by Japanese Konica Minolta CM-700d spectrophotometer, L* (brightness), a* (from –a* (green) to +a* (red)), b* (from –b* (yellow) to +a* (blue)) values were surveyed and calculated, and then analyzed with CIELAB color system. The correlation between colorimetric values of the vermilion and cheek skin color was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: For the vermilion color in 202 volunteers, L* value was 53.25±3.42, a* value was 11.19±1.70, and b* value was 8.77±2.12; for the cheek skin color, L* value was 61.87±3.59, a* value was 7.21±1.29, and b* value was 12.98±1.64. L* value of the vermilion was negatively correlated with its a* value, positively correlated with its b* value, positively correlated with L* value of cheek skin and negatively correlated with a* value of the cheek skin. a* value of the vermilion was positively correlated with a* value of the cheek skin. b* value of the vermilion was positively correlated with b* value of the cheek skin. L* value of the cheek skin was positively correlated with b* value of the vermilion, and negatively correlated with its a* value. a* value of the cheek skin was negatively correlated with b* value of the vermilion, and negatively correlated with its b* value. In summary, we preliminarily determine the colorimetric value range of the facial skin and vermilion, as well as their relevance, which provide a basis for prosthesis production and choice of colors in clinic.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Ligustrazine for early-stage knee osteoarthritis in rats: changes in the expression levels of type II collagen fiber alpha 1, vascular endothelial growth factor and miR20b in the cartilage
    Xie Ping-jin1, 2, 3, Yu Xiang1, 2, 4, Chai Sheng-ting2, 3, Cao Xue-wei5, Sun He1, 2, 5, Chen Qun-qun2, 3, Liang Gui-hong1, 2, 3
    2018, 22 (12):  1846-1851.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0202
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (4633KB) ( 274 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have found that ligustrazine can effectively improve the levels of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, and alleviate the inflammatory response of osteoarthritis, but the related mechanism remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ligustrazine on the expression levels of type II collagen fiber α 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and miR20b in the articular cartilage of knee osteoarthritis model, and to explore the mechanism of ligustrazine for early-stage knee osteoarthritis in rats.
    METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into normal, model, high- and low-dose ligustrazine, and positive control groups. Rats in the latter four groups were used to establish the model of early-stage knee osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of papain, and were then intragastrically given the administration of normal saline, 100 and 50 mg/kg ligustrazine, and 24 mg/kg celecoxib, respectively. The normal group was given the same volume of normal saline. The treatment in each group lasted for 6 weeks. Then, the rat cartilage was taken, and changes of cartilage tissues were assessed by Mankin scores. Expression levels of type II collagen fiber α 1, VEGF mRNA and miR20b in the cartilage were detected by qRT-PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The order of Mankin scores was as follows: normal group < high-dose ligustrazine group < positive control group < low-dose ligustrazine group < model group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of type II collagen fiber α 1 and VEGF were the highest in the normal group, followed by the high-dose ligustrazine group, positive control group, low-dose ligustrazine group, and model group (P < 0.05). The expression level of miR20b was significantly up-regulated except the model group, and its order was follows: high-dose ligustrazine group < positive control group < low-dose ligustrazine group. Our results indicate that ligustrazine has a positive effect on early- stage knee osteoarthritis in rats, and the possible mechanisms by which ligustrazine promotes cartilage repair are to up-regulate miR20b expression and to inhibit VEGF mRNA expression.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Effects of hypoxia and vibration training on bone metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic osteoporosis rats
    Cheng Jia-qiu1, Zhang Ting-ran2
    2018, 22 (12):  1852-1858.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0203
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (1162KB) ( 180 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia program to alleviate type 2 diabetes insulin resistance has been recommended, but this program is still questioned because of the risk of osteoporosis caused by hypoxia in patients with diabetes.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vibration training on bone mineral density, bone structural mechanics, bone metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic osteoporosis rats under hypoxia environment.
    METHODS: Ninety clean Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, and subjected to high-fat diet (n=60), or normal diet (n=30), for 8 weeks. High-fat rats were given the injection of streptozotocin to establish the rat model of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis. The control rats were subdivided into normoxia control and hypoxia control groups; the model rats were subdivided into hypoxia modeling group, hypoxia modeling vibration group, normoxia modeling group, normoxia modeling vibration group. Hypoxia and vibration program was performed by hypoxia tank and vibration platform (PowerPlate®) for 12 weeks. Glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, bone metabolism and bone mineral density and modeling were detected at 4 weeks after modeling and 12 weeks after vibration training.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 12 weeks after intervention, the fast insulin level, fast blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the hypoxia modeling vibration group were significantly superior to those in the hypoxia modeling, normoxia modeling, and normoxia modeling vibration groups (P < 0.05). The bone mineral density, maximum stress, maximum load, breaking load and elastic modulus in the normoxia modeling vibration and hypoxia modeling vibration groups were significantly lower than those in the normoxia control and hypoxia control groups (P < 0.05). After vibration training, all indexes were significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results suggest that hypoxic environment can promote the insulin sensitivity, improve glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats, but can lead to a decrease in bone mineral density and increase bone resorption. Vibration training not only can significantly enhance the insulin sensitivity, but also can avoid the decreased bone mineral density, bone metabolism disorder, and biomechanical properties induced by hypoxia.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Local administration of calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes early healing after rotator cuff injury   in mice
    Chen Yang1, 2, 3, Wang Zhan-wen1, 2, 3, Chen Can1, 2, 3, Lv Hong-bin1, 2, 3
    2018, 22 (12):  1859-1865.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0204
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (5326KB) ( 236 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Repair of tendon interface is a difficulty in orthopedics and sports medicine, and the formation of new bone is conducive to its healing. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and repair, but its effect on the bone-tendon interface repair is unknown.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of CGRP on the expression of osteocalcin and to evaluate the effect of CGRP on the early healing of rotator cuff injury in a mouse model.
    METHODS: A mouse model of supraspinatus insertion-humerus injury was created. All model mice were then randomized into two groups, and given the injection of 5 nmol/kg CGRP (experimental group) or same volume of normal saline (control group) through the glenohumeral joint immediately after operation, thrice weekly, for 2 weeks. The mice were sacrificed at postoperative 4 and 6 weeks to remove the rotator cuff samples for hematoxylin-eosin staining and biomechanical test. The mRNA and protein expression levels of osteocalcin were surveyed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At postoperative 4 and 6 weeks, the mRNA and protein expression of osteocalcin in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, there were more fibrocartilages in the experimental group at 4 weeks postoperatively, and more new bone formation in the experimental group at 6 weeks postoperatively. At 4 weeks postoperatively, failure load in the experimental group increased slightly, but it was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05); at 6 weeks postoperatively, failure load in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.05). To conclude, local injection of CGRP can up-regulate the expression of osteocalcin and the formation of new bone at the injury site, which can enhance early healing the injured rotator cuff.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Effect of Duhuojisheng Decoction on primary knee osteoarthritis in macaca fascicularis
    Chen Qiao-yu1, Zhou Xin2, Fu Shi-jie2
    2018, 22 (12):  1866-1871.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0828
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (1182KB) ( 176 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis results have shown that Duhuojisheng Decoction can improve the symptoms and relieve the pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis, but the mechanism and pathway are not very clear.
    OBJECTIVE: To further verify the curative effect of Duhuojisheng Decoction for primary knee osteoarthritis in macaca fascicularis.
    METHODS: Under natural conditions, 6 clean young macaca fascicularis (aged 3-5 years, normal group) and 6 elderly macaca fascicularis (aged more than 20 years, model group) were selected from 24 macaca fascicularis. The models of primary knee osteoarthritis were established in the model group, then aged animals were randomly divided into control and intervention (given the treatment of Duhuojisheng Decoction) groups. The number of whole blood leukocytes, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, properties of the joint fluid and expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α were compared between the control and intervention groups.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The aged macaca fascicularis was characterized by a typical osteoarthritis similar to human. Treatment with Duhuojisheng Decoction significantly down-regulated the expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α and significantly reduced the levels of whole blood leukocytes, and C-reactive protein. Our results suggest that the aged macaca fascicularis model of primary knee osteoarthritis is an effective animal model to simulate the occurrence and development of human primary knee osteoarthritis. Duhuojisheng decoction alleviates the progression of primary knee osteoarthritis probably by inhibiting the expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α and decreasing the levels of inflammatory factors in the articular cartilage. Additionally, the levels of whole blood leukocytes and C-reactive protein are important parameters for the prediction of curative effects.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Correlation of serum C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I with bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis
    Yi Kai-jun, Wang Lian-peng, Ding Hui-yong, Kong Dan, Han Ya-jun, Ma Feng-hua, Duan Wei-nan, Zhou Gao-jin, Li Guo-hua
    2018, 22 (12):  1872-1876.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0205
    Abstract ( 235 )   PDF (1055KB) ( 199 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: C-telopeptide and N-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I (CTx and NTx, respectively) are specific biochemical bone markers that can reflect bone formation and resorption.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of CTx with disuse osteoporosis.
    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-220 g, were randomly divided into control and disuse osteoporosis groups. Right hind limbs of the rats in the disuse osteoporosis group were immobilitzed for 4 weeks by ankle-tail fixation to establish the rat model of disuse osteoporosis. Peritoneal venous blood was collected before and after modeling, and the femur was then removed to measure the serum CTx level and bone mineral density of the bilateral femurs.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The serum CTx level did not differ significantly between groups before modeling (P > 0.05). At 4 weeks after modeling, the serum CTx level in the disuse osteoporosis group was significantly higher than that in the control group and at baseline (P < 0.01). The serum CTx level showed no significant change in the control group before and after modeling (P > 0.05). The increment of serum CTx in the disuse osteoporosis group exhibited a negative correlation with the bone mineral density of the bilateral femurs (r=0.426, P < 0.01). The bone mineral density of the right femur in the disuse osteoporosis group was significantly lower than that of the left one in the disuse osteoporosis group and the right one in the control group (P < 0.01), and there was no significant difference in the bone mineral density between left and right femurs in the control group (P > 0.05). These results imply that the model of disuse osteoporosis by ankle-tail fixation is established successfully. Disuse osteoporosis can promote the production of CTx further reducing bone mineral density; CTx is positively correlated with the degree of bone loss, so it can be used for therapeutic assessment and diagnosis of osteoporosis.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Protective effects of probiotics on the cell membrane in different tissues of rats after treadmill exercise
    Mo Wei-bin1, 2, Zhou Yan3, Yang Yan-tao1
    2018, 22 (12):  1877-1882.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0206
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 165 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Changes in the immune function of different tissues after long-time exhaustive exercise stress and probiotics intervention are still unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphological changes and cell membrane protective effects of different tissues and organs in rats after exhaustive exercise and probiotics intervention.
    METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into quiet control group, exercise control group, quiet administration group and exercise administration group. Rats in the exercise control and exercise administration groups underwent 6 weeks of exhaustive training, at a speed of 19.3 m/min, slope of 5o, once daily, 6 days weekly. Rats in the quiet administration and exercise administration groups were given 107 CFU/mL probiotics via gavage, 10.0 mL/(kg•d). The histopathological changes were observed under light microscope and Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase in the liver, intestine and stomach were tested after 6 weeks of training.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After exhaustive exercise, the liver, stomach and intestinal tissue presented with structure disorders, swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration and an decrease in the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase. After probiotic solution administrated, the structure of liver, stomach and intestine arranged closely and clearly, with no obvious congestion and edema. However, there were a few inflammatory cells and slight ulcers, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase were increased. These findings show that probiotic solution can protect the liver, stomach and intestinal tissue from injury caused by long-time exhaustive exercise, and maintain the integrity and fluidity of cell membrane by increasing Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and T-ATPase activities.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Interleukin-17A facilitates optic nerve regeneration in a mouse model of optic nerve crush
    Li Yan-fen, Ye Xiao-yang, Chen Xiao-fan, Zhang Wei
    2018, 22 (12):  1883-1888.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0807
    Abstract ( 415 )   PDF (4465KB) ( 190 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17A has been shown to play an important role in nerve regeneration following corneal injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of interleukin-17A on mouse nerve regeneration after optic nerve injury.
    METHODS: The interleukin-17A-overexpressed adenovirus vector (AV-IL-17A-GFP) was constructed and purified. Adenoviruses with green fluorescent protein (AV-GFP) served as control group. PC12 cell lines were transfected with adenoviruses and the expression efficiency of IL-17A were detected by ELISA. The adenovirus was intravitreally injected into the mouse vitreous body, and the expression level of IL-17A in the optic nerve was determined by immunofluorescence. Afterwards, a mouse model of optic nerve injury was established to observe the nerve regeneration. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ELISA results showed that IL-17A was highly expressed in the PC12 cell lines transfected with AV-IL-17A-GFP compared with the control group. Immunofluorescence results revealed that IL-17A was expressed in vivo successfully. There was a significant increase in the number of regenerated axons in the AV-IL-17A-GFP group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). To conclude, AV-IL-17A-GFP can be expressed in the mature neurons in vivo and promote the axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury in mice.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Changes of fibrinogen in a mouse model of radiation-induced brain injury
    Fu Zhen-lin1, Zhang Si-qin2, Xu Yang2, Chai Rong2, Chen Chen2, Ruan Lin3, Wei Li1, 4
    2018, 22 (12):  1889-1894.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0207
    Abstract ( 513 )   PDF (2568KB) ( 188 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary findings have shown that radiation can impair the mouse blood-brain barrier, which is a cause of secondary brain injury. However, there is little information concerning radiation effects on fibrinogen in plasma and fibrinogen deposition in brain tissue.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the mouse model of radiation-induced brain injury, to observe the changes of fibrinogen in plasma and brain tissue, and to further understand the mechanism of radiation-induced brain injury.
    METHODS: Fifty Kunming mice were randomly divided into irradiation and control groups (n=25 per group). Irradiation group rats were irradiated by 60Co γ, 10 Gy, once every other day, and the total dose was 30 Gy. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris Water Maze before and after irradiation, the content of fibrinogen in plasma was detected, then fibrinogen in CA3 region of the hippocampus was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the ultrastructural changes of the blood-brain barrier were investigated under transmission electron microscope .
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the swimming time and distance of the irradiated mice were reduced in the target quadrant (P < 0.05), while fibrinogen was increased in plasma (P < 0.001) and deposited in hippocampal CA3 region. The translucent zone around the basement membrane of blood-brain barrier in the irradiation group was observed under electron microscope. These results suggest that irradiation can increase fibrinogen in plasma and brain, and the fibrinogen deposited in the brain may be the cause of secondary brain injury.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Portal vein arterialization for acute hepatic failure in rats
    Chen Peng, Jiang Yi, Zhang Xiao-jin
    2018, 22 (12):  1895-1901.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0208
    Abstract ( 370 )   PDF (6758KB) ( 191 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Partial portal vein arterialization (PPVA) can slow the progression of liver failure by increasing the blood supply.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of PPVA on the liver function and pathological changes in a rat model of liver failure.
    METHODS: Totally 130 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: PPVA group (n=50) underwent left nephrectomy, the PPVA model was established by sleeve suturing and cuff technology, and then D-galactosamine was intraperitoneally administered at the dose of 1 300 mg/kg to induce acute liver failure; liver failure group (n=50) underwent left nephrectomy, the portal vein was dissociated, ligated for 16 minutes and then mobilized, and D-galactosamine was intraperitoneally administered at the dose of 1 300 mg/kg to induce acute liver failure after abdominal closure; control group (n=30) received left nephrectomy, the portal vein was ligated for 16 minutes and then mobilized, and same volume of normal saline was intraperitoneally administered after abdominal closure. The serological and pathological changes of the liver tissue were observed at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 postoperative hours.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Animal models (n=30 per group) were made successfully, the survival rate was 70% and 53%, respectively, and there was a significant difference between two groups after modeling (P < 0.05). The survival rate in the control group was 100% at 72 postoperative hours. The serum levels of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease, alanineaminotranferase, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and endotoxin in the portal vein in the control group were significantly lower than those in the other two groups at different time points postoperatively (P < 0.05). In the PVA group, the serum levels of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease and alanineaminotranferase at postoperative different time points postoperatively, the serum levels of total bilrubin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and endotoxin level in the portal vein at 24-72 postoperative hours, and albumin at 36-72 postoperative hours were significantly lower than those in the liver failure group (P < 0.05). At 72 postoperative hours, the liver structure was complete in the control group, hepatic lobules were damaged accompanied with abundant inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver failure group and the pathological lesions were improved in the PVA group. To conclude, PVA can improve liver function and slow the progression of liver failure to certain extents.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Hypoxia induces the migration of endothelial progenitor cells
    Zhao Hui, Gao Yu-zhong
    2018, 22 (12):  1902-1908.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0810
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (5875KB) ( 180 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Local endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been reported to promote migration and homing of EPCs by releasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) under hypoxia environment.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different hypoxia periods on the expression of SDF-1 protein in EPCs and the migration of EPCs, thus providing new ideas for the treatment of ischemic diseases.
    METHODS: The bone marrow of the long bone was removed from Sprague-Dawley rats used for isolate EPCs. After culture and identification, EPCs were divided into four groups: control (normoxia), 6-, 12- and 24-hour hypoxia groups. The expression level of SDF-1 in the supernatant of EPCs in each group was detected by ELISA and immunofluorescence. The mRNA and protein levels of SDF-1 were detected by RT-PCR and western blot assay. The effect of hypoxia on the migration of EPCs was tested by Transwell assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The obtained cells were identified as EPCs. ELISA and immunofluorescence results showed that compared with the control group, the expression level of SDF-1 began to increase at 6 hours of hypoxia, peaked at 12 hours of hypoxia, and then decreased at 24 hours of hypoxia. RT-PCR and western blot assay results found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SDF-1 were the highest in the 12-hour hypoxia group, followed by 6- and 24-hour hypoxia groups, and the lowest in the control group (P < 0.01). The number of EPCs penetrating the membrane in the 12-hour hypoxia group was significantly more than that in the 6- and 24-hour hypoxia groups, and the number in the 24-hour hypoxia group was significantly more than that in the control group (P < 0.05). In summary, hypoxia can promote the secretion of SDF-1 and induce the migration of EPCs.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Angiotensin II receptor antagonist EMA401 used for sciatic nerve constriction-induced neuropathic pain in rats: behavior assessment and analgesic mechanisms
    Li Yan1, Feng Chen1, Ning Mei1, Xu Feng2, Song Zhi-hui3, Huang Zhi-bao3, Xiao Han-yan2
    2018, 22 (12):  1909-1914.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0209
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (1201KB) ( 205 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is characterized as high morbidity, long course and poor curative efficacy, and the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. The research on analgesics and analgesic mechanisms is an issue of concern.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists EMA401 on the mechanical withdrawal threshold in a rat model of sciatic nerve constriction-induced neuropathic pain and the underlying mechanisms.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: the rat sciatic nerve was exposed without ligation (sham group), and NaCl solution was given via gastric lavage; the model of sciatic nerve constriction was established in the remaining rats, followed by treatment with 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg EMA401, and NaCl solutions (model group) via gastric lavage, respectively. As a behavioral indicator, mechanical withdrawal threshold was detected at 1 preoperative day, 3, 7 and 14 postoperative days. Subsequently, the spinal dorsal root ganglion was removed, and the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating transcription factor 3 were detected by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the model group, EMA401 significantly improved the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the rats with sciatic nerve constriction (P < 0.05). Moreover, EMA401 significantly upregulated the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating transcription factor 3 in the dorsal root ganglion (P < 0.05); the expression levels in the 5 and 10 mg/kg EMA401 groups were significantly lower than those in the 2 mg/kg EMA401 group at 3, 7 and 14 days postoperatively (P < 0.05). These findings implicate that EMA401 exerts obvious analgesic effect on the rat model of sciatic nerve constriction, which may be via inhibiting astrocyte activation in the spinal dorsal root ganglion, downregulating the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and further inhibiting the dorsal root ganglion neuron activation that appears with an increase in activated transcription factor 3 expression.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Mechanism by which endothelin-1 regulates the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiac conduction cells
    Chen Hao1, Zhang Wu2, Wang Hao1, Zhang Heng-yi1, Xu Zhi-wei1
    2018, 22 (12):  1915-1921.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0812
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (6357KB) ( 208 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1, as a paracrine cytokine derived from endocardium and vascular endothelial cells, can promote the differentiation and maturation of cardiac conduction cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of endothelin-1 on P19 cells differentiating into cardiac conduction cells in vitro.
    METHODS: P19 cells were cultured with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide or 100 nmol/L endothelin-1. Afterwards, the changes of early cardiomyocyte transcription factors MEF2C and GATA4, differentiation markers MHC-α and cTnT, important conduction cell transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Tbx5, and differentiation markers Cx40 and ANP were identified by western blot assay, immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Specific antagonists of endothelin-1 receptors, and blocking PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway on the differentiation of P19 cells induced by endothelin-1 were evaluated by real-time PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Endothelin-1 significantly up-regulated the levels of early cardiac transcription factors, cardiomyocyte structure factors and characteristic conduction system markers. Compared with dimethyl sulfoxide, endothelin-1 was prone to enhance the differentiation of cardiac conduction cells derived from P19 cells. Up-regulation of Nkx2.5 and Cx40 by endothelin-1 was mainly attributed to the ETA signaling pathway. ETB signaling pathway may be also involved in a negative feedback regulation pathway. The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway can play an important role in the differentiation from P19 cells to cardiac conduction cells triggered by endothelin-1.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Toxicity of methylene blue to human nucleus pulposus cells detected by cell counting-kit 8 assay
    He Sheng-hua1, Feng Hua-long2, Sun Zhi-tao1, Lai Ju-yi2, Wang Ye-guang1, Wang Jian1, Huang Fei-qiang2
    2018, 22 (12):  1922-1927.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0801
    Abstract ( 541 )   PDF (4078KB) ( 216 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Methylene blue is used as a developer to identify intervertebral disc degeneration in the transforaminal endoscopic surgery. However, many scholars have indicated that methylene blue can accelerate the degeneration process, whilst foreign researches have reported that it may play therapeutic effect on degenerative intervertebral discs under acidic conditions due to its acidophily. Therefore, whether methylene blue holds toxic effect on the disc remains controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether methylene blue exerts toxic effect on nucleus pulposus cells by cell counting-kit 8 (CCK-8) assay.
    METHODS: The discarded nucleus pulposus from two patients with intervertebral disc herniation were selected. After digestion, nucleus pulposus cells were extracted and cultured until proliferated to 80% of the medium. Then, the cells were digested to make cell suspensions, divided into six groups and inoculated into the 96-well plates: blank control (only the medium, CCK-8 solution), control group (only medium, cells and CCK-8 solution), and the other groups were cultured with 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% methylene blue, respectively. The absorbance values were measured by CCK-8 assay at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after incubation to calculate the cell viability, and the color change was observed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The color in the control group was the deepest, and the color became lighter with the concentration of methylene blue increasing. The cell viability was the highest in the control group, and it was decreased with the concentration of methylene blue increasing. Thus, methylene blue may exert toxic effect on human nucleus pulposus cells.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Cell apoptosis and expression of malondialdehyde in the skeletal muscle in a model rat undergoing long-term and high-intensity exercise
    Ma Xue, Hu Ya-zhe
    2018, 22 (12):  1928-1933.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0834
    Abstract ( 494 )   PDF (1546KB) ( 184 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis in the skeletal muscle leads to a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, but there are ideal no therapies so far.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of different intensities of exercises on the morphology and apoptosis of the skeletal muscle in rats.
    METHODS: Thirty healthy male 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10 per group): control group (no swimming), aerobic exercise and high-intensity exercise groups. The rats in the exercise groups underwent swimming for consecutive 10 weeks. Then, the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated from all rats under anesthesia. The morphology and cell apoptosis were detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL test. At the same time, the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle tissue were tested and the correlation of malondialdehyde with integrated optical density (IOD) was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the muscle fibers were in disorder arrangement with obscure structure in the high-intensity exercise group. Compared with the control group, the content of malondialdehyde was increased in the exercise groups, especially in the aerobic exercise group (P < 0.05). The level of superoxide dismutase in the high-intensity exercise group was significantly lower than that in the aerobic exercise group (P < 0.05). The results of TUNEL test showed that the IOD values in the high-intensity exercise group were significantly higher than those in the aerobic exercise and control groups (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation of malondialdehyde with IOD. These results indicate that the long-term and high-intensity exercise can increase the content of malondialdehyde in the skeletal muscle, resulting in an aggravation of fatigue. Aerobic exercise can obtain the adaptation of the skeletal muscle, but damage the morphology and structure of the skeletal muscle because of excessive exercise load, thus accelarating the cell apoptosis. With the exercise intensity increasing, the balance between malondialdehyde production and clearance is broken, and the IOD value is increased.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Cell block technology in the pathological diagnosis of pleural effusion
    Zhao Ye, Zhang Ji-xin, Liang Li, Li Ting
    2018, 22 (12):  1934-1938.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0210
    Abstract ( 476 )   PDF (1222KB) ( 171 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cytologic smear is a routine detection method for pleural effusion, but the results are far from satisfactory. Therefore, pleural effusion is made into cell block for immunochemistry and gene detection, to improve the detection accuracy, which contributes to the treatment and prognosis of pleural effusion.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of cell block technology in the pathological diagnosis and molecular detection of pleural effusion.
    METHODS: Totally 105 cases of pleural effusion samples were collected at Department of Pathology, Peking University First Hospital between January 2016 and August 2017. Effective components extracted after centrifugation were used to make paraffin blocks for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunocytochemical staining thereafter. Genetic mutations were further detected in the cases of lung cancer diagnosed by cytology. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The positive rate of routine cytological smear was 30.5% (32/105), which was significantly lower than that of the cell block section (44.8%, 47/105). The positive rate of immunocytochemical staining combined with cell block was the highest one with 57.1%, 60/105). Besides, this method could be used to identify tumor types. Gene mutation detection was performed in 19 cases of lung cancer, among which 13 cases were positive. These results indicate that cell block technology combined with immunocytochemical staining is an effective method for the diagnosis of malignancy and tumor origin in pleural effusion, and can be further used for mutation detection.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Neuroelectrophysiological characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: study protocol for a prospective case series and preliminary results
    Wang Dan1, Li Zhong-ming2, Zhao Ming-jie1, Xue Ruo-hong1, Xu Hong1, Zhong Lian-mei1
    2018, 22 (12):  1939-1943.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344. 0211
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (1073KB) ( 202 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease. The incidence of peripheral nervous system damage in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is 10%-30%. Previous studies have shown that there are multiple electrophysiological manifestations in patients with pSS presenting with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is no consensus on its neuroelectrophysiological manifestations. Peripheral neuropathy associated with pSS is easily confused with peripheral neuropathy caused by other etiologies.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the neuroelectrophysiological manifestations of peripheral neuropathy associated with pSS to assist in the diagnosis of the disease.
    METHODS: A total of 100 pSS patients with peripheral neuropathy who receive treatment in the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, in China will be included in this study. Fifty-two patients included in the preliminary experiment presented with peripheral neuropathy associated with pSS. The primary outcome measure is the rate of abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity. The secondary outcome measures include the rate of abnormal terminal motor latency, the rate of abnormal compound muscle action potential amplitude, the rate of sensory nerve conduction velocity, the rate of abnormal sensory nerve action potential amplitude, the rate of abnormal F wave, and the rate of abnormal sympathetic skin response.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results of 52 patients included in the preliminary study showed that the rate of each electrophysiological index was similar between upper and lower extremities; the rate of abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity was significantly higher than the rate of abnormal compound muscle action potential amplitude; the rate of sensory nerve conduction velocity was significantly higher than the rate of abnormal sensory nerve action potential amplitude; the rate of abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity was similar to the rate of abnormal sensory nerve conduction velocity; the rate of abnormal compound muscle action potential amplitude was similar to the rate of abnormal sensory nerve action potential amplitude; the rate of abnormal wave was significantly lower than the rate of abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity; the rate of abnormal sympathetic skin response was similar to the rate of abnormal motor nerve conduction velocity. Results from this study will reveal neuroelectrophysiological abnormality in peripheral neuropathy associated with pSS, which will help diagnose the disease.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Research advances in adiponectin preventing osteoporosis by bone metabolism regulation
    Huang Lei-tao1, Wu Xia2, Lai Qi1, Chen Gui-ping1, Liu Yuan1, Zhang Bin1, Dai Min1
    2018, 22 (12):  1944-1949.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0212
    Abstract ( 414 )   PDF (758KB) ( 221 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is one of the adipocytokines that have been found to be negatively correlated with obesity in recent years. As an endogenous bioactive peptide, adiponectin is shown to be associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and participate in the regulation of bone metabolism.
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the mechanism of adiponectin in bone metabolism, and mainly clarify the correlation of adiponectin with osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
    METHODS: The first author searched PubMed and CNKI databases for the articles addressing the experimental research and research progress of adiponectin in bone metabolism published from 2003 to 2017. The keywords were “adiponectin, osteoporosis, bone metabolism, osteogensis, bone absorption” in English and Chinese, respectively. Adiponectin, its receptors, bone metabolism, adiponectin effects on bone formation and bone resorption were reviewed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adiponectin exerts a comprehensive effect on bone metabolism, mainly through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine, insulin signaling pathways. Besides, it exerts biological effects mostly by regulating OPG/RANKL/RANK system, especially in bone formation and bone resorption. Therefore, adiponectin may prevent osteoporosis by regulating bone metabolism.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Exercise training for bone and lipid metabolisms: exercise intensity and duration are important factors
    Hou Xi-he, Zhang Ling-li, Li Hui, Wu Wei
    2018, 22 (12):  1950-1955.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0830
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 184 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Rational exercise training promotes bone and lipid metabolisms, while over-trained exercise makes negative effect. There are many biomarkers and pathways in the progress of bone and lipid metabolisms, which have been explored in different suitable studies.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the indexes and pathways of bone and lipid metabolisms, especially the common biomarkers and pathways, and to explore the effects of exercise on bone and lipid metabolisms.
    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI databases were retrieved with the keywords of “exercise training, bone metabolism, lipid metabolism, index, pathway” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally, 52 eligible articles were enrolled for result analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Bone metabolic indexes include 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, 2, 4, 6 and 11, insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor-beta, bone morphogenetic protein, interferon, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet fireworks growth factor, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, collagen I telopeptide, pyridinoline, urinary deoxypyridinoline, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoporogeterin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and so on. While lipid metabolic indexes contain triacylglycerol, serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, leptin, adiponectin, apolipoprotein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Exercise intensity and duration are important factors for bone and lipid metabolisms. While a long-term high-intensity exercise will do harm to bone and lipid metabolisms, and a short-time high-intensity exercise is beneficial for bone metabolism. The interaction of exercise intensity and duration on bone and lipid metabolisms still needs to be further studied.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Research progress and literature review of animal models of osteoporosis
    Li Yan-hong1, 2, Dang Xiao-qian2, Gong Fu-tai1, Ban Wen-rui2, Ma Jun2, Shi Yao-wu1, Zhang Hong-lei1
    2018, 22 (12):  1956-1961.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0213
    Abstract ( 390 )   PDF (1194KB) ( 133 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis, known as “a quiet epidemic disease”, is an “invisible killer” that impairs the health of the elderly. Fracture as the most dangerous complication of osteoporosis is not only a medical problem, but also a serious social problem.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the selection, establishment methods, characters and evaluation of the animal model of osteoporosis.
    METHODS: A computed-based search of CBM, WanFang, VIP, CNKI and PubMed databases was conducted for the relevant articles published from January 1986 to December 2016 using the keywords of “osteoporosis, animal models” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally 39 articles were included for result analysis after reading the title and abstract.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Animal experiments play an important role in the studies of osteoporosis, so a desirable animal model should hold similarity, reliability, repeatability, applicability, controllability, efficacy and economy. Osteoporosis is a progressive and long-lasting disease that has different characteristics at different stages. But an animal model only simulates one etiology, one stage, major symptoms and pathophysiological changes, and cannot exhibit the whole pathological changes. The current study suggests that animal species and modeling methods can affect the characters of models, and there is a lack of standards for animal age, feeding methods, modeling time and assessment.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Acupuncture treatment for urinary retention following spinal cord injury: a Meta-analysis
    Cheng Jie1, Guo Jia-bao2, Chen Bing-lin3, Zhu Yi4
    2018, 22 (12):  1962-1968.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0214
    Abstract ( 260 )   PDF (1316KB) ( 185 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a common treatment for urinary retention after spinal cord injury. It has been widely used in the clinical treatment of urinary retention after spinal cord injury due to its small side effects and simple operation. However, there is a lack of evidence-based medicine.
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of acupuncture for urinary retention in patients with spinal cord injury by a systematic review and Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
    METHODS: A computer-based online retrieval of CBM, CNKI, WanFang, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases was performed. The keywords were “spinal cord injury, neurogenic bladder, acupuncture” in English and Chinese, respectively. RCTs concerning acupuncture or acupuncture combined with conventional therapy were identified and a Meta-analysis was conducted on RevMan 5.3 software.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Nine RCTs involving 632 participants were included. In terms of urodynamic changes, compared with the control group, acupuncture was more effective in improving the residual urine volume [mean difference (MD)=-144.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-252.15, -36.37), P=0.009] and maximum cystometric capacity [MD=35.69, 95%CI (3.15, 68.22), P=0.03]. However, there were no significant differences between two groups for average daily number of urination [MD=-1.66, 95%CI (-3.40, 0.07), P=0.06]. Concerning total effective rate, acupuncture was more effective than control group [RR=1.24, 95%CI (1.11, 1.37), P < 0.0001]. To conclude, compared with the conventional therapy, acupuncture is more effective in improving residual urine volume, maximum cystometric capacity and total effective rate for urinary retention in patients with spinal cord injury.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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