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    18 June 2021, Volume 25 Issue 17 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Differential proteomics study of patients with sternal ossification of the ligamentum flavum
    Hu Wandong, He Jialin, Zhang Longsheng, Liao Wenbo
    2021, 25 (17):  2625-2629.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3202
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (948KB) ( 28 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The research on the pathogenesis and mechanism of thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum mainly focuses on the research of functional genome; however, less is reported on it from proteomics.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential proteins between ossified ligamentum flavum and normal ligamentum flavum in patients with thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum, and to search for disease-related target proteins.
    METHODS: Ossified ligamentum flavum and adjacent normal ligamentum flavum samples were collected from three patients with thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum, and detected through protein extraction, quantification, isotope labeling for relative and absolute quantitative technique-labeled peptides. Differentially expressed proteins were identified and screened by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Totally 589 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified, including 532 up-regulated proteins and 57 down-regulated proteins. Further analysis identified 23 kinds of proteins related to inflammation, among which, the expression of CYBB, PODXL, S100A12, LXN, S100A10, GJA1, LIPA, FOLR2, CYBA, IFI16, ABCF1, HMGB1, RPS19, PRDX5, MAP2K3 was up-regulated, and the expression of KRT14, IL17D, IL1RAP, SLC7A2, RHOB, COMP, KRT6B was down-regulated. These inflammation-related proteins may be important diagnostic and therapeutic targets  involved in the occurrence and development of thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum.
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    An 8-week aerobic exercise promotes the function of voltage-dependent potassium channel in mesenteric vascular smooth muscle from obese rats
    Li Zihan, Yin Wen, Sun Wei, Zhu Kun, Shen Di, Liu Yujia
    2021, 25 (17):  2630-2635.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3190
    Abstract ( 255 )   PDF (1214KB) ( 24 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells play an important role in regulating vasodilation. Aerobic exercise that acts as a non-pharmacological way for weight loss can regulate vascular smooth muscle K+ channels. Whether aerobic exercise can improve the function and expression of obesity-induced vascular smooth muscle K+ channels has not been elucidated.   
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise on the K+ channel of mesenteric vascular smooth muscle in obese rats. 
    METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old, male) were used in this study, 20 of which were fed with normal feed, and the other 40 were fed with high fat diet to induce obesity. Twenty obese rats were then obtained. Obese rats were randomized into an obese control group and an obese exercise group; normal rats were randomized into a normal control group and a normal exercise group, with 10 rats in each group. After all rats were adaptively trained for 1 week on the running platform, and those in the normal exercise and obese exercise group were then trained for another 8 weeks. The training plan was: 0°, 20 m/min, 60 min/d, 5 days a week. All rats were anesthetized and sacrificed 48 hours after the last exercise, and venous blood samples were extracted to measure blood sugar and blood lipid levels. Mesenteric artery was taken, a part of which was made into a vascular ring of about 4 mm that was connected to a tension transducer to test the vascular tension and reactivity of the vessel to the voltage-dependent potassium channel (Kv) specific blocker 4-aminopyridine and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) specific blocker charybdotoxin, and the other part of which was used to test the levels of Kv1.2, Kv1.5, BKCa α subunit and BKCa β1 subunit by western blot. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:  (1) Body mass, heart weight, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol in the obese exercise group were significantly lower than those in the obese control group (P < 0.01). (2) There was no significant difference in the reactivity of rat mesenteric arteries to KCl (P > 0.05). (3) The tension of the normal exercise group after 4-aminopyridine stimulation was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05); the tension of the obese exercise group after 4-aminopyridine stimulation was significantly higher than that of the obese control group (P < 0.05). (4) The reactivity of the normal exercise group to charybdotoxin was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the obese control group and normal control group (P > 0.05). (5) The protein expression of Kv1.2 in the obese control group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (P < 0.05), while the protein expression in the obese exercise group was significantly higher than that in the obese control group (P < 0.05). The protein expression of BKCa β1 in the normal exercise group was significantly higher than that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the protein expressions of Kv1.5 and BKCa α among groups (P > 0.05). To conclude, obesity can decrease the function of Kv in mesenteric arteries, based on the mechanism underlying the reduction in the protein expression of Kv1.2, whereas the 8-week aerobic exercise reverses the reduction in Kv1.2 caused by obesity and promotes the function of Kv in mesenteric arteries. 
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    Effect of internal heat-type acupuncture needle therapy on the expression of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and osteopontin in the subchondral bone of rabbit knee osteoarthritis model
    Zhu Shiqiang, Xu Jianfeng, Hei Xiaoyan, Chen Yundong, Tian Xinbao, Zhang Jinchen, Lin Ruizhu
    2021, 25 (17):  2636-2642.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3159
    Abstract ( 240 )   PDF (1023KB) ( 37 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Internal heat-type acupuncture needle therapy is an updated physical therapy method based on warm-needle moxibustion therapy with a dual effect of acupuncture and thermal therapy. It has significant clinical effect in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, but there is no full understanding of its specific mechanism.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of internal heat-type acupuncture needle on the expression of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinases-3, and osteopontin in the subchondral bone of a rabbit knee osteoarthritis model as well as the possible mechanism of action. 
    METHODS: A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits (specific-pathogen-free level) were divided into a blank group, a model group and a treatment group by a random digital table, with 10 rabbits in each group. A model of knee osteoarthritis was made in the left hind leg of the rabbit by Hulth’s method. The treatment group was given internal heat-type acupuncture needle on the left hind limb knee joint, once a week, for 20 minutes once. The blank group and the model group received no intervention. Knee joint sampling was performed after behavioral evaluation using the modified Lequesne MG scale after 4 weeks of intervention. Toluidine blue staining was used to observe the morphological changes of subchondral bone tissue of rabbits in each group. Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect the expressions of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinases-3, and osteopontin protein and mRNA in the subchondral bone of the rabbits. The animal experiment protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Review Committee of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University (approval No. 2018064).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the blank group, behavioral scores were significantly increased in the model group and treatment group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, behavioral scores were significantly decreased in the treatment group (P < 0.05), and the difference between the two groups was significantly enlarged after intervention (P < 0.05). Compared with the blank group, the percentage of subchondral bone trabecular area, trabecular thickness and trabecular number were significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.05), while trabecular spacing was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the blank group, the protein and mRNA expression levels of type I collagen were significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.001), while the protein and mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases-3 and osteopontin were significantly increased (P < 0.001). Compared with the model group, the percentage of trabecular area and trabecular number were significantly increased in the treatment group (P < 0.05), while trabecular spacing was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the protein and mRNA expression levels of type I collagen were significantly increased in the treatment group (P < 0.05), while the protein and mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases-3 and osteopontin were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change of type I collagen level was positively correlated with the percentage of trabecular area and the trabecular number, but negatively correlated with trabecular spacing. The changes of osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinases-3 and their ratio were negatively correlated with the percentage of trabecular area and trabecular number, and positively correlated with trabecular spacing. To conclude, internal heat-type acupuncture needle may restore subchondral bone microstructure through up-regulating type I collagen expression and down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases-3 and osteopontin expression.
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    Icariin prevents osteoporosis by activating autophagy and promoting osteoblast differentiation
    Jiang Tao, Ling Cuimin, Chen Qingzhen, Yang Bingxuan, Lin Yanping, Shao Min
    2021, 25 (17):  2643-2649.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3518
    Abstract ( 258 )   PDF (1688KB) ( 37 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Icariin is an effective active component of traditional Chinese medicine which is used to prevent osteoporosis, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Existing studies have indicated that autophagy can participate in regulating bone metabolism; however, whether icariin can prevent osteoporosis by changing autophagy is unknown.  
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether icariin can prevent osteoporosis by regulating autophagy and promoting osteoblast differentiation.
    METHODS:  Mouse preosteoblast cell lines MC3T3-E1 in logarithmic phase were selected and treated by different concentrations of icariin (10-6 to 
    10-3 mmol/L). Cell viability, apoptosis rate, alkaline phosphatase activity, the number of mineralized nodules and the expression level of osteogenic differentiation markers were observed in order to determine the optimal concentration of icariin. Then cells were treated by the optimal concentration of icariin and divided into three groups: control group, icariin group, icariin+3-methyladenine group. The number of autophagosomes, the expression level of osteogenic differentiation markers and autophagy related genes, the expression level of autophagy related proteins were evaluated by MDC staining, RT-qPCR and western blot assay, respectively. In an in vivo test, an ovariectomized rat model was established and all the rats were divided into four groups: sham group, ovariectomized group, icariin group, estradiol group. Micro-CT was used to detect the bone micro parameters, and western blot was used to detect the expression level of autophagy related proteins.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:  Icariin could promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, and at the same time inhibit apoptosis of the cells. The maximum stimulatory effect of icariin was observed at the concentration of 10-5 mmol/L (P < 0.05). In addition, icariin could increase the number of autophagosomes and upregulate the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers and autophagy-related genes or proteins (P < 0.05), which were antagonized by 3-methyladenine (P < 0.05). Icariin could also improve the parameters of bone microstructure in ovariectomized rats and upregulate the expression of autophagy-related proteins (P < 0.05). All these findings indicate that icariin can prevent osteoporosis by activating autophagy and promoting osteoblast differentiation.
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    An 8-week aerobic exercise improves obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis: role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 pathway
    Zhang Lei, Yan Yu, Liu Yin, Xu Long, Yang Xinglei, Liu Yujia
    2021, 25 (17):  2650-2656.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3136
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (887KB) ( 36 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for myocardial fibrosis. Obesity-induced oxidative stress may be a potential cause of myocardial fibrosis. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important nuclear transcription factor that regulates the redox state in the body. Its expression and function can be improved by aerobic exercise training, and it is unclear whether aerobic exercise can improve obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis through Nrf2 pathway.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise training on the regulation of myocardial fibrosis in obese rats
    METHODS: Sixty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, of which 20 were fed with normal feed, and the remaining 40 were fed with high fat diet to induce obesity. Twenty obese rats were finally selected. Obese and normal rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a normal exercise group, an obese control group, and an obese exercise, with 10 in each group. All rats were trained for 8 weeks on the treadmill platform, and the training plan was: 0°, 20 m/min, 60 min/d, 5 d/wk. All rats were anesthetized and sacrificed at 48 hours after the last exercise, and rat myocardium was taken. Sirius red staining was used to detect myocardial collagen levels. ELISA was used to detect myocardial malondialdehyde level. Western blot was used to determine the expression of type I, III collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP2), Nrf2 and antioxidant-related quinone oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase 1 and superoxide dismutase in the myocardium.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Obesity could induce myocardial fibrosis in rats, and the 8-week aerobic exercise training activated the Nrf2 level in the myocardium of obese rats, promote the expression of antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase 1 and superoxide dismutase, downregulate the ratio of MMP2/TIMP2, reduce the content of myocardial type I collagen, reduce the myocardial collagen score, and thus improve obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis. However, the 8-week aerobic exercise training increased the protein expression of Nrf2 and quinone oxidoreductase of normal rats, while it did not affect the myocardial collagen content, myocardial collagen and MMP2/TIMP2 ratio.
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    Bibliometric and visual analysis of literature on cartilage repair in the Web of Science in recent 15 years
    Wen Shuaibo, Han Jie, Wu Yukun
    2021, 25 (17):  2657-2663.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3191
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (2000KB) ( 43 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Cartilage repair has always been a great challenge for orthopedics doctors all over the world, and it has always been a research hot-spot. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the development status, research hotspots and dynamic frontiers in cartilage repair in the past 15 years based on the bibliometric, co-occurrence, co-citation and visual analysis of relevant literature. 
    METHODS: Based on the core collection of related documents in the Web of Science (WOS) database from January 1, 2006 to April 6, 2020, CiteSpace software was used for a literature visual analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 1 632 papers were included. The results of co-occurrence analysis, burst analysis and cluster analysis show that cartilage repair belongs to the field of regenerative medicine, and the types of stem cells mainly involved in cell transplantation include human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, artificial multi-functional stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells. It can be seen that stem cells are the research focus in the past, present or future. Treatments for cartilage repair include autograft chondrocyte transplantation, mosaic plasty, tissue-engineered cartilage implantation, intraarticular administration, combined gene transfer, which are widely used at present. Factors influencing gene expression include overexpressed human fibroblast growth factor, expanded chondrocytes, sulfur oxide 9, recombinant adeno-associated virus, γ- glutamic acid, cetylpyridinium chloride, mechanical properties, and telomerase activity. These biocompatible materials and factors of culture medium can guide gene carriers in cartilage repair, which is a hot topic in the future. Tissue engineering technology such as polycaprolactone membrane, polyglycolic acid keratin hydrogel and other tissue engineering materials used for mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is the current research trend. The above results show that through the application of CiteSpace software for bibliometric and visual analysis, we can intuitively see the development of cartilage repair in the past 15 years, mainly revealing that stem cell therapy for cartilage defects, different biocompatible materials and different gene transfer technologies for cartilage repair are the current research hots and the developmental trends of cartilage repair, providing different ideas and research directions of animal experiments and clinical trials for domestic scientific research and clinical workers.
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    Effect of transforming growth factor-beta3 on the proliferation and osteogenic capability of osteoblasts
    Ailimaierdan·Ainiwaer, Wang Ling, Gu Li, Dilidaer•Taxifulati, Wang Shan, Yin Hongbin
    2021, 25 (17):  2664-2669.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3156
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1589KB) ( 26 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Less is reported on the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) on the proliferation and osteogenic capability of osteoblasts till now.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of TGF-β3 in different doses on the proliferation and osteogenic capability of osteoblasts. 
    METHODS: We isolated osteoblasts from the calvarium of neonatal New Zealand white rabbit according to our previous method, purified and identified the cells using differential attachment method. The osteoblasts were divided into a control group and an experimental group. The osteoblasts in the control group were cultured with conventional culture medium, and those in the experimental group were cultured in the medium containing separately 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L TGF-β3. The morphology and growth of osteoblasts were observed daily. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay and the growth curve was drawn at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 days of culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 days of culture. The expression levels of collagen 1A1, Runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) and osteocalcin genes were measured by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14 days of culture. Alizarin red S staining was carried out to testify mineralized matrix productivity of each group at 21 days of culture. The study was approved by the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The osteoblasts were isolated, purified and identified successfully. MTT assay results showed that the cell proliferation activity of 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase activity of 10 and 100 μg/L TGF-β3 groups was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). RT-qPCR results revealed that the mRNA expressions of collagen 1A1, Runx-2 and osteocalcin in the 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group were always higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of collagen 1A1, Runx-2 and osteocalcin in the 100 μg/L TGF-β3 group were higher than those in the control group at 7 days of culture (P < 0.05). Alizarin red S staining showed that the mineralized nodules of the 10 and 100 μg/L TGF-β3 groups, especially in the 10 μg/L TGF-β3 group (P < 0.05), were bigger and more than those in the control group. To conclude, 10-100 μg/L TGF-β3 can improve the proliferation and osteogenic capability of osteoblasts and these effects are more obvious when the concentration of TGF-β3 is 10 μg/L.  
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    Effect of Tongluo Analgesic Gel on cartilage inflammation and degeneration in a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis
    Chen Pu, Ruan Anmin, Zhou Jun, Zhang Xiaozhe, Ma Yufeng, Zong Chenzhong, Wang Qingpu
    2021, 25 (17):  2670-2675.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3192
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (1006KB) ( 23 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Cartilage injury is one of the important pathological manifestations of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Tongluo Analgesic Gel is prepared on the basis of Tongluo Analgesic Formula, using carbomer, gelatin and other compounds with good biocompatibility as carriers, which can be directly applied to the affected area, and is more convenient for patients to carry and use.   
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Tongluo Analgesic Gel on cartilage inflammation and degeneration in rabbits with different degrees of KOA, and to preliminarily explore the mechanism of Tongluo Analgesic Gel in treating KOA. 
    METHODS: Fifty-six male rabbits were randomly divided into eight groups, namely: control group; sham operation group; mild KOA group; moderate KOA group; severe KOA group; Tongluo Analgesic Gel intervention for mild, moderate, and severe KOA groups. Except for the control group and the sham operation group, KOA models were established in the other groups using the modified Hulth method. Rabbits in the mild, moderate and severe KOA groups were sacrificed at 4, 8 and 16 weeks after modeling, respectively. In the three intervention groups, 3-week intervention with Tongluo Analgesic Gel were given, 1 mL once, 3 times a week beginning at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after modeling, respectively. The changes of knee joint diameter before and after modeling in each group were observed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of cartilage tissues in each group. RT-qPCR and western blot methods were used to detect the changes of expression levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and disintegrin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5) in cartilage tissue. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The diameter of the right knee joint of rabbit models established using the modified Hulth method was significantly increased compared with the control group and sham operation group, and it changed with time (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). After treatment with Tongluo Analgesic Gel, the diameter of the right knee joint was significantly decreased, especially in the mild and moderate KOA models (P < 0.01). The hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that the morphological changes of cartilage tissues in the sham operation group were not significantly different from those in the blank group. The cartilage surface of the mild, moderate, and severe KOA groups was uneven, with disordered layers and delamination, whereas the cartilage surface became slightly smooth and flat after intervention with Tongluo Analgesic Gel. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 in the mild, moderate and severe KOA groups were significantly increased, while Tongluo Analgesic Gel could significantly inhibit these expression levels in the KOA models (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), especially in the mild and moderate KOA groups (P < 0.01). To conclude, Tongluo Analgesic Gel can significantly inhibit cartilage inflammation and delay cartilage degeneration in rabbits with different degrees of KOA, especially in mild and moderate KOA rabbits. 
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    Effects of Mailuoning Injection on mitochondrial autophagy and PINK1/Parkin pathway in a pig model of crush injury syndrome
    Chen Tiangui, Gao Lei, Li Tianbo, Wang Jiangning
    2021, 25 (17):  2676-2680.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3157
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (845KB) ( 26 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Crush injury syndrome often causes substantial organ damage, and the disease progresses rapidly with a high mortality. To explore its pathological mechanism can relieve ischemia-reperfusion injury, and thereby improve the pathological symptoms of crush injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Mailuoning Injection on mitochondrial autophagy and PINK1/Parkin pathway in the crush injury syndrome model pigs. 
    METHODS: Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into four groups: control group, model group, perfusion group, and Mailuoning group. A crush injury model was prepared in all groups except for the control group. The perfusion group was subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass with 50 mL of saline at a speed of 50 mL/h first and then restoring autologous blood supply. The Mailuoning group was subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass with 50 mL of Mailuoning injection at a speed of 50 mL/h. The model group was not treated. Six hours after the recovery of autogenous blood supply, the biochemical indexes, including creatinine, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and potassium ion, were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer. The levels of serum interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α were detected by ELISA. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of tibialis anterior muscle tissues; the changes of mitochondria and autophagosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Western blot was used to detect the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I and II, PINK1 and Parkin proteins. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, in the model group and perfusion group, the myofilaments of tibialis anterior muscle tissues were disordered and inflammatory cells infiltrated, the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, potassium ion, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α in serum were significantly higher (P < 0.001), the number of autophagosomes and the expressions of LC3-II/LC3-I, PINK1 and Parkin proteins in tibialis anterior muscle tissues were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group and the perfusion group, the above pathological symptoms of tibialis anterior muscle tissues were significantly reduced in the Mailuoning group, the levels of serum biochemical indexes and inflammatory indexes were significantly lower (P < 0.001), and the number of autophagosomes and the expressions of LC3-II/LC3-I, PINK1 and Parkin proteins in tibialis anterior muscle tissues were significantly higher (P < 0.05). To conclude, Mailuoning Injection may activate mitochondrial autophagy through PINK1/Parkin pathway and improve the pathological symptoms of crush injury.
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    Regulating serum inflammatory factors and synovial cell function of gouty arthritis model rats by alcohol extract of Gardneria angustifolia 
    Dang Rongmin, Li Ningyi, Xie Hongshu, Jiang Cuirong, Luo Kanghua, Yao Wenqin
    2021, 25 (17):  2681-2686.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3193
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (865KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have found that drugs that block the secretion of inflammatory transmitters in the synovium have good application prospects in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. In recent years, great achievements have been made in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis with traditional Chinese medicine.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of alcohol extract of Gardneria angustifolia on serum inflammatory factors and synovial cell function in patients with acute gouty arthritis.
    METHODS: Sixty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: blank control group, model control group, colchicine treatment group, Gardneria angustifolia alcohol extract high, medium and low dose treatment groups, withy 10 rats in each group. In addition to the blank control group, the other groups were injected with sodium urate solution into the articular cavity to prepare acute gouty arthritis models, and then treated with colchicine, high, medium and low doses of Gardneria angustifolia alcohol extract. The swelling degree of the joint was observed at 1-7 days after modeling. At 7 days after modeling, the levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17 in the serum and synovium were detected by ELISA; the pathological changes of the synovium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the expression of nuclear factor- κB, ERK1/2 and JNK protein in the synovium was detected by western blot.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the model control group, the joint swelling, the level of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in the serum and synovium were increased, the synovium had obvious inflammatory cell infiltration and synovium cell proliferation, the expression of nuclear factor-κB, ERK1/2 and p-JNK protein was significantly increased. After the treatment with colchicine and Gardneria angustifolia alcohol extracts, the above indexes were significantly improved, and there was no significant difference in the high dose Gardneria angustifolia alcohol extract group and colchicine group. Moreover, Gardneria angustifolia alcohol extracts showed a dose-dependent effect. The alcohol extract of Gardneria angustifolia can significantly improve the symptoms of acute gouty arthritis in rats, down-regulate the expression of inflammatory factors, and improve the function of synovial cells, which may be related to the down-regulation of nuclear factor-κB, ERK1/2 and p-JNK protein expression.
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    An exploration on mechanism of Shengyu Decoction in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head based on network pharmacology
    Zhou Yi, Chen Yueping, Zhang Xiaoyun, Lai Yu, Liao Jianzhao, Li Shibin
    2021, 25 (17):  2687-2696.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3138
    Abstract ( 251 )   PDF (3056KB) ( 46 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Shengyu Decoction can be used to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), but its mechanism is unknown.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of Shengyu Decoction in treating ONFH based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology.
    METHODS: The active components and corresponding targets of Shengyu Decoction was screened by TCMSP database. The related targets of ONFH were obtained by the query results of GEO chip, OMIM and Gene Cards databases. The potential targets of Shengyu Decoction in the treatment of ONFH were obtained by mapping intersection by Venny platform. The network of “single drug-active target-potential target” and protein-protein interaction network of Shengyu Decoction in the treatment of ONFH were constructed by Cytoscape software. The action targets of Shengyu Decoction were analyzed by David database through the gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Autodock vina software was used to carry out molecular docking between key effective components and important targets, followed by the assessment of their binding activity.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 66 active ingredients and 196 targets of  Shengyu Decoction and 6 045 related targets of ONFH were screened out, and 73 intersected targets of Shengyu Decoction in the treatment of ONFH were obtained. The “single drug-active ingredient-target” network indicated that the main active ingredients were kaempferol, quercetin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, isorhamnetin, etc.  Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that the main core targets were interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor A, matrix metalloproteinase-9, etc. The GO functional enrichment analysis yielded 804 entries (P < 0.01), mainly involving oxidative stress response, angiogenesis regulation, cell cycle regulation, immune response, inflammatory factors, etc. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis obtained 120 pathways, mainly involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling pathway, interleukin-17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and other pathways related to inflammatory response, angiogenesis and immune regulation. Molecular docking results showed that the binding energies of the five core target proteins and the five main active components were far less than the reference values, indicating that the main active components are stably bound to the core target receptor proteins. To conclude, Shengyu Decoction can participate in the regulation of immune-inflammatory responses, bone metabolism, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress through the active components such as kaempferol, quercetin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and isorhamnetin, thereby playing a role in the treatment of ONFH.
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    Anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling effects of Tougu Xiaotong Capsule in rat models of early osteoarthritis with synovial edema
    Huang Yunmei, Feng Fangfang, Chen Wenlie, Lu Xiaodong, Lin Ruhui, Li Zuanfang, Huang Meiya, Tan Chunjiang, Li Xihai, Li Xiaodong
    2021, 25 (17):  2697-2702.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3166
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (1124KB) ( 22 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Tougu Xiaotong Capsules can reduce the expression of chondrocyte inflammatory factors, reduce chondrocyte apoptosis, promote chondrocyte proliferation, and delay cartilage and subchondral bone degeneration, thereby alleviating the process of osteoarthritis and reducing inflammation responses. However, the mechanism of this prescription on synovial lesions is unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To further explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and anti-swelling effect of Tougu Xiaotong Capsule on early osteoarthritis with synovial edema based on the regulation of aquaporins. 
    METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: blank group, model group and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group. Osteoarthritis animal models were made by papain injection. After 1 week, animals were gavaged respectively with Tougu Xiaotong Capsule in the TCM group or saline in the blank and model groups for 4 weeks. The morphology and structure of the knee joints were observed by MRI. Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α in serum and joint fluid were detected by radioimmunoassay. Synovial tissue microstructure was observed through paraffin section, and the ultrastructure of synovial cells observed by transmission electron microscope. Aquaporins 1 and 3 were quantified and located by immunohistochemical staining/fluorescence staining. The study protocol was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval No. [2019]024).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the model group, synovial lesion was alleviated and synovial secretion was decreased in the TCM group; the contents of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α in the serum and joint fluid were decreased significantly in the TCM group; synovial cell hyperplasia was alleviated, tissue fibrosis and vascular hyperplasia was significantly reduced in the TCM group; the number of rough endoplasmic reticula, Golgi apparatus, vesicles and lysosomes was decreased in synovial cells in the TCM group; and the expressions of aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 3 were significantly down-regulated, and they were scattered in the cell membrane and cytoplasm, without aggregation. To conclude, by decreasing aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 3 expression in synovial tissue, Tougu Xiaotong Capsule can reduce synovial secretion and alleviate joint edema, which may be one of the anti-inflammation and anti-swelling mechanisms of the prescription.
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    Molecular targets and mechanism of Bushen Huoxue Decoction in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head: an analysis based on network pharmacology and protein module
    Liu Yuan, Liu Jinbao, Xu Bo, Zhang Jingzhou, Li Gang
    2021, 25 (17):  2703-2710.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3914
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (3015KB) ( 39 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that Bushen Huoxue Decoction has a very active role in treating osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), but the chemical ingredients contained in the compound are more complicated. The action mechanism and pharmacological mechanism of the compound underlying the treatment of ONFH at the molecular level are not yet clear. Therefore, network pharmacology and protein module analyses are used to explain the potential active ingredients and molecular mechanism of Bushen Huoxue Decoction, and provide a certain theoretical basis for the later development of new drugs and better clinical application in the treatment of ONFH.   
    OBJECTIVE: Through network pharmacology and protein module analysis to explore the molecular targets and mechanisms of Bushen Huoxue Decoction in the treatment of ONFH. 
    METHODS: The compounds and their targets in Carthamus tinctorius, Angelica sinensis, Cistanche deserticola, Cornus officinalis, Chinese wolfberry, dodder, Radix Rehmanniae, Eucommia ulmoides, myrrh, Fructus psoraleae and Fructus psoraleae in Bushen Huoxue Decoction were searched by TCMSP and TCMID databases, and the related targets of ONFH were predicted by GeneCards and CTD databases. The drug-meridian-compound-target network was constructed by Cytoscape3.7.2, the protein-protein interaction network was constructed and analyzed by STRING database, and the key protein modules were analyzed by Metascape database. Gene ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were carried out by using DAVID database. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 167 active components and 151 action targets of Bushen Huoxue Decoction were screened, with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor A, tumor necrosis factor and epidermal growth factor receptor as key targets. There were 8 817 related targets of ONFH, 128 proteins in the protein-protein interaction core network, and 5 protein modules. A total of 289 GO biological processes were obtained, and 110 related signal pathways were obtained by enrichment and screening of KEGG pathway, including estrogen, phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase, cyclic adenosine phosphate, Wnt signaling, tumor necrosis factor and mitogen-activated protein kinase. These pathways were associated with the occurrence and development of ONFH. The results show that Bushen Huoxue Decoction may treat ONFH by regulating cell metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis, lipid metabolism and promoting angiogenesis, which is the result of the interaction of multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways. 
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    Bibliometric and visualized analysis of research on osteonecrosis of the femoral head from the Web of Science in the last 5 years
    Huang Na, Liu Jiayue, Huang Yingjie, Wen Junmao, Wang Haibin, Zhang Qingwen, Zhou Chi
    2021, 25 (17):  2711-2718.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3195
    Abstract ( 236 )   PDF (2888KB) ( 38 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that femoral head necrosis is a refractory disease in orthopedics. To explore the research status and research focus in the field of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is beneficial to grasp the research direction, promote the development of the field of femoral head necrosis, and make it better serve the clinical practice.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the development of research hotspots on osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the past 5 years and predict the future research focus in this field, and to provide reference for relevant researchers.
    METHODS: Base on the Science Citation Index Extended database of the Web of Science database, we search for literature on osteonecrosis of the femoral head from 2016 to 2020 with the theme of "osteonecrosis of the femoral head,” and the VOSviewer software was applied for visualization analysis, including keyword co-occurrence analysis, co-author analysis, institutional co-authoring analysis, country co-authoring analysis, and co-citation analysis. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Based on keyword co-occurrence analysis, current research on osteonecrosis of the femoral head is divided into four main categories: risk factors, diagnose and treatment, orthormorphia, cell biology, genetics heredity of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Steriod-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and osteogenic differentiation are recent research hotspots in the field of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the pathogenesis and treatment methods of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head have not yet been clarified, and the mechanism of action and therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells are still unclear. Therefore, it is speculated that further excavation of the mechanism of femoral head necrosis and improvement of its treatment are important research contents in the future. To conclude, the mechanism of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head and the therapy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for osteonecrosis of the femoral head will be studied deeply around the process of osteogenic differentiation.
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    Meta-analysis of acupuncture combined with massage in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis
    Yin Yuhui, Zhan Jiawen, Wang Shangquan, Shao Chenchen, Zhou Liang
    2021, 25 (17):  2719-2726.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3139
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (956KB) ( 35 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Numerous clinical studies have shown that acupuncture combined with massage in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis has a good effect, but there is still a lack of evidence. This review aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with massage in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis by meta-analysis.
    METHODS: Systematic retrieval of CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted for articles related to acupuncture combined with massage for treating knee osteoarthritis from inception until May 2020. Two researchers independently searched, screened, extracted data, and included literatures that met the standards. Improved Jadad scale scoring standard was used for literature quality assessment, Cochrane systematic review was adopted, and finally meta-analysis of data was conducted using RevMan5.3 software.
    RESULTS: In the end, 24 literatures involving a total of 2 196 cases were included, including 7 high-quality literatures and 17 low-quality literatures. There were 1 103 cases in the treatment group and 1 093 cases in the control group. Meta-analysis results showed that the overall effective rate [odds ratio (OR)=3.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89 to 5.19, P < 0.000 01), Visual Analogue Scale score (mean difference (MD)=-1.69, 95% CI: -2.11 to -1.27, P < 0.000 01), The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities score (MD=-13.89, 95% CI: -18.78 to -9.00, P < 0.000 01) and Lysholm score (MD=11.66, 95% CI: 7.42-15.89, P < 0.000 01) were significantly better in the treatment group than the control group.
    CONCLUSION: Compared with the treatment of knee osteoarthritis by acupuncture alone, massage alone and western medicine alone, acupuncture combined with massage has a significant effect in reducing knee pain, improving knee function and improving patients’ quality of life. Comprehensive consideration can be given to the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis clinically. However, due to the small proportion of high-quality literature included and the possible bias, more and higher-quality literatures are needed to be verified.
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    Common mechanism of Chinese herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: an analysis based on network pharmacology
    Xin Pengfei, Ke Mengnan, Zhang Haitao, Urishana, Li Ziqi, Zhuang Zhikun, Wei Qiushi, He Wei
    2021, 25 (17):  2727-2733.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3167
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (1123KB) ( 64 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Chinese herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis are the most commonly used Chinese medicines for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), while Chuanxiong, Achyranthes bidentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, rhizoma drynariae, and safflower are the most commonly used herbs for treating ONFH.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the common mechanism of five Chinese herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of ONFH
    METHODS: The main active ingredients of five herbs were obtained by searching the database of TCM system pharmacology analysis platform (TCMSP), and the gene targets of five herbs were speculated. Then the potential gene targets of all five traditional Chinese herbs could be obtained by taking the intersection function through the Excel table. Relevant targets of ONFH disease were obtained through GeneCards and OMIM databases. Chinese herbs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis-therapeutic ingredients-targets-ONFH network was constructed, followed by gene ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 132 active ingredients of five herbs were screened out through the TCMSP database search, with 2 593 potential target genes correspondingly. There were 31 common potential targets of these five herbs. A search of OMIM and GeneCards databases yielded 705 ONFH disease-related targets, and 8 intersected genes (PPARG, NOS3, F2, NCOA2, NOS2, GSK3B, ESR1, NR3C1) were obtained. GO biological analysis showed that the main biological process of five Chinese herbs in ONFH was related to negative regulation of platelet activation, nitric oxide biosynthesis, and positive regulation of vasodilation. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that the main pathway of five Chinese herbs in ONFH was related to Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling pathway, prolactin signaling pathway, and estrogen signaling pathway. The possible main mechanisms of five Chinese herbs in the treatment of ONFH may be: the effective ingredients in herbs such as quercetin, berberine, coptisine, miltirone, by acting on ESR1, NOS3, NOS2, PPARG and other targets, participate in the regulation of thyroid hormone signaling pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling pathway, prolactin signaling pathway, and estrogen signaling pathway, and by regulating the activity of osteoblast and osteoclast, they can improve the hypercoagulability of blood and vascular permeability and promote angiogenesis, further promoting the repair of the necrotic femoral head to achieve the therapeutic effect. However, this study only predicted the mechanism of action, and the specific mechanism of action still needs to be verified by follow-up experiments.
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    Potential mechanism of Achyranthes bidentata in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation based on network pharmacology
    Hou Yulong, Wang Jingshi, Wang Xukai
    2021, 25 (17):  2734-2739.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3162
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (2024KB) ( 25 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Achyranthes bidentata plays a good role in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Due to the complex chemical composition of Achyranthes bidentate, its molecular mechanism underlying the treatment of lumbar disc herniation is not yet clear. As an emerging science, network pharmacology can intuitively clarify the molecular mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in disease treatment at multi-molecule, multi-target and multi-pathway aspects, which can provide a certain theoretical basis for future drug development and disease treatment.
    OBJECTIVE: To predict the effective components and targets of Achyranthes bidentata in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation using network pharmacology, and to explore its potential mechanism at multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway aspects.
    METHODS: The effective components and targets of Achyranthes bidentata were screened from the TCMSP database, and the predictive targets of lumbar disc herniation were screened through GeneCard database and OMIM databases. The intersected targets of traditional Chinese medicine and disease were then obtained. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to construct a traditional Chinese medicine-component-disease-target regulatory network. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed through STRING database to screen the core targets. The R packet in Bioconductor was used to analyze the gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation of traditional Chinese medicine and disease intersected targets.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 11 effective components and 21 effective targets of Achyranthes bidentata in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation were screened out. Among them, IL-6, EGFR, VEGFA, CCND1, and MAPK8 might play a crucial role, and it is inferred that their mechanism of action may be related to the KSHN signaling pathway, the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway for diabetic complications, the pancreatic cancer signaling pathway, and TNF signaling pathway. Our prediction results indicate that the mechanism of Achyranthes bidentata in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation may be that quercetin, kaempferol, β-sitosterol and other active ingredients function at IL-6, EGFR, VEGFA, CCND1, MAPK8 targets through PI3K/Akt, TNF, JAK-STAT and VEGF signaling pathways to play anti-cell differentiation, apoptosis and oxidative stress effects, reduce inflammation and promote metabolism. This study provides a theoretical basis and direction for the subsequent clinical trials.
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    Construction of osteosarcoma miRNA-mRNA regulatory network based on bioinformatics
    Yuan Changshen, Rong Weiming, Lu Zhixian, Duan Kan, Guo Jinrong, Mei Qijie
    2021, 25 (17):  2740-2746.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3196
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (1948KB) ( 38 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant tumor, which is easy to metastasize and has a poor prognosis. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates gene expression to participate in the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma, but its potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network has not been fully established.   
    OBJECTIVE: To build a potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma through bioinformatic analysis in order to comprehensively clarify the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. 
    METHODS: GEO2R tool was used to perform differential expression analysis on the data of 20 osteosarcoma plasma samples and 15 healthy plasma samples, based on the miRNA microarray dataset (GSE65071) from the GEO database. Differentially expressed miRNAs with targeted genes in bone were screened, and potential transcription factors for differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. Simultaneously, the GSE16088 dataset was obtained from the GEO database and analyzed online to obtain differentially expressed genes, and the target genes were intersected with the differentially expressed genes to obtain the desired genes. Finally, gene oncology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Protein-protein interaction network was then established, and hub genes were screened. The expression of hub genes was further evaluated. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. The major transcription factors were EGR1, POU2F1, SP1, SP4, NFIC, and LHX3. In total, 110 desired genes were obtained by the intersection of 22 target genes with differentially expressed miRNA and differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the desired genes were mainly involved in cellular senescence, Apelin signaling pathway and proteoglycans in cancer. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that CCNB1, AURKA, and CD44 were more important. By constructing a potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network related to osteosarcoma pathogenesis, it provides a theoretical basis for the in-depth study of osteosarcoma molecular mechanism and also provides a scientific basis for the development of new therapeutic targets. 

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    Biomechanical evaluation of foot and ankle function: constructing static and dynamic indexes of the foot
    Bai Xiaotian, Huo Hongfeng
    2021, 25 (17):  2747-2754.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3178
    Abstract ( 319 )   PDF (985KB) ( 64 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The abnormal foot structure affects the cushioning, power and energy storage of the foot. Studies have shown that the biomechanical evaluation methods of foot structure and foot function have certain reference value for distinguishing asymptomatic abnormal foot types.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the biomechanical indexes of the foot structure and function and to classify them.
    METHODS: A search of CNKI, Baidu Scholar, Baichain Scholar, PudMed, SpringeLink, and Nature was performed using the search terms of “foot structure, foot function,” “plantar pressure, pressure center trajectory,” “foot arch, transverse arch,” “gait,” in Chinese as well as “foot function,” “center of pressure,” “flatfoot,” “arch index” in English for relevant documents published from January 1993 to May 2020. We explored the testing methods for foot structure and the biomechanical evaluation methods for foot function from static and dynamic aspects in combination with the mechanical characteristics of the foot.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: For the static evaluation of foot function, the turnover index and stiffness of the ankle joint are used to evaluate the structure and function of the ankle joint; the angle between the heelpiece and the crus and the medial longitudinal arch angle are used to evaluate the heel structure and function; the arch height index and arch height adaptability are used to evaluate the function of the foot arch; toe adaptability is used to evaluate the function of the thumb under external torque; the static function of the foot is systematically evaluated in combination with the scoring system of the foot posture index. In terms of dynamic kinematics, the dynamic foot function is evaluated based on arch index, pressure center trajectory and foot turnover index.
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    MicroRNAs for assessing the motion control of human skeletal muscles
    Zhang Shuang, Tan Rui, Wang Chunxiao, Wu Fengyu, Guo Hongyu
    2021, 25 (17):  2755-2760.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3110
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (712KB) ( 45 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert crucial effects on the regulation of cell apoptosis, signal transduction, differentiation and proliferation. Literatures demonstrate that regular exercise regulates biological pathways at the genomic and post-genomic levels. 
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the effects of exercises on miRNAs and the correlation between miRNAs and exercise performance.
    METHODS: In this review, relevant studies were searched in PubMed database using “microRNAs, athletes, physical function” for relevant articles published from 2007 to 2019. Inclusion criteria included publications within recent 10 years, impact factor > 3, and sorting according to “best match.” Finally 73 articles were selected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Growing evidence suggests that miRNAs are mainly regulated by human skeletal muscle movement and varies with different factors, including the type, time, frequency and intensity of exercise. MiRNAs have at least three characteristics as biomarkers, which can be obtained by non-invasive methods (found in accessible body fluids), can specifically express specific pathology and physiological state, and have stable biological characteristics. MiRNAs have been considered as potential diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers based on the physiological functions of miRNAs in different exercise states, to evaluate exercise adaptation status and prevent sports injuries. 
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    Exercise improves progression of Alzheimer’s disease in mice: a dose-effect relationship
    Zhang Xiang, Zhang Yeting
    2021, 25 (17):  2761-2766.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3197
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (769KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A large number of studies believe that exercise can ameliorate the disease course of Alzheimer’s disease mice, but some studies hold different views. It is unclear whether there is a certain dose relationship between exercise and the improvement of the disease course in Alzheimer’s disease mice.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-effect relationship between exercise and improvement of the disease course in Alzheimer’s disease mice, and to obtain a relatively definite exercise dose threshold.
    METHODS: Web of Science Core Collection, PubMed, and CNKI were searched for relevant literature using the keywords of “exercise; running; Alzheimer’s diseases; AD; mice” in English and Chinese, respectively. Then the included literature were logically analyzed and reviewed. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was a certain dose-effect relationship between exercise and improvement of disease course in Alzheimer’s disease mice. The disease course of Alzheimer’s disease mice could be improved only when the average speed of voluntary wheel running was greater than 2.5 m/min, no less than 12 hours a day, 7 days per week, for no less than 3 continuous weeks in total as well as when the speed of treadmill running was more than 10 m/min, no less than 5 days per week, for no less than 9 weeks. However, there is still a lot of work to be done to better determine the dose effect of exercise and its threshold.
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    MicroRNA regulates histone deacetylase in the treatment of bone-related diseases
    Zhang Wei, Cui Shuaishuai, Zhou Zhichao, Hu Xiaohua, Yang Xiaohong
    2021, 25 (17):  2767-2774.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3198
    Abstract ( 230 )   PDF (793KB) ( 34 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases play a key role in bone diseases through epigenetic regulation. Recent studies have found that microRNA (miRNA), as a new treatment inhibitor, can bind with different types of histone deacetylases to affect its expression, thus influencing the occurrence and development of bone-related diseases.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of various miRNAs targeting different types of histone deacetylases on bone diseases, and provide a new therapeutic direction for the clinical treatment of bone diseases.
    METHODS: We searched PubMed, WanFang, CNKI, Elsevier and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database for relevant literature published from 2000 to 2020. The search terms were “HDAC, miRNA; bone, mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclast, chondrocyte, osteoarthrosis, osteosarcoma” in Chinese and English, respectively. Finally, 79 articles were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Histone deacetylases can affect the occurrence and progression of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteosarcoma by regulating the osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoclast proliferation and viability,  as well as osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis. MiRNA is a type of endogenous non-coding RNA involved in post-transcriptional negative feedback regulation. Studies have reported that miRNA can regulate the expression of histone deacetylases in the bones and affect the development of bone diseases.

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    Effect of long-term use of proton pump inhibitors on bone mineral density and bone metabolism: a Meta-analysis
    Chen Jiayun, Li Anan, Lü Zhaohui, Wu Zixuan, Cai Minjie, Huang Xuyan
    2021, 25 (17):  2775-2780.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3155
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are often used for the clinical treatment of gastroxia, and the long-term use of PPI can lead to osteoporosis. However, their relationship and mechanism are not yet clear. This systematic review aimed to clarify the relationship between the long-term use of PPI and osteoporosis from the perspective of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. 
    METHODS: A search of CNKI, CBM, VIP, WanFang, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was performed using the main keywords of “osteoporosis; bone metabolism; proton pump inhibitor; PPI” in Chinese and English, respectively. The search time was from inception until March 1, 2020. Literature about the effect of long-term use of PPI on BMD and bone metabolism were retrieved and strictly assessed for literature quality. Relevant information and data were accurately extracted from the literature. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan5.3.
    RESULTS: A total of 9 studies involving 1 236 individuals were included. Meta-analysis results showed that: the BMD of the lumbar L1-4, femoral neck, and proximal femur as well as the overall BMD of the hip joint in the PPI group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Lumbar vertebra BMD: expressed as T value, mean difference (MD)=-0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI):-0.45 to-0.04, P=0.02, and expressed in g/cm2, MD=-0.12, 95%CI:-0.22 to -0.03, P=0.010); femoral neck BMD: MD=-0.31, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.18, P < 0.000 01); proximal femoral BMD: MD=-0.17, 95%CI:-0.20 to-0.14, P < 0.000 01; overall BMD of the hip joint: MD=-0.27, 95%CI: -0.51 to -0.02, P=0.04. The level of osteocalcin in the PPI group was significantly higher than that in the control group (MD=0.23, 95%CI: 0.19-0.27, P < 0.000 01). The level of parathyroid hormone in the PPI group was lower than that in the control group, and the difference was not statistically significant (MD=-0.19, 95%CI: -1.91 to 1.53, P=0.83). In conclusion, the long-term use of PPI can reduce BMD and increase osteocalcin level, which easily lead to osteoporosis but the effects on parathyroid hormone level is yet unknown. Further high-quality studies are required to verify the above conclusions. 
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    Treating lumbar disc herniation of blood stasis type with Chinese herbs, acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage: a Bayesian network Meta-analysis
    Zhang Chongfeng, Li Xianlin, Peng Weibing, Jia Hongsheng, Cai Lei
    2021, 25 (17):  2781-2788.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3170
    Abstract ( 250 )   PDF (1643KB) ( 42 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, and massage have irreplaceable effects in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Currently, although pairwise comparisons are mostly conducted due to the diversity of treatment measures, there is still a lack of comparing the therapeutic efficacy among various measures. In this study, we conducted a Bayesian network Meta-analysis to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of TCM therapies in patients with  lumbar disc herniation of blood stasis type as well as pain relief after treatment. 
    METHODS: CNKI, VIP, WanFang, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials regarding TCM treatment of blood stasis type lumbar disc herniation. The retrieval date was from inception until February 2020. Two researchers independently selected literature, extracted data and evaluated quality and risk deviation according to the set criteria. Stata 14.2 was used to draw a network structure chart, prediction interval chart and comparison-correction funnel chart of publication bias. Ge MTC version 0.14.3 was used to carry out a network Meta-analysis. 
    RESULTS: In total, 28 randomized controlled trials were included in this study, with a total of 2 508 patients with lumbar disc herniation. These trials involved 11 treatment measures, including TCM, acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, western medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, TCM + moxibustion, massage + moxibustion, TCM + acupuncture, acupuncture + massage, acupuncture + massage + TCM. According to the results of Cochrane’s biased risk tool evaluation, 21 of the 28 articles included were evaluated as high risk, and 7 articles were evaluated as unclear. The results of network meta-analysis showed that: in terms of efficiency, other treatment measures are superior to western medicine, moxibustion, acupuncture, TCM + moxibustion, massage + moxibustion, TCM + acupuncture, acupuncture + massage, acupuncture + massage + TCM are superior to traditional Chinese medicine, moxibustion, acupuncture, massage + moxibustion, TCM + acupuncture are superior to acupuncture, and massage + moxibustion is superior to massage. In terms of Visual Analogue Scale score, other treatments are better than western medicine, TCM + moxibustion, massage + moxibustion, TCM + acupuncture, acupuncture + massage + TCM are better than TCM. Efficiency in descending order is as follows: massage + moxibustion > TCM + moxibustion > acupuncture > acupuncture + massage + TCM > TCM + acupuncture > moxibustion > acupuncture + massage > massage > acupuncture > TCM > western medicine. The score of Visual Analogue Scale from the best to the worst is as follows: massage + moxibustion > acupuncture + massage + TCM > TCM + moxibustion > TCM + acupuncture > acupuncture > acupuncture + massage > moxibustion > massage > acupuncture > TCM > western medicine. 
    CONCLUSION: Existing evidence indicates massage + moxibustion is superior to the other 10 kinds of interventions; therefore, the combination therapy is mostly superior to the single therapy. Exact results should certainly be confirmed by a large amount of randomized controlled trials. 
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