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    18 April 2020, Volume 24 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Effect of miR-455-3p targeting HIPK2 on proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblasts induced by high glucose
    Kuang Jiabing, Shen Wenjuan, Ma Yonggang, Xu Hao, Zhang Keliang, Shen Bo, Xu Yanyan
    2020, 24 (11):  1641-1646.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2530
    Abstract ( 279 )   PDF (23004KB) ( 69 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that various miRNAs play a role in bone formation. miR-335-5p can protect osteoblasts from oxidative stress and protect osteoblasts under induction with ferric ammonium citrate, but the effect of miR-335-5p on osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis in high glucose environments is unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of miR-455-3p targeting HIPK2 on proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblasts induced by high glucose.

    METHODS: Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the targeting of miR-455-3p to HIPK2. MC3T3-E1 cells were induced by high glucose in vitro, and MC3T3-E1 cells were treated as follows: blank group, high glucose group, high glucose+miR-control group, high glucose+miR-455-3p group, high sugar+si-control group, high sugar+si-HIPK2 group, high glucose+miR-455-3p+pcDNA group and high glucose+miR-455-3p+pcDNA-HIPK2 group. The expression of miR-455-3p and HIPK2 mRNA was detected by qRT-PCR, cell viability was detected by MTT assay, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and the expression of HIPK2, p-STAT3 and STAT3 protein was detected by western blot.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: HIPK2 was a target gene of miR-455-3p, and miR-455-3p negatively regulated the expression of HIPK2. High glucose treatment inhibited the expression of miR-455-3p and promoted the expression of HIPK2. The over-expression of miR-455-3p or the inhibition of HIPK2 promoted MC3T3-E1 survival and inhibit cell apoptosis after high glucose treatment. The over-expression of HIPK2 partially reversed the survival promotion and apoptosis inhibition of miR-455-3p on osteoblasts induced by high glucose. miR-455-3p inhibited the expression of p-STAT3 in osteoblasts by regulating HIPK2. To conclude, miR-455-3p inhibits the apoptosis and promotes the proliferation of osteoblasts induced by high glucose via down-regulating HIPK2, which may be related to the inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway.

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    Classification and distribution of fracture areas in fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures based on CT multi-planar reconstruction and MRI
    Mo Ling, Liang De, Huang Jinjing, Jiang Xiaobing, Yang Zhidong, Ye Linqiang, Cui Jianchao, Zhang Shuncong, Yao Zhensong, Jin Daxiang
    2020, 24 (11):  1647-1653.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2476
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (27753KB) ( 53 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Some scholars have classified osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures based on X-ray and MRI findings. However, little is reported on the morphological types and distribution rules of fracture areas in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and summarize the morphological types and distribution of fracture areas in fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures based on CT multi-planar reconstruction and MRI.

    METHODS: Clinical data from 352 patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, 73.07 years of age, including 69 males and 283 females admitted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine from September 2011 to June 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. After admission, CT multi-planar reconstruction, MRI and bone mineral density measurements were conducted in each patient. Fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were confirmed in 477 vertebrae according to clinical manifestations and imaging findings. Fracture areas were defined as shade compact or bright line based on CT multi-planar reconstruction or bone marrow edema on the MRI. Morphological type and distribution of fracture areas were recorded by two experienced spinal surgeons and one senior radiologist independently. The study protocol was approved by the Ethic Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine in China with an approval No. ZYYECKYJ[2017]057.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fracture areas of 472 vertebrae were indicated distinctly on the MRI, whereas the fracture areas of 5 vertebrae were unclear. Meanwhile, fracture areas of 469 vertebrae were shown clearly on the CT multi-planar reconstruction, but the areas of 8 vertebrae were obscure on the CT. Fracture areas of 5 vertebrae were unclear in both CT and MRI. There was no significant difference between CT and MRI in the observation of fracture areas (P=0.402). Finally, fracture areas of 8 vertebrae could not be described accurately on CT, MRI or both. In the sagittal plane of CT and MRI, morphological types of fracture areas of 469 vertebrae were divided into impacted fracture area (n=311, 66.31%) and cleft fracture area (n=158, 33.69%). Of the 158 cleft fracture areas, 26 vertebrae contained gas, 28 vertebrae contained liquid, and 7 vertebrae included both gas and liquid. Of the 469 vertebrae, the location of fracture areas was divided into 5 types: superior (n=238, 50.75%), inferior (n=80, 17.06%), anterior (n=21, 4.48%), central (n=110, 23.45%) and mixed (n=20, 4.26%). These findings indicate that the morphological types and distribution of fracture areas in fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures can be effectively distinguished by CT multi-planar reconstruction and MRI, which is important for early diagnosis and further treatment of fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

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    Mechanical properties of rat tibia under high-G environment
    Liu Jin, Gao Lilan, Peng Yulin, Zhang Xizheng
    2020, 24 (11):  1654-1658.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2485
    Abstract ( 269 )   PDF (20611KB) ( 97 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: With the development of Chinese space industry, pilots are exposed to high-G mechanical environment, which will seriously affect their bones. However, as one of the bones that are most prone to fracture, the biomechanical behavior of the tibia under extreme mechanical environment is rarely reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different high-G mechanical environments on the rat growth and development and the mechanical properties of the tibia.

    METHODS: Male Wistar rats were provided by Laboratory Animal Center of Academy of Military Sciences. The cantilever was set to run at different speeds and accelerations with a high-G centrifugal loading device, and the high-G rat model was made. The rats were weighed weekly. The left tibia of rats was used for undergoing a three-point bending experiment, and the deflection and elastic modulus of the tibia were calculated. The right tibia was subjected to a creep test, and constant stress was applied on the surface of tibial cortical bone and kept 3 600 seconds, so as to observe the changes of creep strain. The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Tianjin University of Technology.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The high-G environment affected the normal growth and development of rats, inhibited weight gain and reduced the mechanical properties of the tibia, and reduced the limit deflection of the tibia by 8.1%, 12.2%, 37.8%, and 51.4%, respectively. Limit loads were decreased by 16%, 9%, 25.2%, and 29% respectively. To conclude, extremely high-G environment exerts serious negative effects on rats.

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    Influence of cranial base angle and posterior occlusal plane inclination on sagittal dentoskeletal types
    Yu Xingyue, Lü Dongmei, Tian Shancan, Yuan Xiaoping, Cheng Qian
    2020, 24 (11):  1659-1665.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2487
    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (24578KB) ( 49 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cranial base angle is related to the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type, and the effect of occlusal plane or posterior occlusal plane on the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the importance of occlusal plane inclination and posterior occlusal plane inclination in determining the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type, and to explore the combined influence of the cranial base angle and posterior occlusal plane inclination on the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type, and its correlation.

    METHODS: The study was implemented in accordance with the ethical requirements of Hospital of Stomatology, Southwest Medical University. Patients and their guardians signed the informed consents. Totally 207 lateral cephalograms from patients (100 males and 107 females, aged 12-20 years) were selected. Dentoskeletal landmarks and subsequent measurements were performed and analyzed using Uceph software and SPSS 17.0 software, respectively. The samples were classified as three sagittal dentoskeletal types according to the anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) value: class I, class II, and class III. The SNK and LSD methods were used for comparison among the three groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to analyze the correlation between skull base angle (NSBa angle), occlusion plane (FH-OP), posterior occlusion plane (FH-POP) and other related measurement indexes. Descriptive statistical methods were used to group occlusal plane inclination, posterior occlusal plane inclination and skull base angle, and the two-sample t-test was used to compare relevant bone and tooth indexes. Four dentoskeletal groups were established according to the posterior occlusion plane inclination and skull base angle: small skull base angle-flat posterior occlusion plane group (S-F), small skull base angle-steep posterior occlusion plane group (S-S), large skull base angle-flat posterior occlusion plane group (L-F), large skull base angle-steep posterior occlusion plane group (L-S). Intergroup comparison was completed using crossover one-way analysis of variance.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The skull base angle was significantly smaller in the class III group than the class I and II group. Significantly higher posterior occlusion plane inclination was observed in the class II group than the class I and III groups. No differences were found in the APDI and ANB between occlusal plane groups. Significant differences in the ANB angle and APDI value were shown on the small skull base angle-flat posterior occlusal plane group and the large skull base angle-steep posterior occlusal plane group. These results indicate that among the factors affecting the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type, the posterior occlusal plane is more representative than the occlusal plane. The curvature of the skull base and the inclination of the posterior occlusal plane affect the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type. During the formation of sagittal dentoskeletal type, there may be some compensatory mechanisms between the curvature of the skull base and the posterior occlusal plane.

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    Relationship between intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert and postoperative walking ability
    Zhong Yi, Huang Yihua, Guan Rikang, Hu Yong, Huang Yangliang
    2020, 24 (11):  1666-1670.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2483
    Abstract ( 257 )   PDF (21173KB) ( 100 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is popular in spinal surgery. However, a severe iatrogenic spinal cord injury cannot be completely eliminated. Is there a relationship between true positive intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert during particular surgical steps and postoperative neurological recovery? This topic is to improve the safety of spinal invasive procedures.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between true positive intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert during particular surgical steps and postoperative walking ability.

    METHODS: A retrospective study of 2 249 patients undergoing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong was conducted. Standard patient demographics, diagnosis and operative features and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring data were collected. There were 10 cases of true positive intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert (4 males, 6 females, 14-88 years old), and the average follow-up time was 9.8 years. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether surgical steps triggering intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert impact the spinal cord or not. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical requirements of Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, and the patients and their guardians signed the informed consents.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: These alerts occurred during decompression (n=3), anterior disc release (n=1), finding the entering point of T3 pedicle (n=1), screw insertion (n=1), reduction of fracture (n=2), insertion of wire (n=1), and cement injection (n=1). Among these patients, 100% of spinal cord invasive procedure patients developed incompetence of walking, while 80% (4/5) of spine cord non-invasive patients were capable of walking (P < 0.05). After the alert was triggered, four patients continued with primary program, three patients underwent expanding decompression and three patients gave up surgery. If true positive intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring alert is reported during spinal invasive procedures, there should be a very high chance of postoperative walking disability. If any conditions occur, the surgery needs to be stopped, and instead, remedial measures such as surgery suspension, steroids injection, and additional decompression should be performed immediately. 

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    3-Methyladenine improves the efficiency of sciatic nerve allograft in mice
    Xu Zhuqiu, Lu Haibin, Feng Weifeng, Yang Xiaonan, Qi Zuoliang
    2020, 24 (11):  1671-1676.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2535
    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (23958KB) ( 287 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the occurrence of Wallerian degeneration is closely related to autophagy in Schwann cells. The regulation of autophagy in Schwann cells can significantly affect the occurrence and development of Wallerian degeneration, subsequently altering axon regeneration and myelination.

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether sciatic nerve allograft can achieve higher efficiency when the cell autophagy is inhibited by 3-methyladenine. 

    METHODS: We harvested 16 sciatic nerve segments from 8 female C57BL/6J mice that were purchased from Beijing Vital River Laboratory Animal Technology Co., Ltd. in China. All the segments were equally divided into experimental and control groups and cultured in 3-methyladenine culture medium and normal culture medium for 72 hours, respectively. Another 16 female C57BL/6J mice were taken to make animal models of left sciatic nerve defects. After modeling, the sciatic nerve segments were grafted to repair sciatic nerve defect through microsurgery: 3-methyladenine-treated nerve segments in the experimental group and normally treated nerve segments in the control group. Sciatic nerve index in each mouse was recorded at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after modeling. At 8 weeks after modeling, the regenerated nerve segments were histologically analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunofluorescent staining, toluidine blue staining, and transmission electron. The animal experiment was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Peking Union Medical College.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were no differences in the sciatic nerve index between the two groups (P > 0.05) except at 8 weeks after modeling (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed an intact nerve structure in the experimental group but a large area of voids in the control group. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that there were nerve tracts with more complete structures in the experimental group than the control group. Toluidine blue staining revealed some myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers regenerated in the experimental group and only a few of myelinated nerve fibers and unmyelinated axons newly formed in the control group. Under the transmission electron microscope, myelin sheath thickness and myelinated fiber diameter were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, 3-methyladenine-treated nerve allografts could inhibit autophagy in Schwann cells, maintain the myelin sheath structure of the allograft, and promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery.

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    Platelet-rich plasma combined with core decompression regulates oxidative stress in a rabbit model of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis
    Wang Zhe, Li Yan, Lou Lixiang, Lu Chuan, Ding Qilong, Gu Xilong, Li Zeqing
    2020, 24 (11):  1677-1682.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2583
    Abstract ( 431 )   PDF (23898KB) ( 32 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in femoral head necrosis. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors that can accelerate fracture healing. PRP combined with core decompression can promote recovery from non-traumatic femoral head necrosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether PRP combined with core decompression can inhibit oxidative stress in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head model via Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal group, model group, control group and PRP group, with 10 rabbits in each group. In the model and PRP groups, a model of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis was established in a sterile environment. At 4 weeks after operation, the rabbits in the PRP group were injected with 0.4 mL of 3% PRP after core decompression. The control group received core decompression treatment, and the control and model groups were raised normally. After 14 weeks, the experimental animals were sacrificed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of bone marrow cavity and the vacancy rate of bone lacunae in the femoral head of each group. Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde were detected. TUNEL was used to detect bone cell apoptosis in the femoral head. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the distribution of Keap1 and Nrf2. Western blot was used to measure Keap1, Nrf2, and HO-1 protein expression in the femoral head. Approval was obtained from the Animal Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University, approval No. qhdx-201908374.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the normal group, the trabecular bone in model group was thinned with structure disorder. Compared with the model group, the trabecular bone structure in control group was restored, and the number of vacant bone lacunae was reduced (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the animals treated with PRP combined with core decompression were further improved, the trabecular bone structure was further improved, and the number of vacant bone lacunae was further reduced (P < 0.05). Whereas there was no significant difference between the PRP group and normal group (P > 0.05). (2) The total antioxidant capacity and serum levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione in the model group were significantly lower than those in normal animals (P < 0.05), while the MDA concentration was significantly higher than that in the normal group (P < 0.05). These oxidative stress indexes were slightly improved in the control group compared with the model group (P > 0.05), while these indexes were significantly improved in the PRP group than the model and control groups (P < 0.05). (3) The expression of Keap1 in the model group was significantly lower than that of the normal group   (P < 0.05), and the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 protein was significantly higher than that of the normal group (P < 0.05). The expression of Keap1 in the PRP group was lower than that of the model and control groups (P < 0.05), and the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was significantly higher than that of the model and control groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, PRP can effectively inhibit oxidative stress in the process of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis, which may be caused by activating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

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    Massage effect on transforming growth factor beta1 signaling pathway in a rabbit model of gluteal muscle contracture
    You Tian, Zhang Honglei, Bai Lu, Zhang Xintao, Jiang Xiaocheng, Wang Shuang, Zhang Wentao
    2020, 24 (11):  1683-1688.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2538
    Abstract ( 433 )   PDF (24410KB) ( 48 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that TCM massage can alleviate or even reverse the progression of muscle fibrosis, so it is speculated that massage can also improve the pathological changes of gluteal muscle contracture.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of massage on gluteal muscle contracture and the relevant mechanism. 

    METHODS: Twenty young rabbits were divided into an experimental group and a control group, with penicillin and benzyl alcohol injection for 8 weeks respectively. Besides, the experimental group received massage therapies for 4 weeks, whereas the control group had no specific intervention. Cell morphology and structure were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining and Sirius red staining. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in the rabbit model of gluteal muscle contraction was measured using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription PCR and western blot assays. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The experimental group had significantly less hyperplasia of fiber tissue compared with the control group  (P < 0.05). The expression levels of collagen type I and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly increased in the control group compared with the experimental group, as determined by reverse transcription PCR, western blot assay and immunohistochemical staining  (P < 0.05). Therefore, massage therapy can alleviate the progression of gluteal fibrosis, which is expected to provide a new idea for the research and treatment of gluteal muscle contracture.

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    Compound brain peptide ganglioside can improve intrauterine hypoxia-induced neonatal brain injury and promote synapse regeneration in a mouse model 
    Zhang Fuhua, Fan Wenjuan, Hua Xinyu, Chen Xudong
    2020, 24 (11):  1689-1694.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2478
    Abstract ( 404 )   PDF (24054KB) ( 55 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The most current application of compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI) focuses on the clinical therapeutic efficacy in some craniocerebral injuries and neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, but the molecular mechanism of CPCGI involved in the recovery of nerve function is rarely reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect and mechanism of CPCGI in a neonatal mouse model of intrauterine hypoxia-induced brain injury.

    METHODS: Fifteen Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, hypoxia group and treatment group. At the 14th day after pregnancy, mice in hypoxia group and treatment group were put into a 10% oxygen incubator to make the model of intrauterine hypoxia. After delivery, neonatal mice were intraperitoneally injected with CPCGI and PBS respectively, and mouse development in each group was observed after treatment. Mice in the control group were not hypoxic and treated. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Neurocan, SynDIG1 and collagen IV were observed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay. A step-down test was used to test animal memory function. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee of Luohe Medical College in China.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Neurocan in the hypoxia group were significantly increased, while the expressions of SynDIG1 and collagen IV were significantly decreased. The expression of SynDIG1 and collagen IV in the treatment group was significantly increased than that in the hypoxia group, while the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Neuroncan was significantly decreased than that in the hypoxia group. The learning and memory ability of mice in the hypoxia group was significantly decreased compared with the control group, but was significantly improved after CPCGI treatment. These results suggest that CPCGI can alleviate brain injury and improve learning and memory ability after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The detailed mechanism might be related to inhibiting activation of astrocytes, down-regulating Neuroncan expression, up-regulating collagen IV expression, promoting synaptic reconstruction and reducing cerebrovascular injury.

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    Role of Pink1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial autophagy in a rat model of brain injury
    Ye Liang, Yuan Miao, Xiao Wenfeng
    2020, 24 (11):  1695-1700.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2524
    Abstract ( 698 )   PDF (22248KB) ( 65 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In addition to FUNDC1, Bnip3 and Nix mitochondrial autophagy pathways in mammals that are closely related to the hypoxic environment, Pink1/Parkin is the main mitochondrial autophagy pathway after brain injury. PINK1 acts upstream of Parkin, and the Pink1/Parkin pathway is used to mediate loss of mitochondrial surface functional proteins or structural polyubiquitination, and considered as a marker for autophagosome selection, which has an important influence on autophagy-dependent degradation of depolarized mitochondria.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of Pink1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial autophagy in rats with brain injury after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of North Sichuan Medical College. Forty-five male Wistar rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into normal, model and autophagy inhibitor groups. The rats in the model and autophagy inhibitor groups were used to prepare hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage model. Before modeling 2 μL of PBS solution containing trimethyl adenine (100 nmol/L) was intraperitoneally injected in the inhibitor group, and the model and the normal groups were intraperitoneally injected with 2 μL of PBS. The water content, mitochondrial autophagy, mitochondrial membrane potential, cerebral infarction, mitochondrial LC3, Parkin protein and PINK1 protein expression in brain tissue were detected.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the normal group, the autophagy staining and mitochondrial staining expression in the model group was increased, and the number of co-localized positive cells was increased (both P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the autophagy staining and mitochondrial staining expression in the autophagy inhibitor group was decreased, and the number of co-localized positive cells was decreased (both P < 0.05). (2) Compared with the normal group, the infarction proportion of the brain in the model group was increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the infarction proportion of the brain in the autophagy inhibitor group was increased (P < 0.05). (3) Compared with the normal group, the mitochondrial staining intensity in the model group was decreased, and the autophagy staining intensity was increased (both P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the mitochondrial staining intensity in the autophagy inhibitor group was decreased, and the autophagy staining intensity was increased (both P < 0.05). (4) Compared with the normal group, the expression levels of PINK1, LC3 and Parkin in the model group were increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the expression levels of PINK1, LC3 and Parkin in the autophagy inhibitor group were decreased (P < 0.05). In summary, mitochondrial autophagy can alleviate the degree of brain injury after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. The Pink1/Parkin pathway plays an important role in the mitochondrial autophagy.

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    Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in injured segments of rats with spinal cord injury 
    Zhang Hongsheng, Wei Weibing, Zhou Binbin, Cui Junwu, Li Zhenxing, Wang Yongqing
    2020, 24 (11):  1701-1707.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2506
    Abstract ( 300 )   PDF (29889KB) ( 42 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The authors found a striking similarity between the qi and blood theory and nerve repair of spinal cord injury in terms of improving blood-oxygen microenvironment in tissues. The hypothesis is that electroacupuncture can improve the blood-oxygen microenvironment of the spinal cord and promote nerve regeneration by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1a and vascular endothelial growth factor signal transduction.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture intervention on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a and vascular endothelial growth factor in injured segments of spinal cord injury rats.

    METHODS: Totally 120 Sprague-Dawley female rats were enrolled to make spinal cord injury models by clamping the spinal cord (20 seconds) using a microvascular clamp. Rat models were then randomly divided into three groups: Ashi point group, Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming group and blank control group, 40 rats in each group. Electroacupuncture at two Aishi points or at both sides of Futu and Zusanli points was started on the 3rd day after modeling. Each rat was scored on the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after intervention. Injured spinal cord specimens were then taken and observed histomorphologically. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and vascular endothelial growth factor protein and mRNA expressions were detected using immunohistochemistry staining, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot assay. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine in China (approval No. 201712001).

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The lower limb function score, hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and vascular endothelial growth factor gene and protein expression in the two electroacupuncture intervention groups were significantly higher than those of the blank control group. The number of neurons in Ashi point and Stomach Meridian of Foot-Yangming groups was significantly higher than that of the blank control group with the lapse of intervention time. Electroacupuncture intervention can effectively improve the lower limb function score of spinal cord injury rats, increase the number of neurons, and up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and vascular endothelial growth factor, thus effectively promoting the neurological recovery of the spinal cord.

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    High-intensity interval training improves cardiorespiratory endurance in rats
    Yang Zhongya, Su Hao, Wang Ji, Zhang Yimin, Kong Zhenxing, Zhang Juan, Zhang Long
    2020, 24 (11):  1708-1713.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2481
    Abstract ( 398 )   PDF (24090KB) ( 45 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is the most direct, effective and objective index for determining cardiorespiratory endurance and exercise capacity, but there are few studies on the varying data of VO2 max in rats for a long time. In addition, the effect of high-intensity interval training on the cardiorespiratory endurance in rats during age increasing has not yet been reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the improvement of 16-week high-intensity interval training on the cardiorespiratory endurance in rats, and to continuously measure the VO2 max for 16 weeks in 29-week-old rats, so as to provide data reference for the precise control of training intensity.

    METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats aged 29 weeks old were randomly assigned into a quiet control group (normal feeding, no training) and a high-intensity interval training group. The latter group underwent the interval exercise of high-intensity (90% VO2 max) and low-intensity (50% VO2 max), 5 times per week, for 16 weeks. The VO2 max and corresponding maximal running velocity were tested and compared every 2 weeks. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sports Science and Physical Health Education Department, Beijing Sport University, with the approval No. 2015025.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) With the increasing age from 29 to 45 weeks, the VO2 max fluctuated down-up-down. After 16 weeks of exercise, the VO2max was decreased by 31.6% in the high-intensity interval training group and 47.9% in the quiet control group. The VO2 max in the high-intensity interval training group was significantly higher than that in the quiet control group (P < 0.01). (2) The decrease of VO2 max in the high-intensity interval training group was significantly lower than that in the quiet control group at 6, 8, and 16 weeks (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). (3) The increase of maximal running velocity in the high-intensity interval training group was significantly higher than that in the quiet control group at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). (4) The maximal running velocity was positively correlated with VO2 max in rats. (5) These results suggest that age increasing is an irreversible factor, and high-intensity interval training can alleviate the decrease of cardiorespiratory endurance. Six-week high-intensity interval training can significantly improve the decrease of cardiorespiratory endurance in rats due to age increasing. Eight-week high-intensity interval training can significantly delay the decrease of cardiorespiratory endurance in rats due to age increasing. Four-week high-intensity interval training can promote the value of maximal running velocity and improve sports ability. 

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    Exercise preconditioning for myocardial injury in rats after exhaustive exercise based on Rho/ROCK pathway
    Liu Xiaochen, Wang Gaifeng
    2020, 24 (11):  1714-1719.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2502
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (28852KB) ( 36 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: At present, the mechanism of exercise preconditioning for myocardial protection has not been fully elucidated. It is reported that Rho/ROCK pathway plays a key role in cardiovascular disease. Whether exercise preconditioning adapts to the myocardium through the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway remains to be studied.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of exercise preconditioning in rats with myocardial injury after exhaustive exercise.

    METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats of 5 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups: control group, simple exhaustive exercise group (EE group), and exercise preconditioning group after exhaustive exercise (EP+EE group). At 1 hour after modeling, a serum sample from each rat was taken for biochemical analysis. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, phosphocreatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were detected. Myocardial tissue samples from each rat were taken for pathological observation using hematoxylin-alkaline reddish-picric acid staining. TUNEL method was used to observe apoptosis in the myocardial tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 in the myocardial tissue were detected by ELISA. The expression of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein was analyzed by western blot.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, phosphocreatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase of the EE group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, phosphocreatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase of the EP+EE group were significantly lower than those of the EE group (P < 0.05). The boundary of cardiomyocytes was unclear in the EE group, in which there were more plaque-like or flaky red-like areas as well as more obvious ischemia-anoxia changes as compared with the control group. Some cardiomyocytes presented with unclear boundary in the EP+EE group with some plaque-like brilliant red-like areas, and the degree of ischemia and anoxemia was significantly lower in the EP+EE group than the EE group. The apoptotic index value of the EE group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the apoptotic index value of the EP+EE group was significantly lower than that of the EE group (P < 0.05). The tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels in the EP+EE group were significantly lower than those in the EE group (P < 0.05). The Bcl-2/Bax of the EE group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The Bcl-2/Bax of the EP+EE group was significantly higher than that of the EE group (P < 0.05). The levels of RhoA, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The levels of RhoA, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the EP+EE group were significantly lower than those in the EE group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that exercise preconditioning has a protective effect against myocardial injury and improves cardiac function in rats. The mechanism may be related to the Rho/ROCK pathway.

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    Curcumin ameliorates inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress through activation of autophagy in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats 
    Wu Pengbo, Song Qi, Yu Yuanjie, Rao Qian, Zhang Guo, Guo Yitian, Tan Shiyun
    2020, 24 (11):  1720-1725.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2505
    Abstract ( 391 )   PDF (26111KB) ( 70 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Curcumin has biological activities such as regulating autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect and underlying mechanism of curcumin on experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    METHODS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver model was established in rats fed 8-week high-fat diets. Forty healthy SPF male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, curcumin treatment group, and curcumin and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagic flux blocker) treatment group. At the end of 8 weeks of high-fat diet, control and model groups were given PBS intragastrically, curcumin treatment group given curcumin 500 mg/kg per day intragastrically, and curcumin+3-MA given curcumin 500 mg/kg per day intragastrically and 3-MA 2 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally. The interventions in each group were given for 8 continuous weeks. The biochemical parameters including serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total triglyceride, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level were measured in rats. Oil red O staining was used to characterize the change of hepatic pathology. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The hepatic malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase activity were measured by thiobarbituric acid method and xanthine oxidase method, respectively. Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression level of autophagic molecular signals including P62, Beclin, LC3B and nuclear factor-κB. The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (approval No. 2018-541).

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the model group than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, curcumin significantly decreased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total triglyceride, and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), but this effect was partly inhibited by 3-MA (P < 0.05). There was more cellular lipid deposition in the model group than the control group. Compared with the model group, curcumin significantly decreased cellular lipid deposition, but the decrease was partly inhibited by 3-MA. Compared with the control group, mitochondrial edema and cristae rupture (or even completely disappearing) were easily found in the model group. Curcumin significantly attenuated mitochondrial injury, which was partly inhibited by 3-MA. Hepatic superoxide dismutase activity in the model group was significantly lower than that in control group, and it significantly increased after curcumin treatment. The hepatic superoxide dismutase activity in the curcumin+3-MA group was higher than that in model group but lower than that in the curcumin group. Hepatic malondialdehyde level in the model group was higher than that in the control group, and it significantly decreased after curcumin treatment. Whereas the hepatic malondialdehyde level in the curcumin+3-MA group was lower than that in model group but higher than that in the curcumin group. Compared with the control group, the model group showed significantly increased expressions of P62, nuclear factor-κB but decreased expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I (all P < 0.05). Curcumin significantly decreased the expressions of P62 and nuclear factor -κB and increased the expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I; however, these changes were partly inhibited by 3-MA (all P < 0.05). Therefore, curcumin can effectively prevent hepatic steatosis in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats by regulating inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress via activation of autophagy. 

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    Three-dimensional liver reconstruction provides a more accurate preoperative assessment of tumor size than traditional CT imaging technique
    Li Bo, Lin Jie
    2020, 24 (11):  1726-1732.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2541
    Abstract ( 500 )   PDF (26349KB) ( 62 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Multi-slice spiral CT and high-field MRI are often used in the precise treatment of the liver, to analyze the parameters related to liver parenchymal disease, Child-Pugh classification, portal hypertension and ICG retention rate. By using these two methods, reserve function of the residual liver can be relatively accurately evaluated, and safe limit of liver resection in individual patients can be determined.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical superiority of three-dimensional reconstruction technology in precision liver surgery.

    METHODS: Randomly selected 100 primary liver cancer patients who had undergone resection at Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute in China were divided into a control group, in which two-dimensional CT examinations were used for empirical evaluation of tumor location, resection scope and residual liver volume and routine Pringle method was used for hepatic portal block intraoperatively, and an experimental group, in which three-dimensional reconstruction system was used preoperatively for stereoscopic imaging of intrahepatic conditions, perihepatic ducts and tumor traits and location, as well as for quantitative assessment of liver resection scope and residual volume, and selective hepatic occlusion was used intraoperatively. Postoperative liver resection volume and preoperative imaging evaluation were compared between groups, and postoperative recovery of patients was observed. The study protocol was implemented in line with the relevant ethical requirements of Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute. Participants and their families were fully informed of treatments and gave informed consent.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Resected tumor volume and planned resection volume were insignificantly different in the experimental group, but significantly different in the control group (P < 0.05). Length of hospital and incidence of postoperative complications were significantly higher in the control group than the experimental group (P < 0.05). At 1 month postoperatively, the levels of serum insulin-like growth factor II, human transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor and alpha-fetoprotein were significantly decreased in the experimental group as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The level of alanine aminotransferase tended to be normal in the experimental group relative to the control group at 14 days postoperatively. Postoperative abdominal drainage was gradually decreased in both two groups, but the drainage volume was significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). At 1 month postoperatively, the Karnofsky scores of the two groups were significantly higher than those preoperatively (P < 0.05), and the experimental group had significantly higher scores than the control group (P < 0.05). The total effective rate of the control group was significantly lower than that of the test group (92% vs. 100%; P < 0.05). To conclude, in contrast to traditional CT imaging technology, three-dimensional liver reconstruction technology can more accurately assess tumor volume before surgery, reduce intraoperative risks, shorten hospitalization time and reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. 

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    Open and closed kinetic chain exercises for meniscus lesions
    Liu Hui, Liu Bo, Zhang Xin, Zhao Weixia, Yan Pan, Jing Zhuzi, Liang Junhao, Shen Hai
    2020, 24 (11):  1733-1737.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2547
    Abstract ( 848 )   PDF (22828KB) ( 222 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Both open and closed kinetic chain exercises can be applied to meniscal lesions in the knee joint, but their mechanisms are different. There is still no clinical report on the improvement of meniscus lesions by the two exercise methods.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of open kinetic chain exercise and closed kinetic chain exercise on meniscus lesions in young patients.

    METHODS: Forty-nine young patients with meniscus lesions were treated with rehabilitation and conservative treatments. They were randomly divided into two groups using a random digital table method: a biofeedback open kinetic chain group (n=25) treated with basic therapy combined with terminal knee extension biofeedback training, and a leg press closed kinetic chain group (n=24) treated with basic therapy combined with single-leg press training. The basic treatment included electro-acupuncture, manipulation therapy and unarmed exercise therapy. Biofeedback open chain training was conducted with Myotrac infiniti biofeedback instrument produced by Thought, Canada. Closed chain training with leg press was conducted using pedal accessories of GYM80 intelligent strength training system, Germany. All the trainings were conducted once a day for 3 consecutive weeks. Curative effects were assessed by joint range of motion (ROM) during knee joint flexion and extension, total ROM, visual analogue scale score, modified Lysholm knee score, and activity of daily living score. The study protocol was implemented in line with the relevant requirements of Sichuan Provincial Orthopedic Hospital. All the patients were informed of the study procedures.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Assessment for ROM: After treatment, the ROM during joint flexion and extension and total ROM in the biofeedback open kinetic chain group were significantly better than the baseline (P < 0.05), the ROM during joint extension and total ROM in the leg press closed kinetic chain group were significantly better than the baseline (P < 0.05), and the ROM in the biofeedback open kinetic chain group was higher than that in the leg press closed kinetic chain group, but there was no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). Assessment for pain and function: The two groups had statistically significant improvements on visual analogue scale score, modified Lysholm knee score, and activity of daily living score after treatment (P < 0.05). Compared with the biofeedback open kinetic chain group, the activity of daily living score was higher in the leg press closed kinetic chain group (P < 0.05). The two groups had satisfactory effects on the knee joint ROM, pain and functional performance. Therefore, biofeedback open kinetic chain exercise has a better improvement on the knee joint ROM, while the leg press closed kinetic chain exercise shows better outcomes in the improvement of knee functional performance and activity of daily living based on the basis of pain control.

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    Mechanism of Hanshi Bi granules in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis based on network pharmacology
    Wang Zhuo, Shi Zhongfeng, Wang Fengyun, Li Weidong, Han Liang
    2020, 24 (11):  1738-1744.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2437
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (28515KB) ( 40 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hanshi Bi granule has been used to treat ankylosing spondylitis in the clinic, but the pharmacological mechanism B is still unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: To screen the compound and drug targets of Hanshi Bi granules based on network pharmacology, and construct a compound-target network to systematically investigate the pharmacological mechanism for treating ankylosing spondylitis.

    METHODS: The compounds and drug targets of Hanshi Bi granules were collected from TCMSP database. Ankylosing spondylitis targets were from DRUGBANK, GeneCards, Home-OMIM-NCBI, and PALM-IST databases. The obtained drug targets and disease targets were corrected by Uniprot database and common genes were obtained using Draw Venn Diagrams analysis tool. PPI analysis was performed on the common gene in combination with the STRING database and Cytoscape 3.6.1. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the common gene by using Cytoscape 3.6.1 plugin ClueGO.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Totally 69 active ingredients and 142 drug targets were obtained from TCMSP, and 595 ankylosing spondylitis targets were obtained using DRUGBANK, GeneCards, Home-OMIM-NCBI, and PALM-IST databases. (2) Using the Draw Venn Diagrams tool to analyze all targets, 39 common genes were obtained. Through PPI analysis, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin-in-peroxidase 2 were highly connected in the PPI network. (3) Through GO enrichment analysis, it mainly involved biological functions such as regulation of reactive oxygen metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, acute inflammatory reaction, neurotransmitter biosynthetic process, and metabolism of arachidonic acid. (4) Through KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, it mainly involved in AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, interleukin-17 signaling pathway, nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. (5) This study preliminarily predicts the pharmacological mechanism underlying the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis with Hanshi Bi granules, and provides new ideas for secondary development of old drugs and experimental research.

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    Modeling of Mongolian acupuncture upper limb simulation system based on virtual reality techniques
    Ji Yucheng, Li Zhongxian, Weng Yujie, Ning Pengfei
    2020, 24 (11):  1745-1749.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2567
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (19191KB) ( 59 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Training for acupuncture manipulation is an important step from theory to clinical practice in Mongolian medicine.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish mechanical models related to different Mongolian acupuncture techniques of the upper limb acupoints in a virtual environment, and to demonstrate the Mongolian acupuncture process of upper limb acupoints at multiple levels.

    METHODS: A professional from the Mongolian Medical College of Inner Mongolia Medical University performed a demonstration for Mongolian acupuncture of the forearm acupoints via perpendicular insertion (needle insertion at a 90° angle to the skin), oblique insertion (needle insertion at a 45° angle to the skin), and cruciform insertion (needle rotation after insertion into the skin). Information was collected with ATP-IV acupuncture manipulation parameter tester within 10 seconds of acupuncture. The scanning conditions were voltage 9 V and current 250 mA, and the remaining parameters were set to the default value. The voltage-time diagram was plotted based on X, Y and Z axis sampling information, and the acupuncture process model was established as previously reported. Biomechanical analysis was performed on the modeling of the Mongolian acupuncture process. The implementation of the research program was in line with the relevant ethical requirements of Inner Mongolia Medical University.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The parameters of perpendicular, transverse, and cross-shaped insertion were measured by the ATP-IV acupuncture manipulation parameter tester. The axial force of the needle raised rapidly after the needle tip touched the soft tissue surface, and dropped sharply, accompanied by the sense of frustration, after piercing the soft tissue. Then the resistance of the needle tended to be flat due to the soft tissue elasticity and friction. These findings were basically consistent with the biomechanical results reported by Okamura. Compared with the complicated acupuncture manipulation of traditional Chinese medicine, the acupuncture methods described in the Mongolian medical literature, characterized by simple operation and simple appliance, only include one three-step acupuncture technique combined with hand feeling and eight acupuncture techniques combined with acupoints. 

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    Changes in insulin resistance and inflammatory factors in cataract patients with glaucoma after phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy: a self-controlled trial 
    Zhao Jianfeng, Geng Yu, Chen Qianbo, Yang Jinghui, Li Yan
    2020, 24 (11):  1750-1755.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2504
    Abstract ( 572 )   PDF (23337KB) ( 34 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: After phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy in patients with cataract and glaucoma, blood lipid ratio and insulin sensitivity are associated with intraocular pressure, visual acuity and corneal endothelial cells, which may be used for the evaluation of efficacy. Interleukins are the main mediators of the inflammatory response and are involved in the pathogenesis of cataract.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the postoperative changes in interleukin-10, interleukin-2 and interleukin-1β levels in patients with cataract with glaucoma, and to analyze the correlation between insulin sensitivity and corneal endothelial cell density so as to assess whether inflammatory factors can be used to evaluate efficacy.

    METHODS: This prospective, single-center, open-label, self-controlled clinical trial will include 160 patients with cataract combined with glaucoma, 35–65 years of age, from the Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China. All patients will receive phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy, and will be followed up at 5 days and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Data collection and patient recruitment will begin on December 30, 2019 and end on December 30, 2020. Analysis of the results will be performed from May 1, 2021 to May 30, 2021. This study is scheduled to end on June 30, 2021. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, China, on December 15, 2013 (approval No. 20131215085), and will be performed in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association. Written informed consent to participate will be obtained from the participants. This study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on September 10, 2019 (registration number: ChiCTR1900025837). Study protocol version is 1.0.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The primary outcome measure will be serum interleukin-2 level, as an index of the inflammatory response, 3 months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures will include serum interleukin-2 level before and 5 days and 1 month after surgery, serum levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, mean cell area, coefficient of variation, insulin sensitivity index and intraocular pressure before and 5 days and 1 and 3 months after surgery, and incidence of adverse reactions at 5 days and 1 and 3 months after surgery. From January 2014 to June 2017, our team undertook and completed a small-sample study of 80 cataract patients (95 eyes) with glaucoma. The best corrected visual acuity was significantly improved, endothelial cell density and intraocular pressure were significantly reduced, interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-10, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and mean cell area, coefficient of variation and insulin sensitivity index were significantly increased (P < 0.05) after phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy. None of the patients had adverse reactions during the treatment. The trial will attempt to explore whether phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy has a good therapeutic effect in patients with cataract combined with glaucoma, and clarify whether the effect is associated with the regulation of insulin sensitivity index, corneal endothelial cells and inflammatory factors.

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    Cerebral organoids culture and application in central nervous system diseases
    Fan Wenjuan, Chen Xudong, Deng Jinbo
    2020, 24 (11):  1756-1761.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2046
    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (38332KB) ( 69 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Brain tissue is the most complex structure of human development. Many human brain diseases are difficult to reproduce in animals, so the establishment of an in vitro model of brain development has a very important research value. In recent years, with the rapid development of the field of stem cells, an artificial tissue culture technology has emerged, that is, through the three-dimensional culture in vitro, stem cells from a single cell are produced into a complex structure resembling whole organs, which is called organoids.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of brain organ in recent years from the aspects of the current situation of brain organ culture, pathogenesis, histological characteristics and application in nervous system diseases, and analyze the research defects of brain organ in order to provide reference for the research in related fields.

    METHODS: CNKI, Wanfang, and PubMed databases were searched by the first author for related studies published from January 1998 to June 2019. The keywords were “organoids, cerebral organoids, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, neurogenesis, cerebral cortex, development, neurodegenerative disease” in Chinese, and “organoids, cerebral organoids, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, neurogenesis, cerebral cortex, development, neurological diseases, self-organization” in English. Finally, 45 eligible articles were included in result analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cerebral organoids can be effectively developed in vitro by using the self-organization of pluripotent stem cells and adding nerve-inducing factors. As a new biological culture technology, cerebral organoids have great research and application value in investigating development of living tissue, the mechanism of disease formation, tissue replacement therapy and drug experiments. 

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    Acellular adipose tissue preparation: a soft-tissue filler allowing for allogeneic injection or in situ adipogenesis? 
    Nie Jiaying, Yi Yangyan, Zhu Yuanzheng
    2020, 24 (11):  1762-1768.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2213
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (45850KB) ( 46 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Construction of seedless tissue-engineered adipose tissue from acellular adipose tissue is a hot research topic in soft tissue filling.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of preparation methods of acellular adipose tissue on the induction of adipose regeneration after transplantation in recent years, and to look forward to its clinical application prospects.

    METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed and Elsevier databases was performed to retrieve papers regarding acellular adipose tissue preparation and transplantation published between January 1971 and December 2018 with the search terms “adipose tissue engineering; adipose tissue extracellular matrix; soft tissue repair; angiogenesis; adipogenic induction”. The retrieved papers were summarized from the perspectives of improvement in preparation methods of acellular adipose tissue, cross-linking cytokines and biomaterials.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Retrieved studies have shown that extracellular matrix of adipose tissue can act as an ideal scaffold material for soft tissue filling. Subcutaneous implantation of extracellular matrix of adipose tissue can recruit host stem cells and induce their proliferation and adipogenesis. However, existing acellular schemes can lead to the loss of extracellular matrix proteins and structures. This greatly affects the fat regeneration ability of acellular adipose tissue implanted in vivo. However, supercritical carbon dioxide deoiling, mechanical pretreatment, cross-linking cytokines or biomaterials can reduce the loss of extracellular matrix proteins and supplement the proteins that promote tissue regeneration during the preparation of acellular adipose tissue. This can ultimately enhance the angiogenesis and adipogenesis of acellular adipose tissue after transplantation. Acellular adipose tissue has strong application prospects in adipose tissue engineering because of its natural adipogenic induction ability. If the loss of extracellular matrix protein can be overcome during preparation of acellular adipose tissue or under the premise of safety and controllability, acellular adipose tissue is expected to become a suitable soft tissue filler that allows allogeneic injection and in situ adipogenesis. 

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    Selection of animal models of osteoarthritis
    Liu Xiaochen, Fu Weili
    2020, 24 (11):  1769-1776.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1995
    Abstract ( 580 )   PDF (50076KB) ( 86 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is unknown, and there is no effective treatment. Selecting  appropriate animal models will create a good condition for animal experiments on osteoarthritis.

    OBJECTIVE: To review different experimental animals of osteoarthritis and different modeling methods.

    METHODS: CNKI, WanFang, VIP and PubMed databases were searched for the articles published from January 2013 to July 2018. The keywords were “osteoarthritis, models, animals, mice, rats, goats, guinea pigs, sheep” in Chinese and English, respectively. The repetitive articles were excluded, and the articles related to osteoarthritis and animal models were selected for summary and result analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, sheep and other animals can be used as animal models for osteoarthritis research. When studying animal models of osteoarthritis, it is important to choose the right animal models and construction methods. Non-surgical models will not make damage to the parts except for joints, which is in accordance with the pathological process of osteoarthritis. But it is difficult to control, thus causing errors, and it cannot simulate traumatic changes. Surgical models induce joint injury by tissue damage, which exhibits advantages in rapid disease progress and obvious outcomes. Therefore, surgical models are optimal choice for short-term experiments. Different experimental animals and modeling schemes have their own advantages and disadvantages, which need to be reasonably selected according to the requirements of experiments.

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    Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome: diagnosis, treatment and related influencing factors 
    Chen Xingcai, Kong Cunqing, Xu Lin, Deng Qiongying
    2020, 24 (11):  1777-1782.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2432
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (34401KB) ( 46 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity are important factors affecting metabolic diseases such as fracture, hypertension and dyslipidemia.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and influencing factors of osteosarcopenic obesity and its effects on racture and dyslipidemia, and to explore the role of diet and exercise in preventing osteosarcopenic obesity, so as to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of osteosarcopenic obesity.

    METHODS: The related articles included in PubMed and WANFANG database published from 1990 to 2018 were searched using the following keywords: osteosarcopenic obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, obesity, fracture, dyslipidemia, osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. The language was limited to “English” or “Chinese.” A total of 71 articles were included for analysis and discussion.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The age, sex, nationality or race differences in prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity have been found. (2) The diagnostic criteria of osteosarcopenic obesity, not international standard, have been established in the United States, Europe, Asia and others continents or countries; (3) Osteosarcopenic obesity is affected not only by living and eating habits, but also by genes, cytokines and metabolic hormones. (4) Osteosarcopenic obesity exerts greater impact on fracture and dyslipidemia compared with osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity alone. 

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    Effects of kinesio taping on motor neuromuscular control in chronic ankle instability
    Yin Lulu, Wang Lin
    2020, 24 (11):  1783-1789.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2482
    Abstract ( 521 )   PDF (40926KB) ( 61 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The motor neuromuscular control of the ankle is decreased in individuals with chronic ankle instability, which impairs athletic performance. Kinesio taping has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of chronic ankle instability. However, there is limited research exploring the effects of kinesio taping on motor neuromuscular control in individuals with chronic ankle instability currently, and moreover, the results are in controversy with large heterogeneity.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current research situation of the effects of kinesio taping on motor neuromuscular control in individuals with chronic ankle instability, thereby providing reliable reference in clinical practice.

    METHODS: The first author searched the articles addressing the application of kinesio taping in chronic ankle instability from January 2009 to July 2019 in the databases of PubMed, Cochrane, WOS and CNKI. The keywords were “chronic ankle instability, ankle instability, ankle”, “kinesio tap*, kinesiology tap*, kinaesthetic tap*, tap*” in Chinese and English.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Kinesio taping may improve ankle proprioception and jumping biomechanical performance in individuals with chronic ankle instability, but more high-quality researches are required. There is insufficient evidence to encourage that the use of kinesio taping can facilitate muscle strength, activation characteristics and balance function in individuals with chronic ankle instability. The existing studies have extensive heterogeneity in the selection of subjects, so it is difficult to comprehensively summarize the patients with chronic ankle instability of different exercise types and levels. The included scales of different studies are different, there are obvious differences in the methods, pull, direction, and duration when using kinesio taping, and there is no uniform standard. There is a lack of high-quality meta-analysis for evidence-based argumentation.

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    Improvement of cognitive function in older adults based on near-infrared spectroscopy
    Guo Xiaozheng, Wang Xing
    2020, 24 (11):  1790-1796.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2493
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (42726KB) ( 58 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive aging is an age-related cognitive degeneration that can develop into a cognitive dysfunction in the end stage. There is no clear therapeutic principle in clinical practice, but it is generally recognized that exercises can delay cognitive aging.

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current progress and shortcomings of exercise-delayed cognitive aging based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    METHODS: In line with the PRISMA guidelines, the first author searched PubMed, WOS, CNKI, and WanFang using the keywords of “exercise, near-infrared spectroscopy, cognition, elderly or older adults, cathepsin B, brain-derived neurotrophic factor” in Chinese and English, respectively. Literature addressing senile cognitive function based on the near-infrared spectroscopy technique was retrieved, and 37 eligible articles were retained for further analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We performed a comprehensive analysis of exercise-delayed cognitive aging based on near-infrared spectroscopy and confirmed that exercise improves the activation of cortex in different brain regions and thus improves cognitive function. Long-term aerobic exercise has better effects in the improvement of cognitive function than short-term exercise, which is more conducive to delaying cognitive aging. The underlying physiological mechanism may be that exercise improves blood flow in the brain, stimulates the secretion of neurotrophic factors from the skeletal muscle, and promotes the growth, survival and proliferation of neurons. However, there is no uniform standard for the interventional strategies. There are many links to be further improved, such as integration of individual differences and indexes in different brain regions, procedures for testing physical conditions (cardiovascular and lung diseases), to enhance the reliability of relevant parameters. 

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    Ultrasound-guided paravertebral nerve block for zoster-associated pain: a Meta-analysis
    Song Xudong, He Yunwu, Li Yonglin, Chen Jing, Hu Junlan
    2020, 24 (11):  1797-1804.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2503
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (27815KB) ( 57 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Current studies have shown that ultrasound-guided paravertebrospinal nerve block widely used has a significant effect in the clinical treatment of thoracolumbar zoster-associated pain.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided paravertebral nerve block in the treatment of thoracolumbar zoster-associated pain and to provide reference for clinical treatment.

    METHODS: We searched relevant literature in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP) and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). The limit of searching time was from inception until January 1, 2019. Randomized controlled trials addressing ultrasound-guided paravertebral nerve block (experimental group) versus drug therapy (control group) for the treatment of acute zoster-associated pain or postherpetic neuralgia were collected according to the criteria for inclusion and exclusion. Literature quality was assessed according to Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 bias risk assessment tool. The literature data were analyzed using Revman 5.3 software through a Meta-analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 916 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, the ultrasound-guided paravertebral nerve block group had better analgesic effect and the optimal analgesic effect appeared within 1-4 weeks. A random effects model was then used [1st week: mean difference (MD)=-0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-1.22, -0.61), P < 0.000 01; 2nd week: MD=-1.11, 95%CI (-1.52, -0.70), P < 0.000 01; 3rd week: MD=-1.26, 95%CI (-1.79, -0.74), P < 0.000 01; 4th week: MD=-0.90, 95%CI (-1.57, -0.24), P=0.007]. At the same time, the quality of sleep and the effective rate of treatment were improved, and a fixed effects model was used [odds ratio=3.63, 95%CI (2.38, 5.53), P < 0.000 01]. The statistical results showed significant difference. There was no increase in post-treatment adverse reactions. Therefore, ultrasound-guided paravertebral nerve block is safe and effective for the treatment of zoster-associated pain in the thoracolumbar region. 

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