There are many kinds of microorganisms in the mouth, forming a complex microenvironment, and microflora disorders can cause a series of oral diseases. At present, the use of antibacterial drugs is mainly oral or topical, but due to the rapid decomposition and release of antibiotics, the resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics continues to increase, often resulting in poor clinical efficacy. In recent years, studies have found that chitosan and its derivatives have good antibacterial activity. With the development of nanotechnology, chitosan and its derivatives in different forms are widely studied in the field of antibacterial.
To review the main antibacterial mechanisms of chitosan and its derivatives and their application in the field of oral antimicrobials in different forms.
The computer was applied to search articles related to chitosan and its derivatives in the field of oral antimicrobials on PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI databases. The search terms were “chitosan, chitosan derivative, antibacterial activity, antibacterial mechanism, oral” in Chinese and English. The retrieval time was from the establishment of the database to April 2022.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Chitosan, also known as deacetylacetyl chitin, is the primary derivative of chitin after deacetyl group, and is the only cationic alkaline polysaccharide found so far. Chitosan and its derivatives have been widely studied in the field of oral antibacterial as nano-antibacterial agents. (2) The antibacterial mechanism most recognized by chitosan and its derivatives at present is electrostatic action, that is, the interaction between the positive charge carried by the chitosan molecule and the negative charge carried by the microbial cell membrane, which changes the permeability of the cell and thus achieves the antibacterial purpose. (3) The antibacterial properties of chitosan are related to a variety of factors. These factors mainly include: microbial origin, chitosan intrinsic factors (including: deacetylity and concentration, molecular weight, and polymerization degree). Different sources of chitosan and irregular specific environmental factors (such as temperature and pH value) will also greatly affect the antibacterial ability of chitosan. (4) Chitosan and its derivatives can be used as carriers of antibacterial drugs on the one hand to promote the healing of mouth ulcers; on the other hand, polymer composite scaffolds can be formed as greener oral antibacterial preparations, enhancing the antibacterial properties of oral materials in the form of nano-antibacterial fillers. In addition, it can also be used as nano-composite films and coatings to inhibit the production of biofilms of common oral strains. (5) In addition, the antibacterial application of chitosan and its derivatives is still in the experimental stage, and its antibacterial mechanism is not yet fully understood, so further research is needed to confirm the biosafety of chitosan and its derivatives.