BACKGROUND: Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation is widely used to treat various intertrochanteric fractures. Although its operation trauma is small, and the blood loss of perioperative period is still large. Tranexamic acid has been gradually used to reduce the bleeding of intertrochanteric fracture. The effectiveness and safety of reducing blood loss during perioperative period were not reported.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid on perioperative blood loss in patients with intertrochanteric fracture undergoing proximal femoral nail anti-rotation.
METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with intertrochanteric fracture undergoing proximal femoral nail anti-rotation were selected from First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between January 2015 and January 2017. Among all the subjects, 52 patients who received the operation before January 2016 served as the control group and 56 patients who received the operation after January 2016 were selected as the treatment group. Half an hour before operation, patients in the treatment group received 1 g tranexamic acid dissolved in 250 mL normal saline by intravenous dropping; patients in the control group just received 250 mL normal saline by intravenous dropping. The bleeding volume, blood transfusion volume, hemoglobin, hematocrit, coagulation index, D-dimer levels and complications were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
(1) During perioperative period, actual blood loss, intraoperative blood loss, dominant blood loss, recessive blood loss, volume of drainage, blood transfusion volume and blood transfusion rate were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (P
< 0.05). (2) There was no statistically significant difference in the hemoglobin and hematocrit between the two groups before operation (P
> 0.05). The hemoglobin and hematocrit of the two groups gradually decreased after the operation, and there was a slight improvement in the fifth day after surgery. At postoperative 2 hours, 1, 3 and 5 days, the hemoglobin and hematocrit of the treatment group were higher than in the control group (P
< 0.05). At preoperation and each time point postoperation, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were not statistically significant between the two groups (P
> 0.05). Postoperative D-dimer levels in the two groups were significantly higher than preoperation, and there was a return on the fifth day. There was no statistically significant difference between groups at preoperation and each time point of postoperation (P
> 0.05). (3) The results suggest that the tranexamic acid can effectively reduce the dominant and recessive blood loss in patients with the intertrochanteric fracture, and it is safe and effective.