BACKGROUND: The studies have shown that exercise is an important part of the treatment of osteoporosis, and moderate exercise can improve bone metabolism, improve the biomechanical properties of bone and increase bone density.
OBJECTIVE: From aspects of the effects of exercise on bone metabolism, bone biomechanics and bone mineral density in different age, and effects of exercise pattern, exercise intensity, exercise time and frequency on osteoporosis, to investigate the research status of exercise intervention on primary osteoporosis.
METHODS: PubMed database and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Database were retrieved for articles published from January 2000 to June 2014. The keywords were “osteoporosis; bone density; bone diseases, metabolic; exercise therapy” in English and Chinese. According to the inclusion criteria, 33 articles were further summarized.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the experiments of exercise effect on bone metabolism, the moderate-intensity exercise stimulation and estrogen can improve osteoporosis, and has positive significance for the prevention, mitigation and treatment of osteoporosis. After the appropriate amount of exercise training, in vivo bone remodeling of ovariectomized rats at high conversion status can be alleviated. Research about the effects of exercise on bone biomechanics have shown that exercise and estrogen can significantly increase bone mineral density and bone biomechanical properties of rat femur, but the exercise can better improve bone hardness and enhance the ability of bone to resist deformation. It suggests that the exercise training has a good stimulation effect on the bone and muscle in rats with osteoporosis, and increased muscle also has a good stimulating effect on the quality of bone. The results suggest that by participating in sports activities more early, higher peak bone mass may be obtained; at any time to start regular exercise has a positive effect for the maintenance of the certain bone mass. Exercises in different periods exhibit different effects, which can increase bone mass in childhood, obtain bone mass and save bone mass in adulthood, preserve bone mass and reduce bone loss in the elderly. Therefore, the effects of different exercise pattern, intensity and frequency on bone mineral density are different, and patients should choose the appropriate exercise based on the actual situation,.