Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research ›› 2023, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 1062-1070.doi: 10.12307/2023.103

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Carbon nanomaterials in oral implant

Xu Xingxing, Wen Chaoju, Meng Maohua, Wang Qinying, Chen Jingqiao, Dong Qiang   

  1. School of Stomatology, Guizhou Medical University/Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou Province, China
  • Received:2021-08-30 Accepted:2021-10-28 Online:2023-03-08 Published:2022-07-19
  • Contact: Dong Qiang, MD, Chief physician, Master’s supervisor, School of Stomatology, Guizhou Medical University/Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou Province, China
  • About author:Xu Xingxing, Master candidate, School of Stomatology, Guizhou Medical University/Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou Province, China
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81860192 (to DQ); Guiyang Science and Technology Plan Project, No. [2017]3040 (to DQ); the Scientific Research Fund of Stomatological College of Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Guizhou Medical University (to WCJ)

Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the continuous progress and development of oral nanomaterials, a large number of studies have found that carbon nanomaterials are widely used in the field of oral implant. 
OBJECTIVE: To review the main classification, structural characteristics, osteogenesis, antibacterial, protein/drug carrier and related applications of carbon nanomaterials in oral implant.  
METHODS: After clarifying the classification of carbon nanomaterials, the Chinese search terms were “graphene/carbon nanotubes/Carbon Nanofibers/carbon nanomaterials, oral implant/osteogenesis and oral cavity/antibacterial and oral cavity/drug loaded and oral cavity”. English search terms were “Graphene/carbon nanotubes/Carbon Nanofibers/carbon nanomaterials, dental implant/osteogenesis AND oral/ antibacterial AND oral/drug loaded AND oral”. The first author searched the relevant articles published from January 1998 to August 2021 in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and PubMed databases by computer. The search time limit of some classical articles was extended. Finally, 64 English articles and 9 Chinese articles were included according to the inclusion criteria.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Carbon nanomaterials are mainly divided into three categories: zero dimensional, one-dimensional and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Because of their unique spatial structure and good physical and chemical properties, they have a great application potential in implant surface coating, scaffold material modification, drug loading, and preparation of barrier membrane. (2) In addition, the osteogenic and antibacterial effects of the material are also conducive to the formation of stable bone integration and good soft tissue sealing. It also has certain research significance in the prevention and treatment of periimplant inflammation. (3) There are many kinds of carbon nanomaterials. Many studies also functionalize carbon nanomaterials and other biomolecular materials into composites, so that some properties can be obtained. In addition, carbon nanomaterials also have antibacterial effect, and graphene is often functionalized with other antibacterial agents (such as silver nanoparticles) to enhance antibacterial performance. (4) In general, graphene, as a typical two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, has always been a research hotspot in oral implant and other fields. Graphene oxide is a widely used class of graphene derivative materials. It is found that when it is applied to implant surface modification, it has certain research significance in the treatment and prevention of periimplant inflammation. (5) However, the research on the signaling pathway and immune regulation mechanism of stem cell differentiation/osteogenesis induced by carbon nanomaterials is not clear, and the cytotoxicity, degradation and adverse reactions of materials still need to be further studied. (6) At present, a cost-effective, scalable and repeatable process for the preparation of carbon nanomaterials and the evaluation index of material biocompatibility need to be studied. In addition, it is also necessary to further study the significance of carbon nanomaterials in the prevention and treatment of periimplant inflammation when applied to implant surface coating.

Key words: graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanomaterials, dental implant, osteogenesis, coating, antibacterial, drug carrier, tissue engineering, review

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