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    08 December 2024, Volume 28 Issue 34 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Effect of hydrogen-rich gas on proprioception and muscle endurance after high-intensity exercise
    Dong Gengxin, Li Yiting, Hong Yinglu, Bao Dapeng
    2024, 28 (34):  5413-5418.  doi: 10.12307/2024.836
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (896KB) ( 23 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Hydrogen, as an antioxidant, can reduce oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise and achieve the effect of improving fatigue. Several studies have been reported on the potential effects of hydrogen-rich water or hydrogen-rich gas on improving exercise fatigue and athletic performance.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich gas inhalation prior to high-intensity exercise on proprioception and muscular endurance performance after exercise fatigue. 
    METHODS: Through a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and repeated measurement experimental design, 24 healthy men were randomly divided into group A and group B, with 12 in each group. In the first phase of the crossover experiment, group A inhaled hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen group) for 20 minutes and group B inhaled placebo gas (air; placebo group) for 20 minutes. Then, cycle ergometers were used to establish the fatigue model. Visual analog fatigue scale, heart rate variability, knee joint proprioception (passive position perception, joint motion perception, and muscle force perception) and isometric knee extension muscle endurance were tested before and after intervention. After a 7-day washout period, two groups exchanged intervention methods and the above tests were performed again in the second phase of the experiment. Differences between the results of groups A and B in the two phases were compared, and finally the results of the two phases were integrated to compare the overall differences between hydrogen intervention and placebo intervention. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the first phase of the crossover experiment, the visual analog fatigue scale score of the hydrogen group after intervention was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (P < 0.01). The root mean square of the difference between the adjacent R-R, mean low-frequency output power, mean high-frequency output power, and isometric muscle endurance after intervention in the hydrogen group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Passive position perception and joint motion perception after intervention in the hydrogen group were significantly better than those in the placebo group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in muscle force perception between the two groups (P > 0.05), but muscle force perception in the placebo group after intervention was significantly worse than that before intervention (P < 0.01). The difference trend of all test results after intervention in the two groups in the first phase of the experiment showed the same results in the second phase of the experiment. The integrated results also showed that the hydrogen group had better test values for the above indicators than the placebo group (P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between post-intervention visual analog fatigue scale scores and passive position perception results (r=0.327, P=0.023), i.e., the higher subjective fatigue level after high-intensity exercise indicated the worse passive position perception results. To conclude, inhaling hydrogen-rich gas before high-intensity exercise can reduce the degree of fatigue after exercise, thereby improving proprioception and muscle endurance performance, which may be a new strategy to reduce the occurrence of injury. And its effectiveness can be achieved repeatedly.
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    Relationship between muscle activation characterization and fall risk in older adults during walking up and down stairs
    Dong Hongming, Li Jianping, Liu Chao, Zhang Honghao, Li Guqiang
    2024, 28 (34):  5419-5424.  doi: 10.12307/2024.837
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (847KB) ( 20 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: During stair walking, different muscles work in concert and compensate for each other, and it is unclear whether weakened muscle strength actually affects stair fall risk in older adults. Real-time electromyographic signals from older adults during stair walking are used to reflect high fall risk in older adults during stair walking, which may further improve the accuracy of prediction methods.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of aging on lower limb muscle activation in older adults during stair walking and to analyze the relationship between their muscle activation characteristics and stair fall risk.
    METHODS: Subjects were divided by age into an older group (n=19) and a younger group (n=18) group and were asked to walk on a 10-step staircase at a natural speed, incorporating surface electromyography acquisition technology, to capture surface electromyography signals during stair walking and calculate the root mean square (RMS) to analyze differences in muscle activation levels. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to establish a predictive model for stair fall risk in older adults by incorporating the lateral femoral and gastrocnemius muscle RMS. The discrimination of the model was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve, and the fit of the model was evaluated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Activation of the rectus femoris (Z=-3.464, P=0.001; t=3.379, P=0.002) and lateral gastrocnemius muscle (Z=-2.978, P=0.003; Z=-3.555, P < 0.001) was higher in older adults than in younger adults when walking up and down stairs. Activation of the anterior tibialis (Z=-2.350, P=0.019) and medial (Z=2.321, P=0.020) and lateral (t=3.158, P=0.004) gastrocnemius muscles was higher in older adults when ascending stairs than descending stairs. Older adults at risk for falls had less activation of the lateral femoral muscle (Z=-2.613, P=0.009), medial gastrocnemius muscle (Z=-2.286, P=0.022) when walking upstairs, and lateral femoral muscle (Z=-2.368, P=0.018) when walking downstairs than did older adults not at risk for falls. The predictive ability, goodness of fit, and discrimination of the stair fall prediction model for older adults based on surface electromyography were good (P-value of 0.010 for the Omnibus test of the model coefficients, P-value of 0.214 for the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the area of the curve of the upper staircase lateral femoral muscle=0.856, P=0.009). (5) The model was modeled with a cut-off value of 38.64 for the upper staircase lateral femoral muscle RMS value and there was a 0.952-fold increase in the risk of staircase falls for each unit decrease in the upper staircase lateral femoral muscle RMS in older adults.
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    Effect of time-restricted diet on infrapatellar fat pad in high-fat diet-induced obese rats and relevant mechanisms
    Ding Yukun, Zhu Cuiling, Zhang Xiaodong
    2024, 28 (34):  5425-5431.  doi: 10.12307/2024.826
    Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (2068KB) ( 16 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Overweight or obesity is the most significant risk factors for knee osteoarthritis. Time-restricted diet shows an effective effect in preventing overweight or obesity. Whether infrapatellar fat pad, an important component of the knee joint, is affected by time-restricted diet and thus influences knee osteoarthritis remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To employ a high-fat diet-induced rat model to investigate the effect of weight loss by time-restricted diet on infrapatellar fat pad, thereby providing evidence for early prevention and treatment of obesity-related knee osteoarthritis. 
    METHODS: Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=5 per group). Rats in the control group were allowed to eat at will for 24 hours and were fed the defined control diet (12% fat); rats in the high-fat diet group were allowed to eat at will for 24 hours and were fed the high-fat diet (45% fat); and rats in the high-fat diet with time-restricted diet group were fed the high-fat diet only from 9:00 (2 hours after the light) to 17:00 (2 hours before the dark). After 8 weeks of feeding, mDixon-Quant sequence was used to assess proton density fat fraction in the infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the right inguinal region. ELISA was used to quantify differences adipokine. Sirius red staining was used to evaluate changes in fibrosis of the infrapatellar fat pad. The expressions of uncoupling protein-1 in the infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the right inguinal region as well as leptin, adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α in the infrapatellar fat pad were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 8 weeks of feeding, compared with the high-fat diet group, the body mass of rats in the control group (P=0.036) and the high-fat diet with time-restricted diet group (P=0.003) was significantly reduced. The proton density fat fraction in the infrapatellar fat pad in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.001) and the high-fat diet with time-restricted diet group (P=0.004), while there was no significant difference in the proton density fat fraction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue among the three groups. The serum leptin levels of rats in the high-fat diet group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P=0.030) and the high-fat diet with time-restricted diet group (P=0.018). Compared with the high-fat diet group, the infrapatellar fat pad fibrosis characterized by Sirius red staining in the control group (P < 0.001) and the time-restricted diet group (P=0.003) was significantly decreased. The expression of leptin in IFP of the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001) and the high-fat diet with time-restricted diet group (P < 0.001). The expression of adiponectin in the infrapatellar fat pad of the high-fat diet group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P=0.004) and the high-fat diet with time-restricted feeding group (P=0.048). However, there was no positive expression of uncoupling protein-1 in the infrapatellar fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue of all the three groups, and no positive expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the infrapatellar fat pad. To conclude, time-restricted diet could retard the fibrosis of the infrapatellar fat pad, reduce the proton density fat fraction of the infrapatellar fat pad, and affect the level of adipokine in serum and infrapatellar fat pad. Time-restricted diet may become a simple and effective option for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related knee osteoarthritis.
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    Serum differential proteomic analysis of developmental cervical canal stenosis
    Bu Xianzhong, Zhong Yuanming, Bu Baoxian, Li Jitian, Wang Lihe, Li Huiying, Yang Hanli, Xu Wei
    2024, 28 (34):  5432-5439.  doi: 10.12307/2024.823
    Abstract ( 88 )   PDF (2662KB) ( 7 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Serum-specific biomarkers between normal healthy individuals and populations with developmental cervical canal stenosis (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome) have not been fully defined.
    OBJECTIVE: To screen and identify the potential biomarkers of developmental cervical canal stenosis with Qi deficiency and blood stasis.
    METHODS: Serum samples were collected from nine patients with developmental cervical canal stenosis with Qi deficiency and blood stasis and eight healthy people. Differentially expressed proteins in serum were screened and identified using isotope relative labeling and absolute quantification combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Western blot was used to verify some significant differentially expressed proteins. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 61 differentially expressed proteins (P < 0.05) were identified using tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Compared with the healthy normal population group, 14 differentially expressed proteins such as complement component C1q receptor, apolipoprotein A4, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 18 were significantly upregulated, while 47 differentially expressed proteins such as myosin light chain 3, mitochondrial translation elongation factor, and nucleolar phosphoprotein 1 were significantly downregulated. The results of gene ontology enrichment analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins might participate in molecular functions such as regulation of chromosomal tissue, mitochondrial membrane tissue, and muscle system processes. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that 38 common differential proteins, including complement component C1q receptor, apolipoprotein A4, C-C motif chemokine ligand 18, myosin light chain 3, mitochondrial translation elongation factor, and nucleolar phosphoprotein 1, were located at functional network nodes between healthy normal individuals and those with developmental cervical canal stenosis (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome), and were closely related to the local energy metabolism of the cervical spine, the production of cervical vertebral osteocytes, and the formation of osteoclasts. The main differentially expressed protein myosin light chain 3 was validated using western blot assay, and the validation results were consistent with the proteomic results. To conclude, the preliminary discovery of differentially expressed proteins in serum between healthy normal individuals and those with developmental cervical canal stenosis (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome) through absolute quantitative technology combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology suggests that myosin light chain 3 may be a specific serum marker for developmental cervical canal stenosis (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome).
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    Caveolin-1 mediated fluid shear stress regulates proliferation and apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts
    Yi Zhi, Zhan Hongwei, Wang Yaobin, Liang Xiaoyuan, Niu Yongkang, Xiang Dejian, Geng Bin, Xia Yayi
    2024, 28 (34):  5440-5445.  doi: 10.12307/2024.840
    Abstract ( 84 )   PDF (1621KB) ( 40 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Fluid shear stress plays an important role in osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis.  However, whether Caveolin-1 is involved in the process of fluid shear stress-induced proliferation and apoptosis in osteoblasts is unknown. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of Caveolin-1 in fluid shear stress-regulated osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis.
    METHODS: The MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts in good growth status were selected and loaded with fluid shear stress at an intensity of 1.2 Pa for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 minutes). The expression of Caveolin-1 protein was observed and conditions with a time of 60 minutes were screened for the experiment. MC3T3-E1 cells were divided into control group, fluid shear stress group, fluid shear stress+pcDNA 3.1 group (control), fluid shear stress+pcDNA Cav-1 group (plasmid overexpression), and intervened with fluid shear stress and overexpression of Cav-1, respectively. The expression of molecules related to proliferation and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells was detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. In addition, the proliferative activity of MC3T3-E1 cells was detected by cell counting kit-8 and EdU assay; and cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression of Caveolin-1 in MC3T3-E1 cells was significantly down-regulated after loading fluid shear stress, and the expression level was lowest after 60 minutes. Overexpression of Caveolin-1 attenuated the proliferation-promoting and apoptosis-suppressing effects of fluid shear stress in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, Caveolin-1 has a vital role in fluid shear stress-regulated osteoblast proliferation and apoptosis, which may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis.
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    Celecoxib inhibits thrombin-induced chondrocyte degeneration in rats
    Zhu Zhiheng, Ding Jiaying, Ge Yangshuo, Huang Chunmeng, Shen Jun, Wang Xuezong, Zheng Yuxin, Ding Daofang
    2024, 28 (34):  5446-5451.  doi: 10.12307/2024.834
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (1483KB) ( 17 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The content of serum thrombin in patients with osteoarthritis is significantly higher than that in normal individuals, and thrombin can induce inflammatory degeneration of rat chondrocytes, suggesting that inhibiting the function of thrombin may become a method for treating osteoarthritis. Celecoxib is a common therapeutic drug for the clinical treatment of osteoarthritis. It is not yet known whether it improves chondrocyte degeneration by inhibiting the activity of thrombin.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of celecoxib on thrombin-induced degeneration of rat chondrocytes.
    METHODS: Thrombin levels in the serum of osteoarthritis patients and normal individuals were detected by an ELISA kit. Primary chondrocytes of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated, and all experiments were performed with cells from passage one. Chondrocytes were randomly divided into three groups: control group, thrombin group, and celecoxib group. The cell morphology of the three groups was observed under an inverted microscope, and an Edu kit was used to detect the cell proliferation. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of extracellular matrix components (aggrecan, elastin, cartilage oligomeric matrix proteins), inflammatory factors (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α), and chemokines (monocyte chemotactic protein 2, monocyte chemotactic protein 7, granulocyte chemotactic protein 6). The expression of type 2 collagen α1 was detected by immunofluorescence. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of catabolic metabolism genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9, matrix metalloproteinase 13, and cyclooxygenase 2.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients with osteoarthritis had higher levels of thrombin in the serum compared with normal individuals. Under the microscope, celecoxib was found to significantly inhibit fibroid changes in chondrocytes. Compared with the thrombin group, celecoxib inhibited the proliferation of chondrocytes. The downregulation of extracellular matrix gene expression, such as type II collagen α1, in the thrombin group was inhibited by celecoxib (P < 0.05). Thrombin promoted the expression of inflammatory factors (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α), chemokines (monocyte chemotactic protein 2, monocyte chemotactic protein 7, granulocyte chemotactic protein 6), as well as catabolic genes (matrix metalloproteinase 9, matrix metalloproteinase 13, and cyclooxygenase 2), and under the intervention of celecoxib, the expression of these genes could be downregulated (P < 0.05). Overall, these findings indicate that celecoxib inhibits the pro-inflammatory effects of thrombin and thereby ameliorates chondrocyte degeneration in rats.
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    Regulation of chondrocyte autophagy by acupotomy to promote chondrocyte homeostasis in osteoarthritis
    Jia Xiaofei, Ran Li, Ma Xiaoshuang, Hei Xiaoyan, Liu Jiani, Yang Nan, Ma Haibin, Chang Jingpeng
    2024, 28 (34):  5452-5457.  doi: 10.12307/2024.830
    Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (1630KB) ( 14 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Acupotomy is an effective method for the clinical treatment of osteoarthritis, with affirmed clinical outcomes, but the specific mechanisms remain unclear
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of acupotomy in modulating chondrocyte autophagy to promote chondrocyte homeostasis in osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into control group, osteoarthritis group, acupotomy group, and hyaluronic acid group, with seven rabbits in each group. The knee osteoarthritis rabbit model was prepared using the Videman method in the latter three groups. After modeling, the control group and osteoarthritis group received no interventions. The acupotomy group received acupotomy treatment 15 minutes per time, once a week, while the hyaluronic acid group received intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid once a week, with a continuous treatment duration of 5 weeks. The day after the final intervention, knee joint macrostructure was observed using DR imaging, chondrocyte ultrastructure was examined through transmission electron microscopy, apoptosis of chondrocytes was assessed using Tunel staining, and western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins related to the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The DR imaging results revealed that the osteoarthritis group exhibited narrowed knee joint spaces and the formation of periarticular osteophytes, while the hyaluronic acid group and acupotomy group showed widened knee joint spaces with a reduction in periarticular osteophytes. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated a decreased number of autophagosomes in chondrocytes in the osteoarthritis group, along with nuclear shrinkage, nuclear membrane rupture, incomplete organelle morphology, and a clear tendency towards cell death. In contrast, both the hyaluronic acid group and acupotomy group exhibited a significant increase in autophagosomes, intact nuclear membranes, and a well-preserved cellular state. Tunel staining results indicated a considerable decrease in the number of apoptotic cells in the hyaluronic acid group and acupotomy group compared with the osteoarthritis group. Western blot results revealed that, compared with the control group, the expression levels of Beclin1, Cath D, and LC3II/LC3I were significantly decreased in the osteoarthritis group (P < 0.05), while the expression levels of p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly increased ( P < 0.05); compared with the osteoarthritis group, the expression levels of Beclin1, Cath D, and LC3II/LC3I were significantly increased in both the hyaluronic acid group and acupotomy group (P < 0.05), while the expression levels of p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). To conclude, acupotomy intervention can modulate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to enhance the autophagic level in chondrocytes, thereby maintaining chondrocyte homeostasis. This ultimately leads to a slowdown in cartilage degeneration.
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    Extracts of Sambucus adnata Wall. inhibit abnormal angiogenesis in a rat model of osteoarthritis
    Jiang Zixian, Lu Yuchun, Li Chaomeng, Zheng Meimei, Li Xiufang, Wang Wenjing
    2024, 28 (34):  5458-5466.  doi: 10.12307/2024.808
    Abstract ( 98 )   PDF (3164KB) ( 12 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that extracts of Sambucus adnata Wall. have the ability to promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, fracture healing, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which can effectively alleviate the development of osteoarthritis. Vascular endothelial growth factor, on the other hand, is a biomarker for the evaluation of osteoarthritis severity.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of two extracts of Sambucus adnata Wall. (methanol extract SAW-ME and dichloromethane extract SAW-DCE) on angiogenesis in osteoarthritis. 
    METHODS: (1) Rat models of osteoarthritis were established using anterior cruciate ligament transection and given SAW-ME and SAW-DCE. A sham group was set as a control. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to detect the changes of articular vascular endothelial growth factor A in joint tissue and vascular endothelial growth factor and “H” type blood vessels in serum of osteoarthritis rats. (2) Vascular endothelial cells EA.hy926 were used as the research object and intervened with SAW-ME and SAW-DCE. Cell proliferation was then detected by MTT assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor was used to induce EA.hy926 cells, and the model of angiogenesis was replicated. Cell scratch assay and tube formation assay were performed to study the role and mechanism. (3) EA.hy926 cells were used for transcriptome sequencing to analyze the characteristic changes of cell differential genes and related functions after SAW-DCE intervention. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) SAW-ME and SAW-DCE downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in the rat knee cartilage and reduced the formation of “H” type vessels in osteoarthritis rats. SAW-ME could significantly decrease the level of vascular endothelial growth factor in serum of osteoarthritis rats (P < 0.05). SAW-DCE could also decrease the level of vascular endothelial growth factor in serum of osteoarthritis rats, but there was no significant change. (2) Both SAW-ME and SAW-DCE significantly inhibited vascular endothelial cell migration and tube formation, and downregulated the expression of Ang1 and Tie2 proteins. (3) Transcriptome sequencing analysis found that abnormal angiogenesis in osteoarthritis was related to the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. (4) To conclude, SAW-ME and SAW-DCE can inhibit angiogenesis in the rat model of osteoarthritis, and the mechanism may be related to the Ang1/Tie2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
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    Catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa regulates senescence in ATDC5 chondrocytes
    Jia Ruiying, Mei Jie, He Qiang, Li Dan, Sun Xin, Qian Weiqing, Liu Zhen
    2024, 28 (34):  5467-5472.  doi: 10.12307/2024.832
    Abstract ( 87 )   PDF (1847KB) ( 7 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The results of in vivo and in vitro studies showed that catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa can significantly reduce the level of inflammatory indexes in the synovial tissue of rats with knee osteoarthritis, and meanwhile, it can delay the progression of knee osteoarthritis. But whether catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa affects chondrocyte senescence and then delay the progression of knee osteoarthritis has not yet been clarified.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate investigate whether catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa could regulate ATDC5 chondrocyte senescence and the possible mechanisms. 
    METHODS: ATDC5 chondrocytes were divided into blank group (0.1% bovine serum albumin), model group (0.1% bovine serum albumin+1 µmol/L adriamycin), low-dose catalpol group (0.1% bovine serum albumin+1 µmol/L adriamycin+20 µmol/L catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa) and high-dose catalpol group (0.1% bovine serum albumin+1 µmol/L adriamycin+80 µmol/L catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa). Adriamycin-induced ATDC5 chondrocyte senescence model was constructed, and the corresponding treatments were given according to the above groups. Cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect the effects of catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa on ATDC5 chondrocyte viability, and to screen the optimal concentration of catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa. The senescence of ATDC5 chondrocytes in each group was detected by β-galactosidase staining after the corresponding treatments. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of P21, P53, type II collagen, matrix metalloproteinase 13, and interleukin-6. Immunofluorescence method was used to detect the expression of P21, P53 and type II collagen. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis in each group. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ATDC5 chondrocytes were identified to be successfully induced and senescence model was induced. Catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa at the concentrations of 0, 20, 40, and 80 µmol/L showed no significant effects on the cell viability, suggesting that catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa is non-cytotoxic and can be used safely (P > 0.05); when the concentration was ≥ 100 µmol/L, the cell viability was reduced, suggesting that there may be cytotoxic. Therefore, 80 µmol/L was chosen as the high dose for subsequent experiments in this study. The percentage of positive cells in the model group was (86.93±2.18)%, which was significantly higher than that in the blank group [(17.32±0.72)%; P < 0.05]. Compared with the model group, the percentage of positive cells was significantly lower in the low- and high-dose catalpol groups [(57.28±1.73)% and (27.18±0.97)%, respectively; both P < 0.05]. Compared with the model group, the relative expression of P21, P53, matrix metalloproteinase 13, and interleukin-6 at mRNA and protein levels was significantly downregulated in the low- and high-dose catalpol groups, while the relative expression of type II collagen at mRNA and protein levels was significantly upregulated in both groups (P < 0.05), especially in the high-dose catalpol group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the fluorescence intensities of P21 and P53 were significantly weakened in the low- and high-dose catalpol groups, while the fluorescence intensity of type II collagen was significantly enhanced in the low- and high-dose catalpol groups (P < 0.05), especially in the high-dose catalpol group (P < 0.05). The cell apoptosis detected by Annexin V/PI method showed that there was no significant difference between the model group and the blank group (P > 0.05); compared with the model group, the apoptotic index was significantly elevated in the low- and high-dose catalpol groups, especially in the high-dose catalpol group (P < 0.05). To conclude, catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa can slow the progression of osteoarthritis by promoting apoptosis of senescent ATDC5 chondrocytes, further removing senescent ATDC5 chondrocytes, and decreasing the senescence-associated phenotypes.
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    Moxibustion inhibits NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway mediated cell pyroptosis and alleviates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Yu Yanyan, Liu Juan, Yang Yue, Wang Qianhui, Li Shan, Jiang Jie
    2024, 28 (34):  5473-5479.  doi: 10.12307/2024.721
    Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (1385KB) ( 10 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: It was found that moxibustion can inhibit the inflammatory factors in the serum of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, resist oxidative stress, inhibit cell apoptosis, and effectively reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of different moxibustion intervention time on the expression levels of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like protein 3 inflammasome (NLRP3), cysteine aspartase (caspase-1), apoptosis-related speck-like protein, exfoliatin-D protein, interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and to explore its action mechanism.
    METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (n=9) and operation group (n=36). The model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the operation group. After successful modeling, the rats in the operation group were further divided into model group, moxibustion 10-minute group, moxibustion 15-minute group and moxibustion 30-minute group, with 9 rats in each group. Rats in the moxibustion 10-minute, 15-minute and 30-minute groups were given moxibustion at “Baihui, Dazhui and Zusanli”, respectively, once a day for a total of 7 days. The neurological deficits of rats were evaluated by LONGA method. The cerebral infarction was observed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The pathological changes of brain tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The contents of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in serum of rats in each group were detected by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay were used to detect the expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, apoptosis-related spot-like protein and gasdermin D in the ischemic cortex of rats in each group.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham operation group, the neurological deficit score of the model group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score of the moxibustion groups was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Compared with the sham operation group, the infarct volume of the model group was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the infarct volume of the moxibustion groups was significantly reduced (P < 0.01); the infarct volume of the rats was smallest in the moxibustion 30-minute group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of inflammatory factors interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 in the serum of rats in the moxibustion groups were decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the moxibustion 10-minute group, the contents of inflammatory factors in the serum of rats in the moxibustion 30-minute group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-related spot-like protein, Caspase-1 and gasdermin D protein in the ischemic cortex of the moxibustion groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Compared with the moxibustion 10-minute and 15-minute groups, the expression of protein in the moxibustion 30-minute group was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). It is concluded that moxibustion at Baihui, Dazhui and Zusanli can reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, among which moxibustion for 30 minutes has the best effect, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of pyroptosis mediated by NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway. 
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    Preparation and characteristics comparison of three acute pancreatitis rat models
    Niu Xiaolong, Chen Jialiang, Zheng Huaqun, Yang Guimei, Yao Guangtao
    2024, 28 (34):  5480-5486.  doi: 10.12307/2024.835
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (1520KB) ( 12 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Establishing a stable and reliable animal model of acute pancreatitis is of great significance for understanding its pathogenesis, pathophysiological characteristics, and clinical medication. Domestic and foreign studies have shown that cerulein, L-arginine, and sodium taurocholate can induce acute pancreatitis, but their pathophysiological characteristics and model characteristics are still unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish an acute pancreatitis rat model using cerulein, L-arginine, and sodium taurocholate and to observe the changing patterns of model features at different time points.
    METHODS: Ninety-six healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, cerulein group, L-arginine group, and sodium taurocholate group, with 24 rats in each group. Within each group, there were three subgroups (n=8 per group): 12-, 24-, and 48-hour subgroups. Cerulein was administered via intraperitoneal injection six times with a 1-hour interval. L-arginine was administered through two intraperitoneal injections with a 1-hour interval. Sodium taurocholate was injected for inducing acute pancreatitis models through retrograde injection into the bile-pancreatic duct. By examining the rat survival rate, gross morphology of the pancreas, calculating the pancreatic organ index, and measuring levels of amylase, lipase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, as well as observing pancreatic tissue pathological features through hematoxylin-eosin staining and conducting a pancreatic injury scoring, we evaluated the changing patterns of model features at different time points.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal group, the overall survival rate of rats was 100% in the cerulein group, 88% in the L-arginine group, and 96% in the sodium taurocholate group. The pancreatic organ index was increased in all groups. Gross observation indicated that, In the cerulein group, pancreatic edema, blurred lobes, and looseness were visible. In the L-arginine group, the pancreatic glands were enlarged and thickened with patchy bleeding. In the sodium taurocholate group, pancreatic tissue showed varying degrees of congestion and edema accompanied by scattered flakes of hemorrhage and necrosis. The levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, amylase, and lipase in rats exhibited consistent changes. In the cerulein group, these parameters possibly peaked at 12 hours (P < 0.05) and then showed a declining trend. In the L-arginine group, they reached the highest levels at 24 hours (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased at 48 hours. In the sodium taurocholate group, serum amylase and lipase remained at higher levels at 12 hours with a slow decline trend (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal group, microscopic examination revealed mild acinar edema and widened interlobular spaces in the cerulein group, with a higher presence of inflammatory cells. In the L-arginine group, there was widening of interlobular spaces, extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells, and patchy necrotic areas. In the sodium taurocholate group, significant pancreatic edema, structural disarray, extensive necrotic foci, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed. Compared with the normal group, the pathological scores of induced acute pancreatitis in all three models were significantly different at each time point (P < 0.05). Moreover, the pathological scores in each group increased over time, indicating a gradual worsening of pancreatic tissue damage. When comparing different models at the same time, there were differences in pathological scores, with the sodium taurocholate group having the highest scores, followed by the L-arginine group, and the cerulein group having the lowest scores. Analyzing the three models at the same time point, the most severe condition was in the sodium taurocholate group, which was characterized by pancreatic hemorrhage and necrosis, followed by the L-arginine group, which was characterized by necrosis, and the least severe condition was in the cerulein group, mainly characterized by edema. The serum biochemical index levels of the cerulein and L-arginine groups decreased at 48 hours, indicating that these two models may have a tendency to self-heal and belong to a self-limiting disease course. The serum biochemical index levels of the sodium taurocholate group decreased slowly after 12 hours. Therefore, pancreatic injury in the sodium taurocholate group might not be relieved after 48 hours or longer.
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    Visual analysis of hot topics in concussion field by finite element method: Improvements in brain injury models, test methods and protective devices
    Luo Weidong, Zou Lihua, Huang Da
    2024, 28 (34):  5487-5493.  doi: 10.12307/2024.838
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (3075KB) ( 37 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Concussions caused by contact sports or traffic accidents are far more serious and common than people think, and have attracted widespread attention and high attention from the media, medical and sports circles in recent years.
    OBJECTIVE: To visualize the hot spots and trends in the field of concussion by using the method of bibliometrics, so as to provide some reference for the research in this field in China.
    METHODS: Based on the core collection database of Web of Science, the keyword retrieval strategy was (TS=(Concussion)) AND TS=(Finite element). CiteSpace 6.2.R4 visualization tool was used to visually analyze the author, country, institution, keywords, cited documents, etc.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 215 articles were included, with a general upward trend in the number of publications and citations. The distribution of disciplines involves biomedical engineering, biophysics, sports science, clinical neurology, neuroscience and other disciplines, showing a trend of interdisciplinary integration. The author with the most publications is Gilchrist M from University College Dublin, Ireland, the institution with the most publications is the University of Ottawa, and the country with the most publications is the United States. Key word analysis shows that the focus of research is on the establishment of brain injury models to simulate and predict concussion injuries; analysis of concussion injury mechanism; optimal design of protective equipment and devices. Through literature co-citation analysis, it is found that the prediction and evaluation of brain injury is the knowledge base and research hotspot in this field. The research hotspot of finite element application in the field of concussion injury mainly focuses on the prediction of head injury, combined with the exploration of brain injury mechanism and the design and improvement of protective equipment. With the progress of artificial intelligence and materials science, future research hotspots in the field of concussion injury will focus on the improvement of brain injury models, test methods and protective equipment.
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    Correlation between early serum markers and AISA grading in patients with acute spinal cord injury
    Wang Yueguang, Mu Xiaohong, Jiang Shengyuan, Deng Bowen, Kang Ximei, Su Jianguang
    2024, 28 (34):  5494-5499.  doi: 10.12307/2024.594
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (1331KB) ( 7 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: At present, there are some limitations in evaluating the severity of acute spinal cord injury, and a rapid and accurate evaluation method is urgently needed.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between the expression levels of serum oxidative stress and nerve injury indexes and the severity of the disease in patients with acute spinal cord injury.
    METHODS: A total of 65 patients were included in the study from August 2020 to May 2022, including 32 patients in the experimental group (acute spinal cord injury) and 33 patients in the control group (simple spinal fracture). American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale and neurological function score were evaluated within 8 hours of admission. Meanwhile, serum levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase were detected and compared between the two groups. The correlation between the expression levels of the above serological indicators in serum and ASIA impairment grade and AISA neural function score was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The average serum levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.001), while the average serum levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase in the experimental group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01). The serum levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the experimental group were positively correlated with the damage grade of AISA (r=0.862 4, 0.849 3, P < 0.01), while the serum levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase were negatively correlated with the damage grade of AISA (r=-0.866 1, -0.638 1, -0.746 6, P < 0.001), and the serum level of nitric oxide was not significantly correlated with the damage grade of AISA (r=-0.177 5, P > 0.05). The serum level of glutathione in the experimental group was positively correlated with AISA sensory function scores (r=0.569 9, P < 0.001), while the serum levels of malondialdehyde, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase were negatively correlated with AISA sensory function scores (r=-0.574 1, -0.099 2, -0.708 6, P < 0.05), and the serum levels of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide were not significantly correlated with AISA sensory function scores (r=0.230 8, -0.376 2, P > 0.05). The serum levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the experimental group were positively correlated with ASIA motor function scores (r=0.380, 0.524 7, P < 0.05); the serum levels of malondialdehyde, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase were negatively correlated with AISA motor function scores (r=-0.577 9,  -0.452 2,  -0.662 8, P < 0.05); and the level of nitric oxide had no significant correlation with AISA motor function scores (r=-0.049 7, 
    P > 0.05).To conclude, the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase in serum of patients with acute spinal cord injury are significantly correlated with ASIA impairment grade and ASIA neural function score, which could be used as biomarkers for early clinical assessment of disease severity.
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    Bibliometric analysis of vertigo-related histopathology, vestibular rehabilitation, physical rehabilitation, and Chinese and Western medical treatments
    Sun Yiming, Yang Xinming, Cai Liqun, Liu Aining
    2024, 28 (34):  5500-5507.  doi: 10.12307/2024.839
    Abstract ( 111 )   PDF (1572KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Vertigo is closely related to clinical neurological disorders. When neurons are damaged or dead, it may lead to abnormalities in the vestibular system and trigger vertigo symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary to explore and analyze the hotspots related to vertigo that are common in clinical neurology.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vertigo-related histopathological changes in clinical neurology and the research hotspots worldwide using bibliometric methods.
    METHODS: The WanFang database and Web of Science core set database were searched by the first author to retrieve the research-related literature published from 2014-2023 on the treatment of common vertigo in clinical neurology. A bibliometric analysis of the number of publications, country/region, institution, keywords, co-cited literature, and highly cited literature was peformed using VOSviewer_1.6.19 software to summarize the research hotspots in this research field. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Web of Science core set database had the highest number of 174 publications in this field in 2022, and WanFang database had the highest number of 133 publications in this field in 2020. The top 3 countries with the highest number of publications are the United States, Germany, and China. The University of Munich, Germany is the international institution with the highest number of publications in this field, while Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine is the Chinese institution with the highest number of publications in this field. The results of keyword analysis showed that the research hotspot diseases in this field in China are mainly Meniere’s disease, cervical vertigo, senile vertigo, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, isolated vertigo, and hypertensive vertigo, and the treatments include acupuncture, rehabilitation, medication (gastrodin, Banxia Baizhu Tianma Tang), and manipulative reduction. International research hotspot diseases in this field mainly include benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular disorders in new coronavirus cases, Meniere’s disease, vestibular schwannoma, acoustic neuromas, and vestibular migraines, etc., and the hotspot treatments are antivertiginous medications, antidepressant and anxiolytic treatments, and microsurgery. The results of literature co-citation analysis showed that for acute vestibular syndrome with persistent vertigo as the main symptom, three-step bedside ophthalmoscopy (HINTS: Head-Impact-Nystagmus-Strabismus Test) is more sensitive than early MRI in the diagnosis of combined strokes in patients with acute vestibular syndrome, which is the most peer-recognized method of detecting strokes in vestibular syndrome, whereas hormonal therapy is more effective to treat vestibular neuritis patients with paroxysmal vertigo as the main symptom. The results of highly cited literature analysis showed that, in the hot literature included in WanFang database in the past 10 years, acupuncture at Fengchi point and the acupuncture method of inducing resuscitation to improve posterior circulation ischemic vertigo have achieved certain results. The literature published in the past 3 years has indicated that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract+gastrodin, acupuncture+Banxia Baizhu Tang, betahistine+gastrodin, vestibular rehabilitation training+Epley Maneuver, all can improve the vertigo symptoms to different degrees. While there were no featured anti-vertigo drugs indicated in the literature in the Web of Science core set data in the recent 10 years, and most of them are based on traditional anti-vertigo drugs and microsurgery. However, there are a few case reports in the international literature in the last 3 years that found that COVID-19 infection may lead to vestibular neuritis and vertigo symptoms.  The onset and progression of vertigo may be closely related to neuronal damage and regeneration. For example, viral infections, inflammatory stimuli, or other pathologic factors may lead to neuronal damage or death, thereby affecting the function of the vestibular system. Vertigo-related diagnosis and treatment standardization guidelines have been published both domestically and internationally. Currently, international guidelines recommend the combination of vestibular rehabilitation and physical rehabilitation for the treatment of vertigo, and Chinese guidelines recommend the combination of Chinese and Western medicine, reduction and acupuncture. However, the level of evidence is not very high, so a large number of large-sample, multicenter randomized controlled trials on anti-vertigo treatment are needed in the future.
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    Aerobic exercise upregulates the thioredoxin system and inhibits cardiomyocyte apoptosis in aging rats
    Xu Zheng, Zhao Xiaoqin, Chen Xiaodan, Wang Jiapu, Bao Fenmiao, Yu Liang, Li Junping, Wei Yan
    2024, 28 (34):  5508-5515.  doi: 10.12307/2024.841
    Abstract ( 84 )   PDF (1555KB) ( 17 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that cardiomyocyte apoptosis is closely related to cardiac decompensation and the cardiac aging process. Appropriate exercise can alter heart pump function in patients with heart failure as well as attenuate aging-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, and fibrotic damage.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the thioredoxin system in aging rats.
    METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided into three age groups: 3-month-old young group, 9-month-old middle-aged group, and 18-month-old elderly group, with 12 rats in each group. Within each age group, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercise subgroups (n=6 per group). The sedentary groups did not undergo any exercise intervention. The exercise groups were acclimated to a treadmill environment and subsequently subjected to treadmill exercise for 45 minutes per day, at a speed of 15 m/min, 5 days per week for 10 weeks in total. At 24 hours after the final intervention, ELISA was employed to measure serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB in rats. TUNEL assay was utilized to detect cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while western blot assay was employed to assess the protein expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 3, thioredoxin-1, thioredoxin-2, thioredoxin reductase-1, thioredoxin reductase-2, thioredoxin-interacting protein, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat myocardial tissue.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB in the elderly sedentary group were significantly higher than those in the young and middle-aged sedentary groups and elderly exercise group (P < 0.01). Serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB in the elderly sedentary group were significantly higher than those in the young and middle-aged exercise groups and elderly exercise group (P < 0.01). Positive apoptotic cells in rat myocardial tissue, along with increased protein expression of Bax and Caspase 3, exhibited an age-related upward trend, while Bcl-2 protein expression showed a declining trend. In comparison with the sedentary groups within each age category, the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 proteins were reduced to different degrees, and the expression of Bcl-2 protein was increased to different degrees in the corresponding exercise groups. Compared with the young sedentary group, middle-aged sedentary group and elderly exercise group, elderly sedentary rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of myocardial thioredoxin 1, thioredoxin 2, thioredoxin reductase 1, and thioredoxin reductase 2 proteins (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The expression of myocardial thioredoxin 1, thioredoxin 2, and thioredoxin reductase 2 proteins was lower in the elderly exercise group than in the young exercise group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), while the expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin reductase 2 proteins was lower in the elderly exercise group than in the middle-aged exercise group (P < 0.01). The protein expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat myocardium was significantly higher in the elderly sedentary group than the young sedentary group, middle-aged sedentary group and elderly exercise group (P < 0.01). The protein expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat myocardium was significantly higher in the elderly exercise group than the young exercise group and middle-aged exercise group (P < 0.01). To conclude, aerobic exercise may enhance the anti-apoptotic effects of thioredoxin by down-regulating the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein in aging rat hearts, leading to the downregulation of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 and P38 mitogen-activated kinase protein, thereby alleviating myocardial cell apoptosis in aging rat hearts.
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    Three-dimensional finite element study on the effect of posterior tooth forward movement on temporomandibular joint stress in orthodontic reduction patients
    Shang Yonghui, Li Shuai, Liu Yicong, Zhao Qihang, Liu Wen
    2024, 28 (34):  5516-5520.  doi: 10.12307/2024.822
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (1220KB) ( 18 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint disorders are closely related to high stress in temporomandibular joint. With the change of molar position after tooth reduction extraction, the establishment of new occlusal relationship often leads to the change of internal stress environment of the temporomandibular joint.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the stress distribution of temporomandibular joint in patients undergoing orthodontic reduction tooth extraction with different degrees of molar forward movement using the three-dimensional finite element model of the maxillary complex and temporomandibular joint.
    METHODS: A case of individual normal occlusal patient was selected from the Orthodontics Department of Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Shandong Province, and the finite element models of 1/3 anterior molar space (extraction of four second premolar teeth) before and after reduction and 2/3 anterior molar space (extraction of 4 second premolar teeth) after reduction were established based on the cone-beam CT and MRI data. ABAQUS software was used to analyze the stress distribution of various parts of the temporomandibular joint during the interposition of tooth tips.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The stress distribution of the condyle, articular disc, and osteoarticular fossa in the model before and after the reduction was basically the same. The stress of the condyle was mainly distributed in the anterior and apical part of the condyle, the stress of the articular disc was mainly distributed in the middle band and lateral part of the articular disc, and the stress of the articular fossa was mainly concentrated in the anterior and apical part of the articular fossa. However, the equivalent stress value of the condyle, articular disc and articular fossa decreased after reduction. After orthodontic reduction extraction, the equivalent stress values of condyle and articular disc in the 1/3 anterior molar space model were smaller than those in the 2/3 anterior molar space model. From the perspective of biomechanics, orthodontic reduction extraction can reduce the stress of the temporomandibular joint and provide a good biomechanical environment.
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    Possible mechanisms of multi-pathway biological effects of laser therapy for knee osteoarthritis
    Lou Xinqi, Zhong Hao, Wang Xiyu, Feng Haoyu, Li Pengcui, Wei Xiaochun, Wang Yanqin, Wu Xiaogang, Chen Weiyi, Xue Yanru
    2024, 28 (34):  5521-5527.  doi: 10.12307/2024.831
    Abstract ( 107 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 38 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Laser therapy is a non-invasive and painless treatment that is considered to be an effective method suitable for the treatment of osteoarthritis due to its simplicity and non-invasive nature. Currently, the mechanism of action of laser therapy is unclear and the results of studies on its clinical application are controversial. 
    OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize the latest research progress of laser therapy on chondrocytes, animal experiments and clinical efficacy, and to explore the possible mechanism of laser-mediated multi-pathway biological effects, so as to provide a theoretical basis for further research on the laser treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint.
    METHODS: A literature search was performed in CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP and PubMed databases for relevant literature published from 2018 to 2023, with “laser therapy, low level laser therapy, high level laser therapy, photobiomodulation, knee osteoarthritis, chondrocytes” as the search terms in Chinese and English, respectively. Together with 14 articles searched manually, 70 articles were finally included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Laser therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis is mainly categorized into two types: low-level laser therapy and high-level laser therapy. Differences in laser parameters and treatment protocols have a direct impact on laser efficacy. When appropriate parameters are used, low-level lasers show positive effects in cellular experiments, animal models, and clinical efficacy. High-level lasers have been less studied in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, but some preliminary clinical studies have shown positive results. Cell experiments have shown that low-level laser promotes chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis, thereby reducing inflammatory response. Animal experiments have shown that low-level laser can reduce the release of pro-inflammatory factors, promote cartilage matrix synthesis, inhibit matrix degradation, and effectively improve the repair process of cartilage tissue. Low-level laser is also able to reduce oxidative stress damage and relieve pain in knee osteoarthritis. In clinical trials, both low- and high-level laser can reduce patients’ pain and improve functional activities. The combination of laser therapy and exercise therapy modalities may improve the therapeutic effect. Lasers may affect intracellular signaling and cellular functions through photobiological or thermodynamic effects. This provides direct evidence that laser promotes articular cartilage regeneration.
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    Molecular mechanism of naringin in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
    Wang Wenchi, Wu Ruiqi, Huang Jierong, Zhu Lifeng, Cui Xianqin, Li Dongzong, Chen Wenhui, Lin Chunting, Cui wei
    2024, 28 (34):  5528-5535.  doi: 10.12307/2024.801
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (1496KB) ( 14 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that research on naringin anti-osteoporosis mostly stays in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Understanding the mechanism of related signaling pathways and the expression of related proteins and some specific genes is an important way to deeply understand naringin anti-osteoporosis. At present, traditional Chinese medicine has been confirmed to have a significant role in anti-osteoporosis. Naringin is one of the main active ingredients in Rhizoma Drynariae. Its effectiveness and mechanism of action against osteoporosis have been gradually recognized by scholars, and its clinical and basic research has been gradually emphasized.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize the research progress of naringin in anti-osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing some ideas for the next step to study its related mechanism of action.
    METHODS: The relevant literatures included in CNKI and PubMed database were searched with the Chinese search terms of “naringin, osteoporosis, traditional Chinese medicine compound, pathogenesis, signaling pathway, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts” in Chinese and English, respectively. The corresponding criteria were established according to the research needs, and finally 69 articles were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Naringin blocks the increase in the number of osteoclasts and adipocytes, the decrease in the number of osteocytes and osteocalcin (+) cells induced by fructose-rich diet, and promotes the secretion of Sema3A from osteoblasts and osteocytes, thereby enhancing local bone formation and inhibiting osteoclast production by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Naringin is an important way to induce autophagy of osteoblasts, but autophagy-related proteins participate in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Lack of autophagy in osteoblasts reduces mineralization and leads to an imbalance in the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which results in bone loss and decreased bone density. The composite scaffold loaded with naringin can be used as a necessary carrier for bone defect repair and has excellent bone repair properties. Naringin can also accelerate the growth of new bone tissue by increasing the local contents of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Naringin can regulate bone metabolism and inhibit oxidative stress via ERK, PI3K/Akt and Wnt signaling pathways to improve osteoporosis, which can play a good role in preventing and controlling the disease. However, the depth and breadth of the relevant research is insufficient. Based on the mechanism of the current study, we should investigate the specific mechanisms by which naringin regulates different pathways and inter-pathway interactions in the future, which will be beneficial to the multifaceted development of naringin used in the treatment of osteoporosis.
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    Rate of force development and its relationship with functional performance in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
    Li Qi, Gao Mingwei, Li Shihao, Chu Xiaolei, Li Yajie, Ding Ning, Liu Minqi
    2024, 28 (34):  5536-5543.  doi: 10.12307/2024.802
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (951KB) ( 52 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The maximum muscle strength is typically used for evaluating the recovery of muscle function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Recent studies have suggested that neuromuscular function should also be considered, such as rate of force development, which measures the slope of the force time curve at different time intervals under conditions of isometric muscle contraction.
    OBJECTIVE: To elaborate on the current research status and shortcomings of muscle isometric rate of force development in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery, and analyze the degree of defects in quadriceps femoris and hamstring isometric rate of force development at different times after surgery; to analyze the effect of isometric rate of force development on postoperative functional performance, thereby providing important information for optimizing postoperative rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, reducing secondary injury to patients, and reducing the incidence of knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Literature retrieval of CNKI, VIP, WanFang and PubMed was performed using “anterior cruciate ligament, rate of force development” as Chinese search terms and “anterior cruciate ligament, rate of force development, rate of torque development” as English search terms. Finally, 69 articles were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Most studies have found defects in bilateral muscle isometric rate of force development in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction within 6 months. Early isometric rate of force development of the bilateral hamstring muscles (i.e. the slope of the force time curve at any time interval during muscle contraction of 100 ms) showed significant improvement after 6 months. However, long-term defects in early isometric rate of force development of the bilateral quadriceps indicate long-term damage to the neuromuscular function of the quadriceps after surgery. There is limited research on late isometric rate of force development (the slope of the force time curve at any time interval after 100 ms of muscle contraction), and conclusions cannot be drawn. Regarding landing exercises (jumping to the ground, lateral cutting, etc.) and daily activities (walking, running), early isometric rate of force development of the quadriceps is more correlated with isometric peak torque. Abnormal biomechanical changes during exercise are considered an important risk factor for secondary injury and traumatic knee osteoarthritis in patients. Actively improving early isometric rate of force development of the quadriceps may reduce the incidence of secondary injury and traumatic knee osteoarthritis. Currently, there is limited evidence to suggest that whole-body vibration training can improve early isometric rate of force development of the quadriceps femoris in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. It is recommended to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to intervene in the quadriceps and hamstring in the early postoperative stage and implement explosive force and high resistance training in the late postoperative stage, which may improve the isometric rate of force development in patients. Generating sufficient muscle strength in a short period of time is necessary to effectively protect the anterior cruciate ligament, while the relationship between isometric rate of force development in the hamstring muscle and functional performance is still unclear, which may provide information on preventing secondary injury in patients. It is recommended to use the isometric rate of force development as one of the evaluation indicators for guiding rehabilitation and restoring movement. In addition to focusing on improving symmetry and differences from normal individuals, the hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio should also be considered. An appropriate range of ratios can ensure the balance of muscles during rapid muscle exertion, which may reduce the occurrence of secondary injuries. However, the normal range of ratios is not yet clear. Future research should consider the effects of graft type and knee flexion angle on isometric rate of force development, in order to identify neuromuscular dysfunction in patients as much as possible and help them recover better.
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    Role of inflammatory factors in diabetic ulcers and prospects of traditional Chinese medicine intervention
    Zhang Yuchang, Chen Xiang, He Bo, Li Shenghua, Mu Xiangqian, Sun Weiqiang, Zhang Li, Chen Jie
    2024, 28 (34):  5544-5551.  doi: 10.12307/2024.810
    Abstract ( 117 )   PDF (1043KB) ( 23 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic ulcers are a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which is manifested as foot ulcers complicated with infection, long treatment cycle, high disability rate and mortality rate, and brings a heavy burden to patients and social care.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the mechanism of action and the latest treatment progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, and to provide a basis for further theoretical research and clinical application.  
    METHODS: CNKI, Wanfang Database and PubMed database were searched for relevant literature using the keywords of “diabetic ulcer, medicinal herb, inflammation, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, γ-interferon, interleukin-4, interleukin-10” in Chinese and English, respectively. The relevant literature in recent years was searched, and finally 75 articles were included for review. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The high glucose environment of the body will increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, so that diabetic ulcer wounds are in a state of chronic inflammatory response for a long time, and difficult to heal or even not heal. TCM has summed up a lot of experience in the long-term struggle with diabetic ulcer. At present, TCM divides diabetic ulcers into four syndrome types: dampness and heat poison syndrome, blood and blood stasis obstruction pattern, heat poison injury Yin pattern, and Qi and blood deficiency syndrome, as well as representative prescriptions for treatment. According to their clinical characteristics, diabetic ulcers can be also divided into three stages: primary, middle and late stages. Different treatment methods are proposed: “clear method,” “warm and clear combined use” and “maintenance method.” Under the guidance of dialectical typing and staging of TCM, TCM monomers, extracts and compounds inhibit the inflammatory response and promote the healing of diabetic ulcers by down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and/or up-regulating the expression of anti-inflammatory factors. Compared with modern medicine, TCM has significant advantages in the treatment of diabetic ulcers. There are many TCM monomers, extracts and compounds for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, such as angelica, curcumin, improved Chonghe ointment, Sanhuang blood exhaustion prescription and sore-ulcer I. formula, etc. It has been found that TCM for the treatment of diabetic ulcers is mainly heat-clearing and detoxifying, invigorating blood circulation and removing blood stasis, and amassing sores and muscle-building drugs, and the frequency of use, treatment scope and therapeutic effect of TCM compounds are obviously better than those of TCM monomers and extracts. Among them, the most commonly used are the Sanhuang blood exhaustion prescription and the sore-ulcer I as well as prescription for the treatment of damp heat toxicity syndrome and Zizhu ointment for the treatment of non-ischemic diabetic ulcers. However, there are also some shortcomings in the treatment of diabetic ulcers with TCM. First, there are few clinical syndrome studies on diabetic ulcers. Secondly, there are a wide variety of TCM monomers, extracts and compounds for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, and the relevant research is insufficiently in-depth. Finally, the research on the mechanism underlying TCM treatment of diabetic ulcers is still in the preliminary exploration stage, and the mechanism of action still needs to be further explored. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the pharmacology of TCM and the clinical syndrome of diabetic ulcers, analyze the potential targets and related signaling pathways of TCM in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, give full play to the therapeutic advantages of TCM with multiple targets, multiple pathways, multiple levels and multiple systems, and develop TCM with significant efficacy, active ingredients and clear targets.
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    Mechanism by which exercise controls uric acid level
    Wu Yuwei, Zhu Jiang, Zheng Bing, Wu Zonghui
    2024, 28 (34):  5552-5557.  doi: 10.12307/2024.805
    Abstract ( 165 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 35 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Excessive accumulation of uric acid in the body can lead to diseases such as hyperuricemia and gout, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. Many sports medicine organizations at home and abroad advocate the formulation of exercise prescription to prevent and treat chronic diseases, but this method has not been effectively carried out in the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia.
    OBJECTIVE: Based on an overview of the formation of hyperuricemia and the regulation of uric acid by exercise and its related mechanisms, to condense a program suitable for popular exercise to prevent and assist in the treatment of hyperuricemia, and to propose precautions to be taken when exercising for patients with different stages of hyperuricemia.
    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI were searched for relevant literature published before October 2023 using the keywords of “uric acid, gout, aerobic exercise, strength training, high-intensity interval training, obesity” in English and Chinese, respectively. Initial screening was done by reading the titles and abstracts to exclude repetitive studies and literature with irrelevant content, and finally 64 papers were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The formation of hyperuricemia is caused by excessive synthesis of uric acid by the liver, insufficient excretion by the kidneys, or both. Exercise can improve the uric acid level in the body by regulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the expression of uric acid excretion protein and lipid metabolism. Aerobic exercise, strength training, high-intensity intermittent exercise can effectively regulate uric acid levels, reduce inflammation, promote the expression of uric acid excretion protein and lipid metabolism, and achieve good results in the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. Currently, there is a lack of research on the mechanisms underlying direct regulation of uric acid levels by exercise, and future studies need to explore in greater depth the possible mechanisms of regulation of uric acid levels by exercise and refine the effects of different exercise modalities on patients with different characteristics of hyperuricemia.
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    Role of autophagy in orthodontic tooth movement
    Wang Tianqi, Liao Chengcheng, Liu Jianguo, Chen Lulu, Zhao Piao, Xiao Linlin, Guan Xiaoyan
    2024, 28 (34):  5558-5564.  doi: 10.12307/2024.829
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (1388KB) ( 18 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The application of orthodontic force triggers autophagy in the periodontal tissue via diverse signaling pathways, augmenting or attenuating the activity of relevant cell types such as periodontal ligament cells, osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts, thus facilitating the process of periodontal remodeling.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress in orthodontic force mediated autophagy in periodontal tissue and its impact on orthodontic tooth movement.
    METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine disc and CNKI were searched for literature published from 2010 to 2023 to summarize the progress in orthodontics-related autophagy. And 76 papers were finally included in the analysis and discussion.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Orthodontic force can trigger a series of biochemical signal changes through periodontal mechanical receptors and aseptic inflammation they cause, leading to autophagy in periodontal tissue. Subsequently, autophagy generates corresponding feedback through cascaded amplified signaling pathways such as Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, Hippo, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, promoting periodontal tissue remodeling and ultimately achieving tooth movement and stability. Orthodontic force-induced autophagy can differentially regulate bone resorption on the tooth pressure side and bone formation on the tension side. Related targets have good prospects in the clinical application of orthodontic treatment. Orthodontics and autophagy have complex mechanisms. However, existing research has only focused on exploring the role of autophagy in orthodontic tooth movement. Further exploration is needed to investigate the mutual regulatory effects between autophagy and orthodontic tooth movement, as well as the interactions between upstream mechanical receptors and signaling pathways involved in related pathways.  
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    Spatio-temporal gait characteristics of the elderly and the risk of adverse health outcomes
    Wang Chenglong, Li Mingzhe, Nie Mingjian, Wang Jingjing
    2024, 28 (34):  5565-5570.  doi: 10.12307/2024.578
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (934KB) ( 19 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Gait is one of the optimal indicators of functional status in older adults. Gait parameters are associated with adverse health outcomes in older adults.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and compare the practical value of gait parameters, and to review the progress of research on spatio-temporal parameters and the risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults.
    METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI were searched for relevant literature published from January 2010 to June 2023 using the search terms of “gait speed, walking speed, step length, cadence, step frequency, step time, walking base, aged and elderly” in English and Chinese, respectively. A total of 52 papers were finally included for the systematic review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Currently, researchers have focused on three basic temporal-spatial parameters, namely, step speed, step length and step frequency, to explore their association with adverse health outcomes in older adults. Reduced gait speed in older adults may increase the risk of falls, all-cause mortality, and may be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Older adults with slow gait speed are at higher risk of cognitive decline, and may be the preferred gait parameter in assessing cognitive impairment in older adults. Older adults with slow gait speed are more likely to have debilitating or common chronic illnesses, and are at higher risk of hospitalization and public care. Step length is positively correlated with individual height and lower limb length, but age-induced shortening of step length is not related to height or lower limb length, and shortening of step length reflects reduced physical function in older adults, and shortening of step length is a risk factor for falls and cognitive decline in older adults. Stride frequency is often used as a measure of exercise intensity, and a stride frequency of ≥ 100 steps/minute is predictive of all-cause mortality, and slowing of step frequency may lead to a higher risk of falls, hospitalization and all-cause mortality in older adults. Changes in gait parameters are closely related to the level of physical fitness in older adults, and there may be a bidirectional relationship between the two. The results of the study will provide a theoretical basis for further improving risk screening in clinical populations, refining health risk assessment in the elderly, improving health protection and promoting active health in the elderly.
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    Mechanisms of long non-coding RNA in osteoarthritis and traditional Chinese medicine intervention
    Huang Keqi, Li Jiagen, Chen Shangtong, Rong Xiangbin
    2024, 28 (34):  5571-5576.  doi: 10.12307/2024.598
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (1519KB) ( 12 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The etiology of osteoarthritis is varied and its pathogenesis is still unclear. As bioinformatics has been deepening in recent years, increasing studies have found that the aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in joint tissues may mediate the downstream signaling pathways involved in the development of osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the mechanism of lncRNA in the development of osteoarthritis and the therapeutic effects of monomers and active compounds derived from traditional Chinese medicine that modulate lncRNA and downstream signaling pathways in osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: We searched CNKI, WanFang, VIP, and PubMed using the search terms of “long non-coding RNA, knee osteoarthritis, miRNA, chondrocytes, signaling pathway, and traditional Chinese medicine” in Chinese and English, respectively. The search time was from the inception of each database to March 2023. A total of 61 articles were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis involves a complex molecular regulatory network, including aberrant expression of lncRNAs and miRNAs in cartilage tissues, which may lead to apoptosis of chondrocytes, degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix, and production of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These changes interact with each other to cause degeneration of articular cartilage and progression of osteoarthritis. Therefore, further in-depth studies are needed to reveal the fine mechanisms of the molecular regulatory network. The mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis mainly focuses on regulating the expression of lncRNA and miRNA, thereby alleviating chondrocyte apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation, promoting cell proliferation, and slowing down the development of osteoarthritis.
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