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    18 January 2020, Volume 24 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Effects of psoralen corylifolia extract on bone mineral density and bone biomechanics in osteoporosis rats
    Zhou Yimo, Zhang Jianning, Shan Zhongshu
    2020, 24 (2):  165-170.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1900
    Abstract ( 325 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Long-term use of dexamethasone as a glucocorticoid will destroy the dynamic balance of osteogenesis and osteoclastation, reduce bone mineral density, damage bone biomechanics. A regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein pathway may be an approach to improve bone mineral density and bone biomechanics in dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis rats.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of psoralen corylifolia extract on bone mineral density and bone biomechanics in dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis rats based on RANKL/OPG pathway.

    METHODS: Osteoporosis models were established in Wistar rats, SPF grade, using intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Lentiviral vectors containing OPG gene interference fragments at concentration of 1×107 TU/mL were selected for subsequent experiments. The model rats were randomly divided into model group, no-load group (lentivirus empty vector), OPG silencing group (lentivirus vector containing OPG gene interference fragment), psoralen corylifolia extract group, psoralen corylifolia extract+OPG silencing group, with 12 rats in each group. Another 12 rats were selected as the control group. After drug treatment, bone mineral density of the left femur in rats was measured by bone densitometer; the elastic modulus, maximum load and yield load of the right femur of rats were measured by mechanical testing machine; the mineral salt content in the femur of rats was determined; the levels of RANKL and OPG in the serum of rats were detected by ELISA kit; and the expression levels of RANKL and OPG in bone tissues of rats were detected by western blot. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Qinghai University Medical School with an approval No. 2017081501.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Bone mineral density, modulus of elasticity, maximum load, yield load, bone mineral salt content, serum OPG level and OPG protein expression in bone tissues were measured, which were lower in the model group than the control group, lower in the OPG silencing group than the model group, higher in the psoralea corylifolia extract group than the model group, and higher in the psoralen corylifolia extract+OPG silencing group than the OPG silencing group, but lower than the psoralea corylifolia extract group (all P < 0.05). (2) The level of RANKL in serum and the expression of RANKL in bone tissue were measured, which were higher in the model group than the control group, higher in the OPG silencing group than the model group, lower in the psoralea corylifolia extract group than the model group, and lower in the psoralen corylifolia extract+OPG silencing group than the OPG silencing group, but higher than the psoralea corylifolia extract group (all < 0.05). (3) There was no significant difference in each index between model group and no-load group (> 0.05). (4) All these findings indicate that psoralea corylifolia extract can increase bone mineral density and improve bone biomechanics in dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis rats, possibly by up-regulating the expression of OPG and down-regulating the expression of RANKL.

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    Effect of apigenin on the osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats and its dose
    Lai Lijin, Mo Haoxuan
    2020, 24 (2):  171-175.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1905
    Abstract ( 420 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Apigenin has been shown to hold the effects of antivirus, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and tranquilizer and sedative.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of different doses of apigenin on osteoporosis in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Southern Medical University. Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the rat models of osteoporosis were established by ovariectomy. The rats were divided into seven groups (n=6/group): the sham operation group, the control group, the positive control group, and the 20, 40, and 60, and the 80 mg/kg apigenin groups according to the dose of apigenin. The sham operation group did not receive the removal of the ovaries. The positive control group was supplemented with diethylstilbestrol (0.02 mg/kg), vitamin D and calcium daily. The control group was given the subcutaneous injection of same volume of purified water. The apigenin groups were given the subcutaneous injection of various doses of apigenin, respectively, once daily, for 8 weeks. The femoral bone mineral density and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention, respectively.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the control group, when the dose of apigenin was 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg, the bone mineral density, and serum levels of calcium and phosphorus were increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05), and the levels of amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and bone alkaline phosphatase were decreased significantly (< 0.05). (2) Compared with the positive control group, when the dose of apigenin was 60 and 80 mg/kg, the bone mineral density, serum levels of calcium and phosphorus, the levels of amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and bone alkaline phosphatase showed no significant difference at 4 and 8 weeks (> 0.05). When the dose of apigenin was 20 and 40 mg/kg, compared with the positive control group, the bone mineral density, and serum levels of calcium and phosphorus were decreased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05), and the levels of amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and bone alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly (P < 0.05). (3) Compared with the sham operation group, in the control group, the bone mineral density, and serum levels of calcium and phosphorus were decreased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks (P < 0.05), and the levels of amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and bone alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly (P < 0.05). (4) These results suggest that it is indeed effective to establish a rat osteoporosis model by ovariectomy. The therapeutic effect of apigenin on osteoporosis is dose-related, and a certain dose of apigenin has an anti-osteoporosis effect.

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    Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on the changes of bone mineral density of perimenopausal women
    Zhao Jing
    2020, 24 (2):  176-180.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1908
    Abstract ( 693 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There are few reports about the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on perimenopausal syndrome and bone mineral density.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise on symptoms, plasma dopamine, plasma beta-endorphin and bone mineral density in perimenopausal women.

    METHODS: The study was in accordance with the ethical requirements of Southwest University of Science and Technology, and all participants signed the informed consents. Totally 74 perimenopausal women aged 45-55 years were randomly divided into two groups: Tai Chi group (n=36) and control group (n=38). Taichi group took Tai Chi Chuan for 48 weeks (thrice a week, 60 minutes/times). The control group went on previous habits only. The scores of Kupperman scale, dopamine, beta-endorphin, and bone mineral density of lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured before and after 48 weeks.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) After 48 weeks, the total scores of hot flashes, sweating, dysesthesia, insomnia, restlessness, vertigo, depression, fatigue, muscular and articular pain and Kupperman scale cores in the Tai Chi group were decreased significantly (P < 0.01), and were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The concentrations of dopamine and beta-endorphin were increased significantly (P < 0.01). There were no significant changes in bone mineral density of L2-4, femoral neck, trochanter and Ward’s triangle (P > 0.05). (2) Dopamine concentration was negatively correlated with insomnia, depression and Kupperman total score (P < 0.05), while beta-endorphin concentration was negatively correlated with insomnia, anxiety and Kupperman total score (P < 0.05). (3) In summary, 48-week Tai Chi Chuan exercise can significantly improve the symptoms of perimenopausal women, suggesting that the changes of plasma dopamine and beta-endorphin levels are one of the factors to alleviate the symptoms of perimenopause. However, there is no significant effect on bone mineral density of lumbar spine and proximal femur.

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    Effect of ibandronate on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in rat models of osteoarthritis
    Liu Jing, Sun Zhilu, Zhou Jun, Liao Yuan, Sun Guanghua, Wu Qi, Zhou Guijuan, Zhong Peirui, Cheng Guo, Xiao Hao, Li Lan, Liao Ying
    2020, 24 (2):  181-186.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1911
    Abstract ( 338 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway participates in the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, closely related to subchondral bone reconstruction and play a key role in the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis. Bisphosphonates as bone resorption inhibitor is used to treat osteoporosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of sodium ibandronate on the knee osteoarthritis in rats, and changes of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of South China University. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. The rats in the latter two groups underwent ovariectomy bilaterally, and anterior cruciate ligament resection, and rats in the sham group received the fatty tissue surrounding the ovaries removed only. After 1 week of surgery, the rats in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal injection of 10 μg/kg sodium ibandronate, rats in the model group were injected with normal saline, and the sham group received no intervention. Twelve weeks late, the rats were killed to perform histological examination of cartticular cartilage and Mankin scores were detected. Micro-CT of subchondral bone and quantitative analysis of the bone microstructure were conducted. The protein and mRNA expression levels of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway were measured.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The cartilage structure in the model group was significantly damaged, the Mankin score was significantly higher than that in the sham group, and the Mankin score in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.01). (2) The bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume ratio, trabecular number in the model group were significantly lower than those in the sham group (P < 0.01), and trabecular separation was higher than that in the sham group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the treatment group had higher bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume ratio, trabecular number, and lower trabecular separation (P < 0.01). (3) The mRNA and protein expression levels of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the model group were significantly higher than those in the sham group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the levels in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P < 0.05). (4) To conclude, sodium ibandronate may inhibit subchondral bone loss and articular cartilage degeneration in rat models of osteoarthritis by inhibiting extracellular signal regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

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    Needle-knife therapy combined with intra-articular injection of salvia injection for treating osteoarthritis in rabbit models
    Liu Guangyu, Zhang Jie, Zhang Xiaofeng, Shi Wenjun, Xu Xilin, Liu Xuzhuo, Li Pengfei, Hu Hai, Li Zhigang, Wang Chunlong
    2020, 24 (2):  209-214.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1976
    Abstract ( 404 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Salvia injection and needle-knife therapy are commonly used techniques in the treatment of osteoarthritis in clinical practice. At present, there is no research on the combination of the two methods.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of needle-knife therapy and salvia injection and their combinations in the treatment of osteoarthritis in rabbit models.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. Fifty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups: blank control, model, salvia injection, needle-knife, and combination groups. The rat models of osteoarthritis were established in all groups except for blank control group. After successful modeling, medial and lateral patellar retinaculums, medial and lateral knee eyes, suprapatellar bursa, muscle belly of each quadriceps femoris, muscle belly and ending point of gracilis, muscle belly and ending point of adductor and area surrounding the tibial plateau of rats in the needle-knife group received needle-knife release. The rabbits in the blank control and model groups underwent the intra-articular injection of normal saline (0.3 mL). The rabbits in the salvia injection group were given the intra-articular injection of salvia (0.3 mL). The rabbits in the combination group received needle-knife release, followed by intra-articular injection of salvia (0.3 mL). All interventions were conducted weekly, for 5 consecutive weeks. The knee articular cartilage underwent gross observation and histological observation. The levels of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in synovial fluid were detected by ELISA.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Gross observation: the worn artificial knee in the model group was serious, and was slight in the salvia injection, needle-knife, and combination groups. (2) Pathological scores: the scores in the salvia injection group were slightly higher than those in the needle-knife and combination groups. (3) ELISA results: the levels of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the combination group were significantly lower than those in the salvia injection and needle-knife groups (< 0.05). (4) In summary, needle-knife therapy combined with intra-articular injection of salvia is superior to needle-knife therapy alone or intra-articular injection of salvia in reducing the levels of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rabbit models of osteoarthritis.

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    Uniaxial quasi-static tensile properties of articular cartilage with crack defects
    Si Yunpeng, Gao Lilan, Zhang Chunqiu, Peng Yulin
    2020, 24 (2):  187-191.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1914
    Abstract ( 340 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Once the articular cartilage has a crack defect, its mechanical properties will change. In previous studies, the investigation of damaged articular cartilage mostly focused on compression, and there were few studies on tensile properties.

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the uniaxial quasi-static tensile properties by preparing crack defects on the cartilage layer samples.

    METHODS: The articular cartilage of the fresh adult pig knee joint was selected to prepare a cartilage specimen containing a crack defect. The tensile properties were tested at different stress rates (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 MPa/s) and the creep properties were tested under different constant stresses (1, 2 and 3 MPa).

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) In the tensile test at different stress rates, as the stress rate increases, the stress required to reach the same strain increased gradually, and the Young’s modulus of the test piece increases with the increase of the stress rate. (2) The tensile stress-strain curves of the articular cartilage with cracks at different stress rates did not coincide, indicating that the tensile properties of the articular cartilage with crack defects are rate-dependent. (3) In the creep experiment under different constant tensile stress levels, the creep strain increased with the increase of the tensile stress level, the creep compliance decreased with the increase of the tensile stress level, and with the creep time. The creep strain increased rapidly and then increased slowly. (4) To conclude, different stress rates and different constant stresses have great influence on the tensile mechanical properties of articular cartilage with crack defects. The experimental results provide a mechanical reference for the repair of defective articular cartilage.

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    Correlation of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines and the pathological degree in patients with knee osteoarthritis
    Wu Bo, Ma Xu, Liu Ye , Wang Yihan, Wang Jiayuan, Li Chongyang, Jiao Dijin
    2020, 24 (2):  236-241.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1916
    Abstract ( 503 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In the development of osteoarthritis, the mechanism underlying cartilage damage is still unclear. Matrix metalloproteinases have been shown to play important roles in cartilage matric degradation.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the correlation between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and the pathological degree in knee osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shenyang Orthopedic Hospital. The tibial plateaus of 40 patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent total knee arthroplasty were collected, and all patients signed the informed consents. The classification of osteoarthritis was evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale system: 11 cases of KL grade 2, 15 cases of KL grade 3, and 14 cases of KL grade 4. Control group contained six cases. Samples received hematoxylin-eosin staining. The pathological changes of knee osteoarthritis cartilage were evaluated by Mankin score. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the contents of matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in cartilage.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that in the control group, the layer of cartilage was thick, and there were abundant chondrocytes that arranged regularly. The subcutaneous layer of cartilage in the KL grade 2 group was rugged, and fissure was observed occasionally. Fibrosis of cartilage layer was visible in the KL grade 3 group, and the chondrocytes arranged in disorder. In the KL grade 4 group, the structure of cartilage layer was lost, and there were few chondrocytes that arranged irregularly. (2) Immunohistochemical staining results showed that the expression level of matrix metalloproteinase 3 in the osteoarthritis group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The expression level of matrix metalloproteinase 3 was on a rise in the KL grade 2, 3 and 4 groups (all P < 0.05). The expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the osteoarthritis group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 was on a descent in the KL grade 2, 3 and 4 groups (all P < 0.05). (3) There was significantly positive correlation between matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression level and Mankin score (r=0.899, P < 0.001), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression level was negatively correlated with Mankin score (r=-0.903, P < 0.001). There was significantly negative correlation between tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression level and matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression level (r=-0.881, P < 0.001). (4) These results indicate that in the articular cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are correlated with the pathological changes, which can be used as an effective index to evaluate the progress of knee osteoarthritis.

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    Different anchorages can affect the position of maxillary third molars in extraction treatment
    Jia Jun, Gulibaha•Maimaitili, Li Zhaoyang, Hu Yichun, Bahaernisa•Rezhake
    2020, 24 (2):  192-196.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1876
    Abstract ( 403 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In orthodontic treatment, different anchorage controls will make different effects on the maxillary third molar. Whether this can affect the normal eruption of maxillary third molar remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Physiologic Anchorage Spee-Wire System (PASS) treatment on impacted maxillary third molars, and to provide reference for clinical application.

    METHODS: Thirty patients with maxillary third molars were treated with PASS and 30 patients were treated with McLaughlin, Bennett, and Trevisi (MBT). All patients chose the plan of extracting four first premolars. The angles and distances were measured before and after treatment and statistical analysis was performed. The study was in accordance with the ethical requirements of the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University. All participants and their guardians signed the informed consents.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) In the PASS group, the ∠UM3-HP, ∠UM2-HP and U-ES were significantly increased (P=0.00), and the UM3-OP was significantly decreased (P=0.00), indicating that the maxillary second molar and third molar became more upright, and larger eruption space contributed to eruption. (2) Compared with the PASS group, the obliquity of the maxillary third molar in the MBT group showed significant change, while the vertical eruption rate in the PASS group was relatively larger. (3) These results imply that both PASS and MBT can improve the eruption angle and space of the third molar, and make it easier to erupt in orthodontic treatment of extraction of the first premolar.
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    Effect of vibration and electrical stimulation recovery model on delayed muscle pain of basketball pitchers
    Xiao Kaijun, Shao Zelong
    2020, 24 (2):  197-203.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1903
    Abstract ( 444 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation are often used as the main means of warming up or restoring activities before and after centrifugal exercise. However, it is unclear whether the two passive restoring methods can improve the explosive power of subjects, the range of motion of joints and the positive benefits of metabolic waste removal.

    OBJECTIVE: To reveal the benefits of whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation in alleviating the muscle injury of basketball pitchers after pitching using whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation to restore the shoulder joint, and provide important reference for basketball players and coaches to conduct scientific training and avoid sports injury caused by the change of pitching movements.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Southwest Medical University, and the participants and their families signed the informed consents. Twelve college male basketball players volunteered to participate in this study. Repeated measurement and balanced sequence design were used to divide the experiment into whole body vibration recovery, electromyographic stimulation recovery and no treatment (control group); each time interval was 7 days. The participants were trained to shoot (5 innings, 25 balls/inning). After each inning, the pitchers were immediately restored for 6 minutes. The conscious muscle soreness index, range of motion, and serum contents of creatine kinase and myoglobin were detected at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 hours after pitching.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation passive recovery modes had significant positive effects on alleviating conscious muscle soreness index, serum creatine enzyme and serum myoglobin of basketball pitchers, and there was no significant difference between two modes. (2) Whole body vibration passive recovery mode had significant positive effects on restoring shoulder range of motion, but electromyographic stimulation had no significant positive effect on shoulder rotation. (3) Whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation electromyographic stimulation passive recovery modes showed no significant effect on the range of motion of recovery of elbow flexion and extension. (4) These results indicate that whole body vibration and electromyographic stimulation immediate passive recovery in basketball pitching training can significantly reduce the level of related indicators of muscle injury after pitching, but only whole body vibration treatment can significantly improve the joint range of motion.

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    Changes of bone mineral density and related factors during maxillary teeth occlusion after tooth extraction in diabetic mice
    Yang Xiaoye, Li Wenjin, Zhu Li, Wang Yu, Zhang Shuangyuan
    2020, 24 (2):  242-247.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1918
    Abstract ( 389 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Defective dentition is a common oral disease, if it is not treated in time, there will be adverse effects such as tilting of the adjacent teeth and elongation of the jaws, causing occlusal disorder and interference, which will seriously affect the later repair. Especially in the diabetic patients with dentition loss, the impacts of diabetes on the occlusal elongation of the jaw teeth, and how osteonectin changes in this process, are still unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of diabetes on tooth occlusion and elongation in mice by establishing a model of the occlusion of the jaws in diabetic mice.

    METHODS: A diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in C57 BL/6J mice (purchased from the Animal Experimental Center of Shanxi Medical University). The mice were intraperitoneally injected with sodium citrate buffer. Thirty mice with successful modeling and control mice were removed, and the three right maxillary molars were removed to establish an experimental model of the extensional movement of the maxillary teeth. After 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days, the right jaw was taken. The bone mineral density was measured by micro-CT. The number of osteoclasts was counted by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining. The expression level of osteonectin was detected by RT-qPCR. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Shanxi Medical University.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) With the time increasing, the bone mineral density of the right mandible in the two groups was gradually increased. The bone mineral density in the diabetic group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after surgery (P < 0.05). (2) With the time increasing, the number of osteoclasts in the right mandible of both groups was gradually increased. The number of osteoclasts in the diabetic group was significantly lower than that in the control group at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after surgery (P < 0.05). (3) The expression level of osteonectin mRNA in the right mandible of both groups was gradually increased. The expression level of osteonectin mRNA in the diabetic group was significantly higher than that in the control group at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days after surgery (P < 0.05). (4) These results indicate that diabetes can reduce the bone construction ability during the extensional movement and promote osteonectin mRNA expression.

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    Berberine alleviates ischemia/reperfusion injury in type 2 diabetic rats
    Fu Yunyu, Qiu Xiaotang, Yang Wenkui, Mo Shian, Wu Xiaocui, Wu Yingping
    2020, 24 (2):  230-235.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1904
    Abstract ( 465 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Berberine has been shown to alleviate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of berberine on the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in type 2 diabetic rats and its molecular mechanism.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Chinese Medicine Hospital of Hainan Province. The rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg streptozotocin, twice every other day, for 8 weeks to establish the type 2 diabetic model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats with average blood sugar ≥ 11.1 mmol/L were selected and randomly divided into control, ischemia/reperfusion injury and ischemia/reperfusion injury+berberine groups (n=30/group). The rats in the former two groups were given the normal saline via gavage, and the ischemia/reperfusion injury+berberine group received the 200 mg/(kg·d) via gavage. After 7 days of treatment, the latter two group rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours and reperfusion for 12 hours to establish the model of middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the volume of cerebral infarction. The levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in the infarct area were detected by ELISA. The brain cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. The expression levels of PI3K, Akt and phosphorylated Akt were detected by western blot assay.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group, the volume of cerebral infarction in the ischemia/ reperfusion+berberine group was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), the superoxide dismutase level was significantly increased, and the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly decreased. (2) Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group, the ischemia/ reperfusion+berberine group had less apoptosis, higher expression of Bcl-2 and lower expression of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax. (3) Compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group, the ischemia/reperfusion+berberine group had increase in the expression levels of PI3K and p-Akt. (4) These results indicate that berberine can play an anti-apoptotic role by activating PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and alleviate brain ischemia/ reperfusion injury in type 2 diabetic rats.
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    Protective mechanism of Naoxinqing Capsule in rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Min Dongyu, Li Hongyan, Guan Le, Chang Jiang, Zhang Haining, Cui Xinyue, Wang Peng, Cao Yonggang
    2020, 24 (2):  215-222.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1974
    Abstract ( 390 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Naoxinqing capsule has been used for treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury for a long time. However, there are relatively few in-depth studies on its mechanism.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Naoxinqing Capsule on gerbil model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by molecular biological means.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Liaoning University of Chinese Medicine, approval No. 21000092017072. Eighty male Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into sham, model, Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups, and the latter three groups underwent bilateral common carotid artery clip for 5 minutes, to establish the model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The sham group received no common carotid artery clip. Next day, the sham group fed normally, the model group was given normal saline, Naoxinqing group was given the 100 mg/(kg•d) Naoxinqing via gavage, and Naoluotong group given 100 mg/(kg•d) Naoluotong via gavage, respectively, for 21 consecutive days. The water maze test was conducted at 1 week before experiment ended. The brain tissue was removed after experiment. The learning and memory function, hippocampal neurons, cerebrovascular and corresponding molecular changes were detected.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the sham group, the learning ability in the model group was decreased significantly. Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups could effectively improve the learning ability after surgery. (2) Compared with the model group, the numbers of neurons in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups were increased significantly, arranged regularly with clear contour and complete structure. (3) Compared with the model group, in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups, the activities of superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase, and glutathione content were significantly increased, and the content of malonaldehyde was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). (4) The expression levels of ASC, NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in the hippocampus in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups were significantly lower than those in the model group (< 0.05). (5) The levels of interleukin-18 and interleukin-1β in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups were significantly lower than those in the model group (P< 0.01). (6) Compared with the model group, the cells positive for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups were significantly increased, the cells contacted closely each other. (7) Compared with the model group, in the Naoxinqing and Naoluotong groups, the expression levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly up-regulated, and the content of nitric oxide was significantly increased (P < 0.01). (8) These results indicate that Naoxinqing and Naoluotong can effectively protect the morphology of hippocampal CA1 region in gerbils. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is accompanied by cerebral vascular dysfunction. Naoxinqing Capsule can protect cerebral vascular function and inhibit cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    MiR-150-5p protects rats from middle cerebral artery occlusion by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor-5/nuclear factor-kappa B p65 signaling pathway
    Xie Yuanyuan, Zhang Yanjun, Zhang Xiaoman
    2020, 24 (2):  223-229.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1443
    Abstract ( 407 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There is an inflammatory response in the lesion tissue of ischemic cerebral infarction, and the expression of miR-150-5p is significantly decreased. Whether miR-150-5p inhibits the release of inflammatory factors and alleviates the injury of ischemic cerebral infarction tissue through the Toll-like receptor-5/nuclear factor-κB pathway remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and preliminary mechanism of miR-150-5p in ischemic cerebral infarction in rats.

    METHODS: (1) The rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were constructed and the rat models were divided into five groups: control, miR-150-5p agomir, agomir control, miR-150-5p antagomir and antagomir control groups. (2) The rats in the control group was given the intracerebroventricular injection of normal saline, and the rats in the latter four groups were given the intracerebroventricular injection of miR-150-5p agomir (miR-150-5p agonist), agomir negative control, miR150-5p antagomir (miR150-5p inhibitor) and antagomir negative control, respectively. (3) After 7 days, the brain was graded by modified neurological severity score, the cerebral infarct volume was measured by MRI, and the histopathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression levels of miR-150-5p, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, Toll-like receptor-5 and nuclear factor-κB p65 in brain tissues were detected by qRT-PCR, ELISA and western blot assay, respectively. The target relationship between miR150-5p and Toll-like receptor-5 was verified by luciferase assay by retrieving the bioinformatics website Targetscan to predict the binding sites of miR-150-5p and Toll-like receptor-5.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the control group, the modified neurological severity score, and levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, Toll-like receptor-5 and nuclear factor-κB p65 proteins were significantly decreased in the miR-150-5p agomir group (P < 0.05). The physiological score and biochemical indexes in the miR-150-5p antagomir group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). (2) Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that the nerve cells in the control group were disordered and ill-defined, and the nerve cells were obviously degenerated and necrotic. The above pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the miR-150-5p agomir group and aggravated in the miR-150-5p antagomir group. There were no significant differences in the indexes between agomir control, the antagomir control and control groups (P > 0.05). (3) TargerScan website prediction results and luciferase reporter gene analysis results showed that miR-150-5p and Toll-like receptor-5 had a targeted binding site. (4) These results imply that miR-150-5p can inhibit the inflammatory signaling pathway of Toll-like receptor-5/nuclear factor-κB p65 in brain injury caused by ischemia and reduce the inflammatory response, thereby alleviating the damage of nerve function and playing a protective role.

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    Effect of miR-155 on acute lung injury in burned rats: changes of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway
    Li Hongzhang, Yang Kun, Liu Yuwen, Liu Pan, Qiu Bo, Zou Jie
    2020, 24 (2):  204-208.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1438
    Abstract ( 326 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Currently, studies have focused on the role and mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in the pathological process of acute lung injury in burned rats, such as the targeting inhibition of κB kinase by miR-155, which further weakens the activity of nuclear factor-κB and plays a role in acute lung injury in burned rats. However, there are still some pathological mechanisms to be studied and confirmed.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of miR-155 on acute lung injury in burned rats through nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    METHODS: The rat models of acute lung injury were established by warm water bath simulating burn injury. The burned rats were divided into acute lung injury, miR-155-mimics and miR-155-inhibitor groups. After fluid resuscitation, the rats in the miR-155-mimics and miR-155-inhibitor groups were injected into the tail vein of 5 μL of miR-155-mimics and miR-155-inhibitions, respectively. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were detected by ELISA. The lung morphology in the three groups was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The protein expression levels of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase 2 were evaluated by western blot assay. The nuclear factor-κB protein in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the severity of lung injury in the miR-155-inhibitor group, acute lung injury group and the miR-155-mimics group was increased gradually (P < 0.05). (2) ELISA results showed that compared with the acute lung injury group, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were increased in the miR-155-mimics group (P < 0.05), and decreased in the miR-155-inhibitor group (P < 0.05). (3) Western blot assay results showed that compared with the acute lung injury group, the expression levels of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase 2 proteins were increased in the miR-155-mimics group (P < 0.05), and decreased in the miR-155-inhibitor group (P < 0.05). (4) Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression level of nuclear factor-κB was increased in the miR-155-inhibitor group, which was dark brown. The expression of nuclear factor-κB in cytoplasm and nucleus of neutrophils, mononuclear macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells was the most obvious. (5) These results indicate that in lung tissue cells, decreased miR-155 can down-regulate nuclear factor-κB activity, which reduces the inflammatory response of the lung between the damaged tissue. The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethics Committee of the First People’s Hospital of Neijiang, approval No. 1801270.
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    Effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in lung tissue of smoked rats
    Li Xiang, Wang Wei, Xia Shuyue, He Wei
    2020, 24 (2):  254-259.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1877
    Abstract ( 430 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: N-Acetyl-L-cysteine is a precursor of glutathione, which can directly scavenge oxygen free radicals. However, it is not entirely clear whether N-acetyl-L-cysteine can alleviate smoking-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in lung tissue of smoked rats, and to clarify its possible mechanism of action.

    METHODS: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into control, smoked and smoked+N-acetylcysteine groups. The rats in the smoked and smoked+N-acetylcysteine groups were placed in the passive smoking animal exposure system, with smoking of 20 cigarettes, twice/d, 1 hour/times, for 8 consecutive weeks. The rats in the smoked+N-acetylcysteine group were given 200 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine via gavage before passive smoking daily, for 8 consecutive weeks. The control rats were fed normally for 8 consecutive weeks. The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Shenyang Medical College in October 2018, approval No. (2018)85.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Pathological observation showed that the pulmonary tissue was disordered, alveolar septal thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis in the smoking group, while the pulmonary hemorrhage, the number of inflammatory cells and the degree of fibrosis in the smoking+N-acetylcysteine group were significantly reduced. (2) Compared with the control group, the expression levels of malondialdehyde-5 and inositol-alpha genes were significantly increased, and superoxide dismutase-1 gene expression was significantly decreased in the smoked group, while N-acetylcysteine could inhibit the above changes. (3) Immunofluorescence staining and western blot assay results revealed that the expression levels of malondialdehyde-5 and inositol-alpha in lung tissue of rats in the smoked+N-acetylcysteine group was significantly lower than those in the smoked group, and the expression level of superoxide dismutase-1 was significantly higher than that in the smoked group. In addition, the expression levels of Nrf2 and Keap1 mRNA and protein were significantly increased, and the expression levels of Bach1 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in the smoking+N-acetylcysteine group. (4) These results suggest that N-acetylcysteine can protect smoking-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, and which might be through activating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway.

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    Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on microRNA-130b and transforming growth factor beta 1 in renal tissue of rat models of diabetic nephropathy 
    Liu Yuetong, Wang Qin, Yang Ye, Zhu Jun, Abulikemu•Tuerdi
    2020, 24 (2):  248-253.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1907
    Abstract ( 300 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: 1,25(OH)2D3 plays an important regulatory role in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of microRNA-130b and transforming growth factor β1 in kidney of diabetic nephropathy rats.

    METHODS: The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Laboratory Animal Center of Xinjiang Medical University. Twenty-five clean Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetic nephropathy+1,25(OH)2D3 group and diabetic nephropathy+peanut oil group. The latter two groups were given calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3, active vitamin D3, 0.03 μg/kg•d) treatment and peanut oil control treatment, respectively. After 37 days, the samples were collected and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 in rat kidney tissue was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay and immunohistochemical staining. The expression level of microRNA-130b in kidney was detected by RT-PCR. Morphological structure and degree of fibrosis of rat kidney were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) RT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of microRNA-130b in the diabetic nephropathy+ 1,25(OH)2D3 group and diabetic nephropathy+peanut oil group were significantly lower than those in the normal control group (P < 0.01). The level of microRNA-130b in the diabetic nephropathy+1,25(OH)2D3 was significantly higher than that in the diabetic nephropathy+peanut oil group (P < 0.01). (2) RT-PCR, western blot assay and immunohistochemical staining and pathological findings showed that the expression level of transforming growth factor β1 mRNA protein and renal tissue structure disorder and degree of fibrosis in the diabetic nephropathy+1,25(OH)2D3 group and diabetic nephropathy+peanut oil group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P < 0.01). The level of transforming growth factor mRNA protein and renal tissue structure disorder and degree of fibrosis in the diabetic nephropathy+1,25(OH)2D3 group were significantly lower than those in the diabetic nephropathy+peanut oil group (P < 0.01). (3) These results suggest that the expression level of microRNA-130b is decreased and transforming growth factor β1 mRNA and protein levels are increased in renal tissue of diabetic nephropathy rats and the renal tissue structure is disordered and the degree of fibrosis is severe. 1,25(OH)2D3 can up-regulate the expression of microRMA-130b and also down-regulate the expression of transforming growth factor β1 in the kidney of diabetic nephropathy rats, thus improving the degree of renal tissue structure disorder and fibrosis.

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    Construction of rat diacylglycerol kinase gamma lentivirus overexpression vector by homologous recombination
    Li Lei, Xie Jianshan, Du Jiazheng, Shi Liang, Cui Huilin
    2020, 24 (2):  260-264.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1992
    Abstract ( 600 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Lentiviral vectors have been widely used as exogenous transgenic vectors. However, a recombinant lentiviral vector containing rat diacylglycerol kinase γ (DGKγ) gene has not been reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To construct lentiviral overexpression vector of rat DGKγ by homologous recombination.

    METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from the brain tissue of adult Sprague-Dawley rats, and the cDNA obtained by PCR was used as a template to amplify the 5'-end 1 029 bp and the 3'-end 1 362 bp of the rat DGKγ gene CDS. Then, the two homologous recombination fragments were ligated into the plasmid vector. The positive clones were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. The CMV-rat DGKγ-GFP lentiviral vector and the lentiviral packaging system were co-transfected into 293T cells for virus packaging and lentivirus was collected to infect 293T cells. The expression of GFP in infected 293T cells was observed under fluorescence microscope. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to detect the relative expression of DGKγ mRNA in infected 293T cells.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of PCR simplification and sequencing indicated that the CMV-rat DGKγ-GFP lentiviral vector was successfully constructed. In 293T cells infected with CMV-rat DGKγ-GFP lentivirus, the expression of GFP was observed under fluorescence microscope and the DGKγ mRNA expression was increased significantly than that of the vector group by real-time PCR (P < 0.01). Western blot assay results showed that the DGKγ protein expression of the selected GFP-positive 293T cells was increased very significantly (P < 0.001). To conclude, the rat DGKγ lentiviral overexpression vector has been successfully constructed and maintains high expression in 293T cells. 

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    Construction of microfluidics-based fallopian tube model for mimicking fertilization and early embryo culture in vivo
    Wang Meng, Zhang Bo
    2020, 24 (2):  265-270.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1339
    Abstract ( 458 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing proportion of infertility in the population, more and more attentions have been paid on assisted reproductive techniques. Fertilization and early embryo culture are the significant parts of assisted reproductive techniques; however, they remain unchanged in the last few decades.

    OBJECTIVE: To design a novel microfluidics-based fallopian tube model that can mimic the microenvironment of fertilization and early embryo culture in vivo.

    METHODS: Microfluidic device was manufactured by soft lithography method to mimic the anatomical characteristic of fallopian tube in vivo. Mouse oviduct primary epithelial cells were cultured and purified by explants culture method, and then the purified cells were identified by keratin immunofluorescence method. Epithelial cells were then loaded into the channel to mimic the biochemical environment of fallopian tube in vivo. The chip was connected to the automatic liquid changing device to mimic the liquid environment of fallopian tube in vivo.

    RESLUTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The channel of this model is cylindrical with 2 cm of height and 1 cm of diameter, which were in accordance with the anatomical characteristic of the isthmus of fallopian tube in shape. (2) The keratin immunofluorescence was positive, which indicated that mouse oviduct primary epithelial cells can be obtained by explants culture method. (3) The cells were loaded into the channel to cover the wall of channel, which provided a biochemical microenvironment similar to that in vivo for fertilization and early embryo culture. After the chip was connected to the automatic liquid changing device, metabolic waste could be taken away and nutrient substance can be replenished in time, which mimics the real fluid environment in vivo. (4) This study combined microfluidics technology and assisted reproductive techniques to design a novel fallopian tube model, which mimics the micro-environment of fertilization and early embryo culture in vivo. This study has laid a foundation for further improvement of assisted reproductive techniques and the rate of fertilization and embryo optimization.

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    Survey and analysis of the application situation of urban barrier-free facilities (tactile ground surface indicator)
    Wu Yue, Gao Ge, Wu Mengzhu, Wang Xiuli, Xue Pingju, Gou Bo
    2020, 24 (2):  271-275.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1440
    Abstract ( 477 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Urban barrier-free facilities are imperfect in China, but visually impaired people need  barrier-free facilities urgently.
    OBJECTIVE:
    To understand the public’s cognition and problems about urban barrier-free facilities, and put forward improvement suggestions by researching the application status of barrier-free facilities in Shijiazhuang (taking tactile ground surface indicator as an example).

    METHODS: One hundred and eighteen citizens and 51 ordinary sanitation workers at Shijiazhuang were randomly selected, and underwent cognitive survey by questionnaire. Meanwhile, 60 visually impaired persons were tactile ground surface indicator using survey by questionnaire.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Most citizens, sanitation workers and visually impaired person have a certain understanding of tactile ground surface indicator, but the awareness rate is still low. Totally 7% citizens and 18% sanitation workers did not know the tactile ground surface indicator, and the travel rate of visually impaired people was extremely low, only 38% visually impaired person were able to travel frequently. More than 50% people thought that the tactile ground surface indicator had not actually effect. Only 19% citizens were more satisfied with the supervision, maintenance and maintenance of the tactile ground surface indicator. 56% visually impaired people believed that it had no practical effect, and 42% visually impaired people said that their travel range was less than 1 km. It means that the public cognition rate and the tactile ground surface indicator utilization rate are low. We also put forward improvement suggestions from three aspects: strengthening publicity education and training, rehabilitation training for the visually impaired persons, strengthen construction and maintenance, so as to protect the rights and interests for disabled people, promote them return to society and improve their quality of life.

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    Mechanism of action of energy metabolism molecule SIRT1 in improving bone metabolism of type 2 diabetes
    Zhang Luyao
    2020, 24 (2):  276-281.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1922
    Abstract ( 487 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Energy metabolism regulates type 2 diabetes bone metabolism is a hotspot in the field of life medicine. Long-term disorders of energy metabolism such as sugar and lipids lead to insulin resistance, which triggers type 2 diabetes. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- dependent histone deacetylase, is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and is involved in bone metabolism, gene transcription, cellular senescence, apoptosis and pyroptosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the recent literature on the mechanism of action of SIRT1 in exercise-improving bone metabolism, and to investigate its current status and research progress.

    METHODS: Databases of PubMed and CNKI were retrieved. The keywords were “SIRT1, exercise, type 2 diabetes, bone formation, bone resorption” in Chinese and English, respectively.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and the metabolic balance are the key to ensure the homeostasis of bone metabolism. In the event of a disorder, the morphological structure of the bone tissue will be degraded, which is also an important mechanism for the occurrence of osteoporosis in type 2 diabetes complications. (2) Energy metabolism disorder is critical for triggering type 2 diabetes. SIRT1, as a key factor regulating energy metabolism, can mediate osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function through Wnt and transforming growth factor-β pathways. (3) Recently, exercise has been shown to significantly improve the energy metabolism and bone metabolism of type 2 diabetes. Based on the osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the current researches at home and abroad are reviewed to explore the mechanism of SIRT1 in the improvement of type 2 diabetes bone metabolism.

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    Tendinopathy: debate on concepts and pathogenesis
    Liu Chunyu, Han Xiaoyan, Wang Lin
    2020, 24 (2):  282-288.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1917
    Abstract ( 481 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Tendinopathy is a hotspot in the fields of sports medicine and rehabilitation, but there have been many controversies about the concept, mechanism and pathological stages of tendinopathy for a long time. 
    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarize the related concepts of tendinopathy, the role of inflammation in the occurrence of tendinopathy and the pathological mechanism of tendinopathy.
    METHODS: CNKI, VIP, CBM, WanFang, PubMed and Embase databases were searched. From the aspects of tendinopathy, enthesis, inflammation and pathological mechanism, some related research results since 1990 were retrieved and summarized.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results show that the debate on the concept of tendinopathy is based on the understanding of its pathological mechanism, and the understanding of the pathological mechanism of tendinopathy will continue to be improved with the emergence of more high-quality researches. The research on the relationship between tendinopathy and inflammation, the relationship between tendinopathy and load patterns, and the mechanical characteristics of enthesis will be a future focus.
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    Exercise in the prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis: key factors and cautions 
    Song Xiaoneng, Hu Linghui, Huang Desheng, Zhou Xuchang, Wu Wei
    2020, 24 (2):  289-295.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1972
    Abstract ( 467 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The treatments of knee osteoarthritis are mainly to relieve the symptoms, and it is difficult to be cured. Exercise therapy is denominated as a designed and ruled plan of physical activities to get some specific treated goals and aimed at the recovery of normal musculoskeletal function and reduction of the pain caused by diseases or body injuries. The research of exercise therapy in prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis has different opinions. 
    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the critical factors influencing exercise therapy in the prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and to provide reference for exercise therapy in preventing and treating knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: A computer-based retrieval of CNKI and PubMed databases was performed for the articles published before January 2019. The keywords were “exercise therapy, knee osteoarthritis, prevention and treatment” in Chinese and English, respectively. The articles concerning exercise therapy effect on knee osteoarthritis were included for analysis based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Exercise therapy should be begun as early as possible, and at the early period, we should pay attention to the angle of knee joint injury, and increase the intensity gradually, such as from non-weight training to weight training. (2) The middle-low intensity exercise therapy is recommended, and over-training should be avoided, especially for those who have cartilage wear.
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    Effects of physical activity and exercise on metabolic syndrome
    Tian Lu, Liu Bin
    2020, 24 (2):  296-302.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1425
    Abstract ( 592 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome appeared at older and lower age. Increasing physical activity and active movement can effectively improve insulin sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome, regulate lipid and glucose metabolisms, decrease blood pressure and reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the effect of physical activity and exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, and to further reveal the positive benefits of physical activity, aerobic exercise and resistance movement to young children and middle-aged and elderly people, so as to provide theoretical and practical reference for effective prevention, mitigation and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    METHODS: PubMed, CNKI, and ElsevierSDOL databases were used to search relevant articles with the keywords of “metabolic syndrome, physical activity, exercise” in Chinese and English, respectively. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and the influence of physical activity and exercise on metabolic syndrome were summarized to confirm the included studies eligible for the objectives.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Adequate physical activity is an independent protective factor of metabolic syndrome. A healthy lifestyle, such as less sitting and hyperactivity, changing travel mode and increasing housework, can effectively accelerate energy metabolism and improve insulin sensitivity in all groups, reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and each component of the disease. (2) Regular exercise has a significantly positive effect on the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Aerobic exercise and resistance exercise can reduce the body fat content and insulin resistance and other risk factors. Resistance exercise can increase skeletal muscle content, increase basal metabolic rate and insulin sensitivity, especially control blood sugar. Only aerobic exercise can correct the inflammatory reaction of metabolic syndrome, and has more advantages in reducing body fat and lowering blood pressure. (3) Obesity in children and adolescents is closely related to metabolic syndrome. Physical activity and exercise play a significant role in the prevention and improvement of metabolic syndrome, while the improvement of metabolic syndrome can control obesity in children and adolescents. The survival rate of middle-aged and elderly patients with metabolic syndrome decreased, the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases increased, and the mortality rate increased. Lifestyle change and regular exercise are important measures to prevent and cure the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the middle-aged and elderly.

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    Hypoxia-mediated miRNAs affect glucose metabolism: new recognition of preventing and controlling glucose metabolism
    Jiang Han, Ding Jie, Chen Gen, Xie Qiang, Li Wei, Wang Zhibin, Zhu Lei
    2020, 24 (2):  303-311.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1957
    Abstract ( 349 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: miRNAs have been shown to be closely related to obesity and diabetes, which can be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of diabetes. 
    OBJECTIVE: To review the roles of miRNAs in promoting insulin sensitivity, controlling insulin synthesis and regulating insulin resistance in hypoxic exercise, and to explore the mechanism of hypoxic exercise-mediated miRNAs in regulating glucose metabolism.
    METHODS: Relevant studies on hypoxic exercise glucose metabolism and miRNAs in PubMed, CNKI, WanFang databases were searched. The keywords were “miRNAs, low oxygen movement, hypoxic exercise, hypoxia-mediated, sugar metabolism, glucose metabolism” in English and Chinese, respectively. Relevant literatures published from 2007 to 2019 were searched and screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: miRNAs have the potential to regulate the expression of major protein cascades in the insulin signaling pathway by regulating the expression of target genes and thereby affecting the homeostasis of glucose metabolism. miRNAs can also be used as single molecules or in combination therapy. There is an urgent need to integrate miRNAs into insulin signaling pathways and develop new miRNAs-related diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hopes of addressing type 2 diabetes in the future. Studying the mechanism of the effects of miRNAs on glucose metabolism in hypoxic exercise can not only provide a theoretical basis for scientific hypoglycemic and body mass control, but also can be used as an intervention for the prevention and control of diseases related to glucose metabolism disorders. Diseases caused by abnormal glucose metabolism provide new therapeutic approaches.
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    Training variables and autonomic nervous system adaption
    Chen Yanlin, Hu Fei, Xu Shengjia
    2020, 24 (2):  312-319.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1430
    Abstract ( 491 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in mediating cardiovascular system to adapt the metabolic demands of the muscle activity, and is an important presenter and supporter of physical activity.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the possible effects of exercise intensity, exercise modality, and exercise duration on autonomic nervous system regulation during and after exercise through reviewing the related literature on the autonomic nervous system and heart rate variability assessment of autonomic nervous system, so as to understand the mechanisms that meet the metabolic needs of physical activities.

    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI databases were searched using the keywords of “autonomic nerves system, heart rate variability, exercise intensity, exercise modality, exercise duration” in English and Chinese, respectively. The studies published from 1999 to 2018 were retrieved.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cardiac autonomic neuromodulation is evaluated by heart rate variability index based on RR interval changes. Heart rate variability is a sensitive marker that reflects the co-regulation of cardiac function in sympathetic nerves and parasympathetic (vagal) nerves in the autonomic nervous system. In addition, the heart rate variability signals contain a large amount of regulatory information, including cardiovascular system, hormones and body fluids. Therefore, the mechanism of exercise-induced cardiac autonomic nervous system adaptation is still unclear. Exercise intensity may be the main factor affecting the regulation of cardiac autonomic nervous system during and after exercise. The training parameters such as exercise form and duration, as well as their interaction effects, may affect the adaptive process of cardiac autonomic nervous system.
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    Acupuncture combined with other therapies for osteoporosis: a network meta-analysis
    Cen Zhuohao, Chen Jiena, Huang Jiahua, Shi Chushuo, Zhou Chi, Wen Junmao, Ling Min
    2020, 24 (2):  320-328.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1919
    Abstract ( 513 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Comparative study results between the treatment efficiency of acupuncture plus other combination therapy and western medicine therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis remain controversial. Currently, meta-analysis studies mainly focus on comparison of the efficacy between single acupuncture treatment, acupuncture plus western medicine combination therapy and western medicine, but there is a lack of investigation on acupuncture combined with other therapies. It is difficult to fully understand the efficacy of acupuncture.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of acupuncture therapy, conventional western medicine and Chinese medicine on osteoporosis treatment by network meta-analysis.

    METHODS: A search was performed on the CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases to include the randomized controlled trials of different acupuncture treatments for osteoporosis. Relevant data were extracted after screening the literature according to relevant inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the included literature was evaluated. Literature data analysis and mapping were performed using Stata 14.0 software.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included, involving seven interventions, such as single acupuncture treatment, single western medicine treatment, single Chinese medicine treatment, acupuncture plus western medicine combination therapy, acupuncture plus Chinese medicine combination therapy, Chinese medicine + western medicine treatment, acupuncture + Chinese medicine + western medicine combined treatment. (1) In the treatment efficiency, acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine is the best in the treatment of primary osteoporosis, and acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture combined with western medicine and acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine western medicine were significantly better than traditional Chinese medicine combined with western medicine (P < 0.05). (2) In increasing the bone mineral density of patients, acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture combined with western medicine and acupuncture combined with traditional Chinese medicine western medicine increased the bone density compared with single Chinese medicine or western medicine (P < 0.05). (3) In terms of relieving pain in patients, the results of this study showed that compared with single western medicine, acupuncture combined with western medicine can relieve the pain of patients to some extent (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the other treatment methods (P > 0.05). In the included studies, a very small number of patients developed acupuncture and blood stasis after acupuncture, but no fainting or unreported, and no other side effects were found. To conclude, acupuncture combined with other therapies can improve the efficiency, increase the bone mineral density and alleviate pain. 

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