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    18 May 2023, Volume 27 Issue 14 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Chlorogenic acid promotes osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells
    Zhu Can, He Jiaheng, Chen Chichi, Liu Bo, Luo Zongping, Sun Jie, Shi Qin
    2023, 27 (14):  2170-2175.  doi: 10.12307/2023.126
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 173 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Chlorogenic acid is the most abundant polyphenol in dried plums, which, as a food-derived drug, is expected to be used in the treatment of osteoporosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of chlorogenic acid on osteogenic differentiation of osteogenic precursor cells and its mechanism and to verify its effect on bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis.
    METHODS: (1) In vitro test: MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of chlorogenic acid (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 mg/L) and cell proliferation was detected using cell counting kit-8. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in osteogenic induction media containing 0, 10, 20 mg/L chlorogenic acid, followed by alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, and detection of osteogenic genes and BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD4 signaling pathway-related proteins. (2) In vivo test: Thirty-two female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups, sham operation group, ovariectomized group, and low- and high-dose chlorogenic acid groups, with 8 mice in each group. An ovariectomized mouse model was established, and chlorogenic acid was then administered at high (50 mg/kg/d) and low (25 mg/kg/d) concentrations in the latter two groups for 8 continuous weeks, respectively. Micro-CT scan and histomorphology analysis were performed on the femur and tibia of the mice 8 weeks later. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) In vitro test: Chlorogenic acid at a concentration of ≤ 10 mg/L had no obvious effects on the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells. With the increased concentration of chlorogenic acid, the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition and calcium nodule formation ability of MC3T3-E1 cells increased; the mRNA expression levels of osteogenesis-related genes, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, RUNX2 and SMAD4 increased; and the protein expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, RUNX2, and SMAD4 increased. (2) In vivo test: Micro-CT scan results showed that compared with the sham operation group, the bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, thickness and number of trabecular bone were significantly lower in the ovariectomized group (P < 0.05) and trabecular separation degree was significantly higher in the ovariectomized group (P < 0.05). Treatment with different concentrations of chlorogenic acid could certainly improve the above-mentioned indicators and the high-dose chlorogenic acid group showed significant changes in these indicators (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed less bone mass in the ovariectomized group than the sham operation group, and the bone mass increased after chlorogenic acid intervention. (3) To conclude, chlorogenic acid may promote osteogenic differentiation through the BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD4 signaling pathway and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice.
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    Protective effect of astragaloside IV against inflammatory injury in chondrocytes
    Liao Jianzhao, Yang Nan, Zhou Yi, Xu Hang, Xia Tian, Song Shilei, Zeng Qi, Chen Yueping
    2023, 27 (14):  2158-2163.  doi: 10.12307/2023.120
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (1423KB) ( 50 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Cartilage lesions are the key to the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis. Exploring the function of chondrocytes and developing drugs for chondrocyte protection and pro-secretion of type II collagen are important means to clinically cure osteoarthritis. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on interleukin-1β-induced inflammation of chondrocytes and to explore whether the Hippo-YAP pathway is involved in this effect and its potential mechanism.  
    METHODS: Chondrocytes from the tibia and femur of Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and cultured. Chondrocytes in the logarithmic growth phase were divided into five groups: blank group in which the cells were routinely cultured, model group in which the cells were treated with interleukin-1β to induce inflammatory injury in chondrocytes, astragaloside IV group in which the cells were treated with interleukin-1β + astragaloside IV, NC-siRNA group in which the cells were transfected with NC-siRNA + interleukin-1β + astragaloside IV, YAP1-siRNA group in which the cells were transfected with YAP1-siRNA+interleukin-1β+astragaloside IV. Relevant measurements were performed after 48 hours of culture.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cell viability was significantly lower in the model group than the blank group (P < 0.05), significantly higher in the astragaloside IV, NC-siRNA, and YAP1-siRNA groups than the model group (P < 0.05), and significantly higher in the YAP1-siRNA group than the NC-siRNA group (P < 0.05). The apoptotic rate was significantly higher in the model group than the blank group (P < 0.05), significantly lower in the astragaloside IV, NC-siRNA, and YAP1-siRNA transfection groups than the model group (P < 0.05), and significantly lower in the YAP1-siRNA group than the NC-siRNA group (P < 0.05). RT-qRCR results showed that compared with the blank group, the mRNA expressions of metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were significantly higher in the model group (P < 0.05), while the mRNA expressions of YAP1 and TEAD1 were significantly lower in the model group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of YAP1 in the astragaloside IV group was significantly higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with the NC-siRNA group, the mRNA expressions of metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were significantly higher in the YAP1-siRNA group (P < 0.05), while the mRNA expressions of YAP1 and TEAD1 were significantly lower in the YAP1-siRNA group (P < 0.05). Western blot results revealed that compared with the blank group, the protein expressions of metalloproteinase 1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and YAP1 were significantly higher in the model group (P < 0.05), while the protein expressions of type II collagen, TEAD1, and p-YAP1 were significantly lower in the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with the NC-siRNA group, the protein expressions of metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were significantly higher in the YAP1-siRNA group (P < 0.05), while the protein expressions of type II collagen, TEAD1, and p-YAP1 were significantly lower in the YAP1-siRNA group (P < 0.05). To conclude, astragaloside IV has a protective effect on interleukin-1β-induced inflammation of chondrocytes, which may be related to the Hippo-YAP pathway.
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    Notch2 contributes to the development of aortic and pulmonary valves in mouse embryonic heart
    Wang Jiajia, Xie Jianshan, Li Hairong, Jing Yixin, Yang Yanping
    2023, 27 (14):  2176-2181.  doi: 10.12307/2023.059
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (2753KB) ( 91 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of the arterial valve leaflets explain part of congenital heart malformations. Among of these, bicuspid aortic valve are the commonest congenital malformations in humans. However, the development process of the aortic and pulmonary valves in embryonic heart remains to be further elucidated.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the septation of outflow tract and the formation and remodeling of aortic and pulmonary valve anlagen in mouse embryonic heart.
    METHODS: Healthy ICR mice of 2 months old, SPF grade including 16 females and 10 males, were caged at 18:00 every night at a ratio of 2:1 between females and males. The mice which found vaginal plugs at 6:00 the next day were recorded to be at 0.5 days of pregnancy. The mouse embryos at 9.5-15 days of embryonic age were selected for preparing paraffin-embedded serial sections. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the protein expression of Isl1, Nkx2.5, myosin heavy chain, Ap2α, Sox9, α-smooth muscle actin, Snail, Jag1, Notch2, Alk3, and p-Smad1/5/8 in the mouse embryonic heart at 9.5-15 days of embryonic age. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the heart was performed to observe changes in the outflow tract endocardial cushion and intercalated cushions as well as valve morphology.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During embryonic days 9.5-15, endothelial cells in the outflow tract were transformed into mesenchymal cells in the cardiac jelly through epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, which participated in the formation of endocardial cushion in the outflow tract. From embryonic days 11 to 11.5, Isl1 positive cells in the pharyngeal mesenchyme extended into the outflow tract wall to form intercalated cushions, and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation was not observed during this process. Notch2 signal was involved in the formation of endocardial cushion in the outflow tract, but not in the formation of intercalated cushions. At embryonic day 12.5, the distal poles of the bilateral endocardial cushions of the outflow tract were fused to form the left and right coronary valve anlagen of the aorta and the left and right semilunar valve anlagen of the pulmonary trunk. The intercalated cushions formed the non-coronal valve anlagen of the aorta and the anterior semilunar valve anlagen of the pulmonary artery. The Notch2 signal was expressed in all valve anlagen. During embryonic days 13-15, the arterial valve anlagen were remodeled to form a slender valve and the expression of Notch2 signal in the valves gradually decreased. The results suggest that the mesenchymal cells in the intercalated cushions originate from the direct differentiation of Isl1 positive cells of the second heart field. Notch2 may not be involved in the formation of intercalated cushions, but may contribute to the formation and fusion of the outflow tract endocardial cushion and remodeling of the arterial valve anlagen. 
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    Rutin attenuates the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration in rats
    Xu Dayong, Li Yunpeng, Wei Jingmei, Liu Ruyin
    2023, 27 (14):  2139-2145.  doi: 10.12307/2023.117
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (1675KB) ( 74 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Rutin has various pharmacological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasoprotective, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective properties, which can be used to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. However, it has been less studied in the treatment of intervertebral disc degenerative diseases. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory effect of rutin on intervertebral disc degeneration in rats and its mechanism.
    METHODS: Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated from the postnatal rat nucleus pulposus tissue and then treated with rutin (10, 50, 100, 200, or 400 μmol/L) and interleukin-1β (10 μg/L). Cell viability and expression of inflammatory factor and oxidative stress factors were detected. Production of cellular metabolic enzymes, matrix degradation, and cell apoptosis were also observed. Furthermore, treatment of nucleus pulposus cells with R-spondin1, a WNT/β-catenin pathway activator, and the expression of β-catenin, c-Myc, and Cyclin D1 were detected. The 26 out of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected, to construct animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration using a needle fiber loop. One week later, the model was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. The rest 10 rats were used as controls. Rats with successful modeling were randomly divided into a model group and a rutin group. Rats in the rutin group were intragastrically treated with 40 mg/kg rutin for 8 weeks, while those in the model group were treated with an equal volume of normal saline. The Pfirrmann grading system was used to grade the degree of intervertebral disc degeneration. The serum levels of interleukin-6, type II collagen and caspase-3 were detected using ELISA. The protein levels of Aggrecan and inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat nucleus pulposus tissue were measured using western blot assay. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Cell experiment: 100 μmol/L rutin completely alleviated the toxicity of interleukin-1β to nucleus pulposus cells, decreased the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxyganese-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinases-3, 9, 13, and ADAMTS-5, inhibited the degradation of type II collagen and Aggrecan, and reduced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells. Whereas, treatment with R-spondin1 could reverse the effects of rutin. (2) In vivo experiments showed that compared with the model group, treatment with rutin decreased interleukin-6 level, increased type II collagen level, decreased caspase-3 activity, downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase level in nucleus pulposus tissue, and upregulated Aggrecan level, indicating an obvious improvement in intervertebral disc degeneration. To conclude, rutin could improve intervertebral disc degeneration in rats through anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of matrix degradation. 
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    Effect of heat shock protein on neurological function and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and hypoxia
    Sun Ruihua, Du Yu, Bao Qiaoling, Liu Tao
    2023, 27 (14):  2146-2151.  doi: 10.12307/2023.118
    Abstract ( 409 )   PDF (1400KB) ( 67 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia and hypoxia can trigger a series of complex cascade reactions. Due to its complex pathogenesis, there is no ideal drug for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and hypoxia.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of heat shock proteins on heme oxygenase-1 protein expression and neurological function in rats with cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. 
    METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, model group, heat shock protein 70 group, with 10 rats in each group. Animal models of cerebral ischemia and hypoxia were made in the latter two groups. Rats in the sham-operated group were given no ligation. After modeling, the heat shock protein 70 group was given tail injection of recombinant adenovirus vAd-HSP70 suspension (0.5 mL), once a day for 3 days. The neurological function, oxidation index, water content and infarct area of the three groups were compared. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the morphology of the rat brain. Western blot was used to detect the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein in the rat brain. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham-operated group, the neurological function scores in the model group were significantly decreased, while those in the heat shock protein 70 group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The brain water content and infarct area of rats in the model group were significantly higher than those in the sham-operated group (P < 0.05), and the brain tissue of rats in the model group had significant changes, with scattered cell distribution, significant loss of cells and increased number of necrotic cells. Compared with the model group, the brain water content and infarct area were significantly decreased in the heat shock protein 70 group (P < 0.05) and the morphology of brain tissue was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein in the brain tissue was significantly lower in the model group than the sham-operated group, but was significantly higher in the heat shock protein 70 group than the model group (P < 0.05). To conclude, heat shock proteins can effectively reduce oxidative stress damage, improve neurological function, and decrease cerebral infarct area and brain water content in the rat model of cerebral ischemia and hypoxia. Its mechanism of action may be related to the increase of heme oxygenase-1 protein expression.
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    Establishment of an acute liver failure model in BALB/c Nude mice
    Tan Jiayin, Liu Yang, Li Bin, Lu Li, Song Huifang
    2023, 27 (14):  2152-2157.  doi: 10.12307/2023.053
    Abstract ( 543 )   PDF (1289KB) ( 123 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In animal experiments regarding stem cells and tissue engineering, immunodeficient nude mice (BALB/c Nude) are of great significance for improving research accuracy. However, the CCl4 concentration and detection time for establishing an acute liver failure model in BALB/c Nude mice are still unclear, which seriously affects the application of this animal model in the study of immunogenic stem cell therapy.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the appropriate CCl4 concentration and detection time for establishing the acute liver failure model in BALB/c Nude mice via intraperitoneal injection in comparison with the C57 model of acute liver failure. 
    METHODS: CCl4 at the concentration of 50% was intraperitoneally injected into C57 (n=6) and BALB/c Nude mice (n=6) at the dose of 4 mL/kg. The survival of mice was observed within 72 hours after injection. Then, CCl4 at the concentration of 50%, 20%, and 10% was injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c Nude mice at the dose of 4 mL/kg. The survival of mice was also observed within 72 hours after injection and pathological sections of the liver were made for histopathological observation. According to the optimal concentration of CCl4 in two kinds of mouse models of acute liver failure, 50% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into C57 mice and 20% CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c Nude mice. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum of two kinds of mice were detected before and after injection.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The survival rates of C57 and BALB/c Nude mice were 50% and 0 respectively at 24 hours after CCl4 injection, indicating that the optimal concentration of CCl4 is inconsistent in C57 and BALB/c Nude mice. BALB/c Nude mice injected with 50% CCl4 died in succession within 24 hours. The survival rate of BALB/c Nude mice injected with 20% CCl4 was 66.7% after 24 hours and was still 66.7% after 72 hours. All BALB/c Nude mice injected with 10% CCl4 survived until 72 hours after injection. Pathological results of the BALB/c Nude mouse liver 24 hours after injection showed that the lower concentration of CCl4 indicated the less liver damage, and 20% CCl4 was the most suitable for establishing the acute liver failure model in BALB/c Nude mice. In C57 mice undergoing intraperitoneal injection of CCl4, the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase reached the peak at 4 hours and began to decline at 1 day. In BALB/c Nude mice undergoing intraperitoneal injection of CCl4, the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase reached the peak at 1 day and began to decline at 3 days. All these findings indicate that to improve the reliability of animal experiments, 50% CCl4 should be selected when making the acute liver failure model in C57 mice, and intervention measures should be taken 4 hours after injection. When BALB/c Nude mice are used to make the acute liver failure model, 20% CCl4 should be selected and intervention measures should be taken at 1 day after injection.
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    Bleomycin combined with angiotensin II for establishing a mouse model of aortic dissection
    Yang Lijuan, Yao Na, Lu Ruiwen, Liu Xiaoyu, Wang Baojun
    2023, 27 (14):  2194-2199.  doi: 10.12307/2023.164
    Abstract ( 567 )   PDF (1086KB) ( 112 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Aortic dissection is a rare life-threatening disease with high mortality. At present, the pathogenesis of aortic dissection is still not fully understood; therefore, research on its pathogenesis will have important clinical significance.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathological basis of arterial dissection in mice with connective tissue disease through constructing an aortic dissection model by bleomycin combined with angiotensin II.
    METHODS: Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with twelve mice in each group. Mice in the experimental group were subcutaneously treated with bleomycin to establish a systemic sclerosis model, while those in the control group were treated with phosphate buffered saline. Administration in each group lasted for 3 weeks. Mice in the two groups were examined for urine hydroxyproline level, back skin thickness and body mass to verify whether the model was successfully established. Mice were intraperitoneally injected angiotensin II beginning at 7 days after modeling for 14 continuous days. The histopathological changes in the aortic media of the two groups were analyzed and semi-quantitative grading was performed after modeling.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were significant increases in the urine hydroxyproline level and back skin thickness and a significant reduction in body mass in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in systolic pressure, diastolic stage and mean arterial pressure between the two groups at 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of angiotensin II (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, mice in the experimental group presented with significantly severer non-inflammatory degenerative lesions of the aortic media (P < 0.05). All findings indicate that non-inflammatory degeneration of the aortic media is more serious in the experimental mice then the control mice, that is, experimental mice are more prone to arterial dissection pathologically.
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    Naringenin repairs skeletal muscle injury by regulating polarization of macrophages and proliferation of muscle satellite cells
    Xu Mingkui, Xu Riming, Lin Yewu, Luo Yuantai, Zhang Xihui, Zhou Li, Yuan Shiguo
    2023, 27 (14):  2133-2138.  doi: 10.12307/2023.058
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (1851KB) ( 192 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the precise regulation of macrophage polarization is extremely important for tissue repair, the proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells during the repair of skeletal muscle injury. Naringenin can improve excessive fibrosis during skeletal muscle injury repair. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect and mechanism of macrophage polarization in skeletal muscle repair, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the treatment of skeletal muscle injury.
    METHODS: Eighty 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats of specific pathogen-free grade were randomly divided into two groups (n=40). A skeletal muscle injury model was constructed by weight drop method. The experimental group was intraperitoneally injected with naringenin (2 μg/g) for 14 days and the control group was injected with the same amount of 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. Samples of gastrocnemius muscle were collected from 6 rats in each group at 12 hours and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after injury. Masson and hematoxylin-eosin staining were used to observe the degree of skeletal muscle tissue fibrosis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-4, interleukin-13, interferon-α, and interferon-γ. The mRNA expressions of pro-fibrotic genes (type I and III collagens) and myogenic differentiation antigen (MyoD) were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, Polarization degree of macrophages was detected by flow cytometry. Proliferation of muscle satellite cells was observed by immunofluorescence (Pax7, MyoD) staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Histological observations showed that the fibrosis area ratio of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group at 5, 7, and 14 days after injury (P < 0.05), and the size of regenerated muscle fibers was significantly larger than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The ELISA results showed that compared with the control group, the expression of interleukin-4 at 7 and 14 days after injury and the expression of interleukin-13 and interferon-α at 5, 7, and 14 days after injury increased significantly in the experimental group (P < 0.05), while the expression of interferon-γ declined. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR results revealed that compared with the control group, the relative expression of type I and III collagens decreased significantly in the experimental group at 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after injury (P < 0.05), while the relative expression of MyoD increased significantly at 3, 5, and 7 days after injury (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry results showed that the number of M1-type macrophages in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group at 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after injury, while the number of M2-type macrophages was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence staining results showed that the proliferation of muscle satellite cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group at 3 days after injury (P < 0.05). To conclude, naringenin can treat skeletal muscle injury by regulating the M2-type polarization of macrophages to promote the proliferation of muscle satellite cells.
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    Effects of resveratrol on albumin-induced pyroptosis-related proteins in HK-2 cells
    Li Fang, Cao Jianmin, Zhai Pengfei, Wang Jianshe, Hong Da
    2023, 27 (14):  2164-2169.  doi: 10.12307/2023.094
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (1055KB) ( 158 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Resveratrol exerts protective effects against renal diseases, while its protective mechanism against inflammatory injury of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by albumin is still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of resveratrol on pyroptosis-related protein expression in HK-2 cells. 
    METHODS: Albumin was used to induce inflammatory damage in HK-2 cells. Resveratrol and sirtuins (SIRT1) inhibitor EX527 were used as pretreatments. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot was applied to test the protein expression of SIRT1, NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC). Immunofluorescence double staining was used to observe the co-localization of NLRP3 and ASC. Hoechst33342/PI staining was used to observe pyrolysis. Levels of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 were tested by using ELISA. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Albumin could significantly decrease cell viability, elevate the expressions of interleukin-1β, interleukin-18 and NLRP3 inflammasome (P < 0.01), and increase pyroptosis in HK-2 cells. However, resveratrol significantly upregulated the protein expression of SIRT1 in HK-2 cells (P < 0.01), downregulated the expression of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 (P < 0.05) and the levels of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 (P < 0.01), and attenuated albumin-induced pyroptosis. SIRT1 inhibitor could remarkably increase the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and increase pyrolysis. To conclude, resveratrol modulates HK-2 cell pyroptosis-related proteins to ameliorate albumin-induced inflammatory injury in renal tubular epithelial cells.
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    Identification of potential biomarkers of pigmented villonodular synovitis by transcriptome analysis
    Liu Yuan, Liang Xuezhen, Xu Bo, Liu Jinbao, Li Gang
    2023, 27 (14):  2182-2193.  doi: 10.12307/2023.424
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (5766KB) ( 147 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare synovial inflammatory disease. There is no relevant biomarker for early diagnosis. Messenger RNA (mRNA) has been confirmed to be involved in the occurrence and development of the disease, but its mechanism is not clear.
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential biomarkers and pathogenesis of pigmented villonodular synovitis by bioinformatics and related transcriptome analysis for differential diagnosis of the disease.
    METHODS: The microarray data set of synovial tissue associated with pigmented villonodular synovitis was searched by GEO database, and the differentially expressed genes were identified by NetworkAnalyst analysis (P < 0.05). The genes related to pigmented villonodular synovitis were searched in the disease database, and the differentially expressed genes were obtained by overlap with differentially expressed mRNAs. Tissue/organ localization of specific genes was carried out by BioGPS. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed by STRING database. The differentially expressed genes were enriched and analyzed by KOBAS3.0 and GSEA4.1.0, and the hub genes were identified by multiple computing methods. Cytoscape was used to build competitive endogenous RNA network. GEO dataset validated the biomarkers with high diagnostic value. In addition, the concentrations of 64 kinds of immune cells and stromal cells were analyzed by Xcell website, and the abundance fraction was calculated.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 2 546 differentially expressed genes were identified in the GSE175626 dataset, including 2 317 differentially expressed mRNA and 229 differentially expressed lncRNA. After intersection with the related genes in the disease database, 70 differentially expressed genes were obtained, 60 of which were identified by BioGPS. Compared with patients with osteoarthritis, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis were mainly involved in inflammation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune response. Fifteen hub genes were determined by CytoHubba and four gene cluster modules were identified by MCODE. Twelve heterosexual hub genes were verified by GEO dataset. Immune and stromal cell deconvolution analysis showed that 12 hub genes were closely related to some immune cells. Overall, IL-6, TNF, CD163, KRAS, FN1, HMOX1, GAPDH, IL1B, PTPRC, MAPK1, CCR2, and NFKBIA may be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis. SNHG14-hsa-miR-206-FN1 and XIST-hsa-miR-107-HMOX1/CD163 may be potential RNA pathways to regulate the progression of pigmented villonodular synovitis.
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    Regulatory mechanism of myoblast proliferation and differentiation
    Cheng Chunfang, Wan Juan, Ding Kaizhi, Song Jiahao, Tang Shan, Gong Yanchun, Yao Lihua
    2023, 27 (14):  2200-2206.  doi: 10.12307/2023.149
    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (1043KB) ( 139 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Myoblasts are myogenic progenitor cells, categorized as  muscle satellite cells. Their main physiological functions are regulating blood sugar balance and body metabolism, and they have the ability to self-renew and generate new muscle fibers, which play an important role in maintaining exercise ability. Myoblast proliferation and differentiation is regulated by a variety of regulatory factors and signaling pathways, which is of great significance for the treatment of skeletal muscle injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To review and analyze the research progress in the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts and their gene regulation mechanism by reviewing relevant literatures at home and abroad.
    METHODS: CNKI and PubMed were searched for the related articles published from database inception to June 2021. The retrieval key words were “myoblast, skeletal muscle, skeletal muscle injury repair, gene regulation, regulatory factor” in Chinese and English, respectively. We reviewed the regulation mechanism of myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and analyzed the role of myoblast proliferation and differentiation in the repair of skeletal muscle injury.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Myoblast proliferation and differentiation is the basis of skeletal muscle development and regeneration after injury or disease. Myoblast differentiation is often accompanied by changes in the expression levels of a series of regulatory factors involved in regulating cell cycle and related signaling pathways. There are mainly myogenic regulatory factors, retinoblastoma family, hypoxia-inducible factor, cyclin p53 and p21, and some signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase, HIPPO, adenylate-activated protein kinase, and hypoxia-inducible factor. Key regulatory factors and some specific functional proteins of cell cycle itself and signal transduction pathways interleave and interact with each other to regulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation. A complex regulatory network is formed to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts, thus improving the recovery quality of skeletal muscle injury. Therefore, the research on gene regulation of myoblast proliferation and differentiation has important potential application value for further understanding the repair of skeletal muscle injury.
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    The role of growth differentiation factor 5 in osteoarthritis
    Li Feifei, Zhang Yong, Wang Buyu, Yang Zhihang, Deng Jiang
    2023, 27 (14):  2207-2213.  doi: 10.12307/2023.153
    Abstract ( 448 )   PDF (889KB) ( 81 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 5, a member of transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein family, plays an important role in joint formation and the development of bone and articular cartilage. As a tissue engineering cytokine, growth differentiation factor 5 has great potential in promoting osteochondral repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of growth differentiation factor 5 in osteoarthritis and some existing problems, attempting to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Literature related to the role and mechanism of growth differentiation factor 5 in osteoarthritis was searched in CNKI, WanFang, and PubMed databases with “growth differentiation factor 5, articular cartilage, cell migration, cell proliferation, subchondral bone, inflammation, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis” as Chinese and English search terms, respectively. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Growth differentiation factor 5 promotes the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, expresses type II collagen and proteoglycans, and maintains the characteristics of chondrocytes. Growth differentiation factor 5 promotes the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes, but some studies have shown that the expression of chondrocyte hypertrophy markers is reduced after induction with growth differentiation factor 5, indicating that growth differentiation factor 5 is more beneficial than harmful to cartilage repair. Growth differentiation factor 5 can promote steogenesis, increase the mineralization density of subchondral bone, and indirectly promote the repair of cartilage through the repair of subchondral bone. Inflammatory factors are one of the factors that promote the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis. Growth differentiation factor 5 can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors, thereby protecting against osteoarthritis. As a “multifunctional” inducer, growth differentiation factor 5 has certain effects on cartilage, subchondral bone and inflammation. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear and needs further studies. Overall, growth differentiation factor 5 is expected to be an osteoarthritis-treating drug in the future.
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    Kinesiology tape for treating shoulder pain
    Liu Kun, Yin Lulu, Ma Zheng, Huang Lihua, Zhu Ran, Fang Ping, Zhang Ye, Ma Yanhong
    2023, 27 (14):  2214-2221.  doi: 10.12307/2023.160
    Abstract ( 774 )   PDF (945KB) ( 127 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Shoulder injury is always accompanied with shoulder pain, which affects patient’s athletic performance. Kinesiology tape has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder diseases. However, there is limited research on the effect of kinesiology tape on shoulder pain and the results are controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the advances in clinical research of kinesiology tape on shoulder pain, providing a theoretical reference basis for the practical application of kinesiology tape.
    METHODS: Literature retrieval was performed to search for studies on kinesiology tape for treating shoulder pain in the Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases up to June 2022. Keywords were “shoulder pain; shoulder” AND “kinesio tap; kinesiology tap; kinaesthetic tap; tape; taping; taped” in English and Chinese.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mechanical correction of kinesiology tape has certain effects on fatigue and pain relief, posture correction, increasing joint range of motion and acromion humeral distance, which is beneficial to improve upper limb function and locomotor performance. However, kinesiology tape has limited effects on joint proprioception and motion pattern after muscle fatigue. The long-term efficacy of kinesiology taping for shoulder pain is yet unclear. Further studies should be conducted on the effect of different tape tensions combined with different taping methods of kinesiology tape, to find new ways to keep it working. 
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    Role and application of melatonin in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis
    Yan Liyan, Han Xiaonan, Kou Hongwei, Shang Guowei, Leng Zikuan, Liu Hongjian, Cheng Tian
    2023, 27 (14):  2222-2228.  doi: 10.12307/2023.430
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (1098KB) ( 236 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic disease and its incidence is increasing year by year, seriously harming the health of middle-aged and elderly. Melatonin is an endogenous hormone secreted by the body regulating circadian rhythms. In recent years, it has been found that melatonin can regulate the balance between bone resorption and bone formation, exerting a vital role in maintaining the stability of bone metabolism.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research progress of melatonin in the treatment of osteoporosis and provide a novel foundation for the treatment of osteoporosis.
    METHODS: “Osteoporosis, melatonin, ovariectomized, pinealectomy, osteoblast, osteoclast, stem cells” were used as the key words. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles addressing the treatment of osteoporosis with melatonin. Totally 696 articles were  initially obtained and 62 articles were finally included for review
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The gene expression of melatonin varies in different age groups. Melatonin can maintain the self-renewal and differentiation abilities of mesenchymal stem cells as well as inhibit cell senescence through promoting the expression of Sirt1, PRC1/2 and cell cycle-related proteins. Melatonin can regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, stimulate the differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts, and hinder the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes and osteoclasts. Melatonin can effectively alleviate the cytotoxic damage triggered by oxidative stress and inflammatory response, inhibit the differentiation of osteoclasts, maintain the stability of mitochondria, and enhance the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. Melatonin can block bone metabolism disorders resulted from RANKL and inducible nitric oxide synthase, lower the bone loss, increase the expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, and exert a corresponding biological effect on the balance between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Melatonin has generated a good therapeutic impact on osteoporosis whereas its target is too complex, involving anti-aging, stem cell differentiation, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, which has not been completely explained and requires further research.
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    Application of patent literature in the study of allogenic demineralized bone matrix
    Song Kunxiu, Wang Limin, Ma Rongxing, Hu Yongcheng
    2023, 27 (14):  2229-2233.  doi: 10.12307/2023.401
    Abstract ( 292 )   PDF (859KB) ( 78 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Patent is an important part of intellectual property with high technology content and the utilization of patent documents plays an important role in many aspects.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the retrieval methods of common patent websites at home and abroad and study the application of patent retrieval in clinical and scientific research, so as to guide clinical researchers to increase the utilization of patent documents.
    METHODS: This study detailed the historical development and classification of patents and the characteristics and retrieval methods of six patent retrieval systems commonly used at home and abroad, i.e., Espacenet, USPTO, Free Patents Online, Derwent Innovation Index, CNIPA, and CNIPR. Taking “demineralized bone matrix” as an example, the retrieval methods of patents were displayed and the retrieval results were compared and analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The latest information on demineralized bone matrix can be obtained by the retrieval of patent literature, which is more accurate and novel than other literature. In the six commonly used patent search systems, Espacenet contains a wide range of patents, and the advanced search method is simple, effective and easy to master. CNIPA is conducive to tracking the latest patents in a certain technical field. Different patent retrieval systems have different retrieval rules; therefore, it is necessary to input search words for retrieval according to the standard expression form of patent information in each database. The combination of classification codes and search words can improve retrieval efficiency. By making full use of the management functions of some patent retrieval systems, we can keep abreast of domestic and foreign patent information, track the latest scientific achievements, and serve scientific research and technological innovation.
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    Effect of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptides on tissue remodeling during orthodontics
    Sun Xiaotong, Cheng Yi, Bi Lan, Wang Huida
    2023, 27 (14):  2234-2241.  doi: 10.12307/2023.144
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (972KB) ( 36 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are important regulators of mineral metabolism and synthesis in the body with complex action mechanisms. By adjusting the mode of action, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide can stimulate bone anabolism and catabolism, which play an important role in the formation of bone and dental hard tissues. This is a popular research direction in the field of stomatology.
    OBJECTIVE: Based on the literature at home and abroad, to make an overall review on the research and progress of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide in orthodontic treatment, with the aim of providing references for further research of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide in orthodontic treatment.
    METHODS: The first author retrieved the relevant articles included in PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wang Fang databases in the past 20 years. A total of 57 articles were included for review with “PTH, PTHrP, orthodontics, TMJ, OTM, root resorption, periodontal” as English and Chinese search terms, respectively. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide have good regulatory effects on bone, cartilage, and dental tissue reconstruction and achieve good effects in orthodontic treatment, including accelerating tooth movement, repairing root resorption and maintaining the stability of orthodontic effect. However, more and higher-quality animal experiments and clinical studies are still needed to confirm its specific effects, application methods and effects on general health. In the future, parathyroid hormone drugs and their analogues will assist in orthodontic treatment, which cannot only accelerate orthodontic treatment, but also reduce the risk of complications and obtain better treatment outcomes.
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    Advances in exercise modulation of mitochondrial function to improve myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Tan Xuefeng, Ding Zhimin, Guo Chenggen, Sun Pu
    2023, 27 (14):  2242-2248.  doi: 10.12307/2023.180
    Abstract ( 446 )   PDF (920KB) ( 61 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury triggers an increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress, induces excessive mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, leads to dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control, and aggravates myocardial injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the research progress in exercise that ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, providing a theoretical basis for exercise to prevent and alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    METHODS: PubMed, Web of science, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang databases were searched for relevant literature published from January 2000 to January 2022. Search terms included “exercise, mitochondrial dysfunction, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, energy metabolism” in Chinese and English, respectively. A systematical review was conducted and focused on the mechanism of different types of exercises interfering with mitochondrial function after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With myocardial mitochondria as a target, exercise has been found to improve mitochondrial dysfunction after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, with the following effects: exercise reduces oxidative stress levels, activates the mitochondrial respiratory chain to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in the myocardium, reduces mitochondria-mediated excessive apoptosis, promotes mitochondrial kinetic balance, and increases mitochondrial autophagic activity to control myocardial mitochondrial mass, thereby alleviating myocardial injury and promoting functional recovery.
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    Animal models of jaw critical-sized defect in jaw defect repair
    Wang Yue, Zhang Xiaoyan, Li Yunlong, Mei Shuang, Li Xiangjun
    2023, 27 (14):  2249-2256.  doi: 10.12307/2023.152
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF (960KB) ( 155 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Jaw defect repair has always been one of the challenges in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Artificial bone materials have gradually replaced autologous bone and allogeneic bone as a research hotspot for jaw defect repair. In order to evaluate the development prospect of artificial bone materials as an alternative to jaw defect repair, it is necessary to establish a reproducible and effective animal model of jaw defect, but there is no unified ideal experimental animal model of jaw defect that can perfectly simulate the structure and mechanical characteristics of the human jaw.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the animal models of mandibular defects from the following aspects: animal species, ages of model animals, size of mandibular critical-sized defects, surgical approaches and sites, and experimental detection methods after modeling.
    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for relevant documents. The keywords were “jaw, mandibular, critical-sized defect, animal model” in English and Chinese, respectively. A total of 68 articles highly correlated with experimental research and development of mandibular defects and animal models were included and summarized.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Establishing an ideal animal model of jaw defect with determination of critical-sized defect is important to explore the repair mechanism of jaw defect or verify the repair effect of biomaterials on bone defect. Reasonable jaw critical-sized defect models have been established in rats, dogs, and pigs. However, there is no consensus on the critical size of segmental and non-segmental defects of the rabbit mandible worldwide. Less is reported on the use of sheep or primate models of jaw defect. The models established in previous studies can provide a certain theoretical basis for the establishment of jaw critical-sized defect models in sheep or primates. Therefore, the standardization of animal models of jaw defects in different species and the determination of jaw critical-sized defects for research on the mechanism and application of jaw defect repair remain to be further studied. 
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    Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of exercise response and adaptation in the skeletal muscle
    Zhou Jin, Xu Zhen
    2023, 27 (14):  2257-2265.  doi: 10.12307/2023.154
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 192 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Exercise produces stimulus response and biological adaptation to the body and impacts on microRNAs expression levels in skeletal muscle and myocardium. Different exercise types can induce different biological adaptations. In comparison, muscle centrifugation contractile movement is more positive on muscle stimulation relative to centripetal contractile movement. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that influence biological processes by regulating post-transcriptional gene expression. Circulating microRNAs in most body fluids are stabilized and highly sensitive and specific to exercise type and intensity.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of different exercise types on circulating microRNAs expression levels and analyze the possibility of circulating miRNAs as a biomarker of the skeletal muscle in response and adaptation to exercise, in order to provide a reference for exercise training and interventions during exercise-promoting health.
    METHODS: The literature on miRNAs in skeletal muscle, circulating microRNAs, and effect of exercise on microRNAs were retrieved in PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP, with “exercise; myomiRNAs; ci-miRNAs; HIIT; biomarker” as English keywords and “exercise, miRNAs, myomiRNAs, ci-miRNAs, response, biomarker” as Chinese keywords. After full-text read and analysis, 86 eligible articles were finally included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression levels of circulating microRNAs will increase or decrease with the changes in exercise type and intensity, and has a great potential to become a biomarker of exercise response and adaptation. Further explorations are still warranted on the specific changes in the specific expression level of circulating microRNAs and its biological significance in exercise and recovery.
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    Validity of commercial portable velocity testing devices in strength training: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
    Liao Kaifang, Zhang Guochao, Gu Zhengqiu, Li Yongming
    2023, 27 (14):  2266-2275.  doi: 10.12307/2023.428
    Abstract ( 471 )   PDF (1901KB) ( 259 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of different commercial portable velocity testing devices in strength training by systematic and Meta-analysis method. 
    METHODS: Related articles were searched in Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI databases. “Appraisal of Study Design for Psychometric Articles” was used as a scale to evaluate the quality of the included studies. In both fixed and random effect models, the Pearson correlated coefficient (r) was aggregated by R language to conduct a Meta-analysis of different types of speed measurement devices. 
    RESULTS: A total of 44 and 16 studies were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis, respectively. The general quality of included studies was moderate. Twenty-six brands of velocity testing devices were involved. Qualitative findings in validity: line position transducers and video-based devices < iPhone APP and accelerators, Smith machine > free weight. Quantitative findings in validity: GymAware had high validity for measuring mean velocity [low intensity: r=0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-0.99; medium intensity: r=0.98, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99; high intensity: r=0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99] and peak velocity (low intensity: r=0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99; medium intensity: r=0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99; high intensity: r=0.95, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) in free weight, with a positive correlation with the gold standard (P=0.001). Push had poor validity for measuring mean velocity (low intensity: r=0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.82; medium intensity: r=0.69, 95% CI: 0.37-0.86; high intensity: r=0.48, 95% CI: 0.21-0.68) and peak velocity (low intensity: r=0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.83; medium intensity: r=0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89; high intensity: r=0.68, 95% CI: 0.37-0.85) in free weight, with a positive correlation with the gold standard (P=0.001). 
    CONCLUSION: Existing evidence has confirmed that line position transducer and video-based device have the highest validity, iPhone APP takes the second place, and accelerators are poor in validity. High-valid line position transducers and video-based devices should be applied in velocity-based training rather than accelerators. 
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    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of long-term exercise on blood lipids in healthy elderly people
    Peng Tuanhui, Yang Ling, Ding Xiaoge, Meng Pengjun
    2023, 27 (14):  2276-2282.  doi: 10.12307/2023.156
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 109 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of long-term exercise on the blood lipids of healthy elderly people and to explore whether long-term exercise can affect the low-density lipoprotein of older adults. 
    METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, EBSCO, and CNKI databases to collect randomized controlled trials on the effects of long-term exercise on blood lipids of healthy elderly people. Cochrane’s risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included literature. Stata14.0 software was used to analyze the heterogeneity and potential publication bias of the included literature.
    RESULTS: A total of 9 articles were included, including 409 participants (226 in the experimental group and 183 in the control group). (1) Meta-analysis results showed that compared with the control group, long-term exercise could reduce triglyceride [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.14 to -0.20, P=0.006) and total cholesterol (SMD=-0.42, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.02, P=0.04), and increase high-density lipoprotein (SMD=0.71, 95% CI: 0.08-1.33, P=0.026) in older adults, but there was no significant change in low-density lipoprotein level after exercise intervention (SMD=-0.17, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.02, P=0.085). Subgroup analysis results revealed that ≥ 150 minutes of exercise per week could effectively improve blood lipids and the total effect size was greater than that of < 150 minutes of exercise per week.
    CONCLUSION: Long-term exercise can effectively improve the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein in healthy elderly people, but the effect on improving low density lipoprotein has not been determined, which may be related to a variety of factors. We suggest that when exercising to improve blood lipids, we should not only pay attention to the effect on total low-density lipoprotein, but also focus on the health benefits of exercise for adults or older adults with different health conditions. At the same time, in order to better improve the health effects of exercise, we recommend that older adults need at least 150 minutes of exercise a week. However, due to the obvious heterogeneity of the included studies, the conclusions of this study need to be verified by more high-quality studies.
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    Effects of kinesio taping on chronic ankle instability: a systematic review and Meta-analysis
    Wang Ling, Chen Peng, Wang Guanglan, Zheng Cheng
    2023, 27 (14):  2283-2290.  doi: 10.12307/2023.427
    Abstract ( 942 )   PDF (1604KB) ( 238 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Kinesio taping has been widely used in the treatment of chronic ankle instability; however, its therapeutic efficacy is still controversial. Through systematic review and Meta-analysis, this paper aims to evaluate the effect of kinesio taping on chronic ankle instability and provide evidence-based medicine evidence for the application of Kinesio taping in the treatment of chronic ankle instability.
    METHODS: Nine Chinese and English databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCO, Embase, SinoMed, CNKI, VIP Database, and WanFang Database were searched for randomized controlled or crossover trials on the effect of kinesio taping in patients with chronic ankle instability. The outcome indicators included five continuous variables: Star Excursion Balance Testscore, eversion peak torque of the ankle, ankle range of motion absolute error, ankle dorsiflexion angle, and Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. The Cochrane manual was used to evaluate the quality of the finally included articles. According to the inclusion criteria of Meta-analysis, each outcome indicator may be carried out by Meta-analysis or descriptive analysis. RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis.
    RESULTS: The overall quality of the included literature was high. Ten randomized controlled or crossover trials involving 381 patients were finally included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that kinesio taping could significantly improve the score of star excursion balance test (standardized mean difference=0.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.47, P=0.03), but could not significantly improve eversion peak torque of the ankle (standardized mean difference=0.29, 95% confidence interval: -0.07 to 0.65, P=0.12), when compared with the control group. Descriptive analysis results indicated that kinesio taping might reduce ankle range of motion absolute error in patients with chronic ankle instability, but could not significantly improve ankle dorsiflexion angle and the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score. 
    CONCLUSION: Current evidence has indicated that kinesio taping may be beneficial to the dynamic balance ability of patients with chronic ankle instability; however, it has no clear effects on the improvement of ankle muscle strength, proprioception, range of motion, and function scale score. 
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    Introduction to the ANTI∙DF principle for diabetic foot prevention and treatment
    Li Rui, Ou Xiaolan, Liu Jun, Tian Heng, Qu Wenrui, Zhu Zhe, Zhang Zhenyu, Liu Qianqian, Guo Wenlai
    2023, 27 (14):  2291-2296.  doi: 10.12307/2023.483
    Abstract ( 251 )   PDF (854KB) ( 141 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot has serious mortality and disability rate. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize and understand how to prevent and treat diabetic foot, thereby providing some ideas and directions for the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the etiology, prevention measures, and treatments of diabetic foot, thus proposing the academic viewpoints of the ANTI∙DF principle to guide the prevention and treatment of diabetic foot.
    METHODS: As per the ANTI∙DF principle, we summarized several aspects such as deformity caused by diabetes, foot ulcer caused by deformity, treatment and prevention of diabetic foot. With reference to relevant international and Chinese guidelines and literature, 73 articles were selected from the Chinese and English databases according to the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the principles of diabetic foot prevention and treatment.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There are 10 factors related to the formation of diabetic foot wounds and refractory wounds: artery, nerve, tissue nonviable, infection or inflammation, muscle, osteoarticular lesion, subcutaneous tissue, tendon, deformity, and foot ulcer. The 10 factors hereinafter will be represented by their initials, which can be summarized as the ANTI∙MOST∙DF principle. Deformity (D) includes the morphological changes of the four anatomical structures – MOST. Therefore, these four factors, MOST, can be simplified and the principle is referred to as the ANTI∙DF principles. Etiologically, among the six factors of the ANTI∙DF principle, deformity (D, including the morphological changes of the four anatomical structures of MOST) is the “real culprit,” and neurological (N) lesions are the “crime culprit.” Arterial (A) ischemia often acts as the “accomplice.” Tissue (T) necrosis, infection (I), and foot ulcers (F) are only “external manifestations.” From the perspective of diabetic foot prevention and treatment, relieving the pressure caused by deformity (D), improving neuroprotection (N) function, and restoring arterial (A) blood supply are the premises for the prevention and treatment of necrotic tissue, infection or inflammation, and foot ulcers (TIF). Debridement of necrotic tissue (T) is the prerequisite for infection (I) control; debridement of necrotic tissue (T) and infection (I) control are the prerequisite for closure of foot ulcers (F). The ANTI∙DF principle is expected to provide clinical practitioners with a basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of diabetic foot, to achieve rapid wound healing and prevent recurrence in patients with diabetic foot.
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