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    28 December 2018, Volume 22 Issue 36 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Artificial tiger bone and calfor applied in intervertebral fusion after degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis
    Hu Wei, Kan Shunli, Cao Zegang, Jiang Zehua, Zhang Xueli, Zhu Rusen
    2018, 22 (36):  5741-5745.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0615
    Abstract ( 265 )   PDF (627KB) ( 151 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Artificial tiger bone is a kind of tiger bone biomimetic drug, which is consistent with natural bone composition and pharmacological effects. It can effectively relieve pain and strengthen bones and muscles, which can also relieve back pain caused by osteoporosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of artificial tiger bone in patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis undergoing internal fixation and interbody fusion procedure.
    METHODS: Sixty cases of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis undergoing internal fixation and interbody fusion were randomly divided into two groups and treated with artificial tiger bone plus D-calfor (treatment group) or D-calfor alone (control group). Visual Analogue Scale, and Oswestry disability index at baseline, 7 days, 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment, and interbody fusion rate at 12 months after treatment were compared.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All patients underwent internal fixation and interbody fusion procedure successfully and then treated with different drugs. No significant differences were observed in the two groups regarding the Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry disability index scores at baseline. At 6 and 12 months after treatment, the scores in the treatment group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P < 0.05). Regarding the interbody fusion rate, the treatment group was slightly better than the control group (P > 0.05). To conclude, for patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis undergoing internal fixation and interbody fusion procedure, artificial tiger bone can alleviate pain and improve dysfunction, but cannot significantly increase interbody fusion rate.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Core decompression, autologous iliac bone graft, allogeneic fibular fixation combined with traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of peri-collapse stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head
    Zeng Ping1, Lai Chongrong2, Li Jinyi1, Du Mindong1, He Kaiyi1, Sun Bin1, Huang Xiaohua1, Qin Gang1
    2018, 22 (36):  5746-5752.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0555
    Abstract ( 205 )   PDF (812KB) ( 238 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Long-term effect of simple hip-preserving surgery for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is not ideal. The combination of hip-preserving surgery and traditional Chinese medicine has achieved satisfactory curative effectiveness.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effect of core decompression, autologous iliac bone graft, and allogeneic fibular fixation combined with Shanjia Huoxue Bushen Recipe in the treatment of peri-collapse stage ONFH.
    METHODS: Twenty-four patients (28 hips) with peri-collapse stage ONFH were treated with core decompression, autologous iliac bone graft and allogeneic fibular fixation. After operation, all the patients received oral administration of Shanjia Huoxue Bushen Recipe for 9-12 months, and were followed-up for more than 1 year. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris scores; the imaging evaluation was based on ARCO stage and JIC classification; the femoral head collapsed > 4 mm was the end point; the survival rate of femoral head was analyzed by Kaplan-meier survival curve.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All patients were followed up for 12-78 months (26.95 months averagely). The Harris score at the last follow-up was significantly higher than that at baseline (P < 0.05), and the total survival rate of femoral head was 79%. There were significant differences in the survival rate of femoral head among IIB, IIC, IIIA, IIIB and IIIC in ARCO stage (according to the necrosis range) (100%, 100%, 100%, 67%, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in the survival rate of femoral head between A and B in ARCO classification (according to collapse degree). There was no significant difference in the survival rate of femoral head among B, C1 and C2 in JIC classification (100%, 81%, 100%, P > 0.05). To conclude, core decompression, autologous iliac bone graft, allogeneic fibular fixation combined with Shanjia Huoxue Bushen Recipe can be used to treat peri-collapse period ONFH, which can promote the repair of necrotic femoral head, short-term clinical effect is exact and more suitable for IIB, IIC and III in ARCO stage when femoral head collapsed < 2 mm in ONFH patients.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Proteomics analysis of osteoporosis with knee osteoarthritis
    Shi Gang1, Zhang Kaiwei2
    2018, 22 (36):  5753-5759.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0376
    Abstract ( 366 )   PDF (672KB) ( 160 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Incidence of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteoporotic osteoarthritis is high, and the relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis remains controversial. Therefore, our group designed the study on the cartilages of osteoporotic osteoarthritis by proteomics based on the previous researches, so as to search for the related protein markers. It provides an objective basis for the study on osteoporotic osteoarthritis and provides theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. 
    OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively analyze the proteins in the knee articular cartilage tissue of New Zealand rabbit models of osteoporosis, knee osteoarthritis and osteoporotic knee osteoarthritis by proteomics iTRAQ technique, and to screen the related protein makers.
    METHODS: Animal models of osteoporosis, knee osteoarthritis and osteoporotic knee osteoarthritis were established. The knee articular cartilage samples were then collected. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteome was conducted on these samples using proteomics iTRAQ technique. The differences of proteome among samples were compared. Specific proteins were selected which had significant differences (difference multiples > 1.2, P < 0.01) in protein expression level between comorbidity and mono-morbidity groups. In addition, characteristics of proteins as well as their relation with osteoporosis and knee osteoarthritis were analyzed by referring to uniport database and relevant literature in order to preliminarily determine the protein marker of the osteoporosis with knee osteoarthritis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 12 specific proteins were screened: alpha 2-HS glycoprotein, creatine kinase M-type, fibrinogen beta chain, fibrin-ogen gamma chain, serum albumin, vitamin D binding protein, N-acylethanol-amine acid amidase, tubulin polymerization-promoting protein family member 2, asporin protein, myelin protein zero, uncharacterized protein (G1TQR3) and uncharacterized protein (U3KLT3). The above 12 proteins were significantly increased in the osteoporotic knee osteoarthritis group. These results indicate that eight specific proteins were identified, and their biological features are closely related to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and knee osteoarthritis. The protein markers of osteoporosis with knee osteoarthritis were identified preliminarily, which can be used for the material basis for further study.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程
    ORCID: 0000-0002-1545-2304(时刚)

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    Correlation between serum estradiol and testosterone levels and severity of early-stage knee osteoarthritis in patients
    Huang Jie1, Bo Zhandong2, Liu Gang3, Luo Shixing4
    2018, 22 (36):  5760-5765.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0543
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (773KB) ( 182 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in postmenopausal females has been found to be higher than that in the males of the same age. The age and gender distribution suggests that there exists certain correlation between KOA pathogenesis and sex hormone levels.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between sex hormone levels of the postmenopausal females and males of the same age, and early-stage KOA severity.
    METHODS: Forty-four KOA patients and 29 healthy people were enrolled. The subjects were divided into two groups by sex, including postmenopausal female group (n=37) and male group age (n=36). Each group was further subdivided by Kellgren-Lawrence K-L grading system, including subgroups of K-L 0, K-L I and K-L II. The serum estradiol and testosterone levels in each subgroup were detected by electrochemical luminescence method, and its association with K-L grade was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the postmenopausal female KOA patients, the serum estradiol level showed no significant difference between K-L 0 and K-L I subgroups (P > 0.05), the level in the K-L 0 and K-L I subgroups showed significant difference compared with the K-L II subgroup (P < 0.05). The serum testosterone level showed no significant difference among groups in the postmenopausal female KOA patients (P > 0.05). The KOA severity showed a negative correlation with the serum estradiol level (rs=-0.709, P < 0.05) but no correlation with the serum testosterone (P > 0.05). In the male KOA patients, the serum estradiol and testosterone levels showed no significant difference between K-L 0 and K-L I subgroups (P > 0.05), the levels in the K-L 0 and K-L I subgroups showed significant difference compared with the K-L II subgroup (P < 0.05). The KOA severity in male KOA patients showed a negative correlation with the serum estradiol level (rs=-0.476,  P < 0.05) and serum testosterone level (rs=-0.418, P < 0.05). These results indicate that the severity of early-stage KOA shows a negative correlation with the serum estradiol level in the postmenopausal female patients and a negative correlation with the serum estradiol and testosterone levels in the males of the same age.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Resveratrol regulates the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 in mouse chondrocytes
    Yuan Hao, Zeng Hui, Chen Ke, Yu Fei, Lin Jianjing
    2018, 22 (36):  5772-5777.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0577
    Abstract ( 343 )   PDF (737KB) ( 164 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) are up-regulated in chondrocytes of patients with osteoarthritis. The role of resveratrol in the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis is considered to be involved in the reduction of chondrocyte apoptosis and synovial inflammation.
    OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the effect of resveratrol on the expression of MMP-13 and SREBP-2 in chondrocytes.
    METHODS: Mouse knee chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro, and identified by immunofluorescence staining with collagen type II. The experiment was divided into three groups according to the different addition materials: blank control group, lipopolysaccharide group (1 mg/L) and resveratrol group (100 μmol/L resveratrol plus 1 mg/L lipopolysaccharide). The expression level of MMP-13 protein in chondrocytes was detected by western blot assay. The expression level of SREBP-2 in chondrocytes was determined by ELISA method.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fluorescence microscopy showed that the number of cells positive for collagen type II accounted for more than 95%, confirming that the cultured cells were chondrocytes. Compared with the blank control group, the expression levels of SREBP-2 and MMP-13 in the lipopolysaccharide group were significantly increased, and the expression levels of SREBP-2 and MMP-13 in the resveratrol group were lower than those in the lipopolysaccharide group, but they were still higher than those in the blank control group. In summary, resveratrol can inhibit the expression of SREBP-2 and MMP-13 in mouse chondrocytes.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in the process of high glucose-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells
    Li Xianzhou, Zhang Cunxin
    2018, 22 (36):  5778-5784.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0542
    Abstract ( 397 )   PDF (923KB) ( 262 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the main cause of low back pain, and nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis is an important risk factor for IDD. However, the underling mechanism at molecular level remains unknown.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress participates in the high glucose-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells.
    METHODS: Passage 3 rabbit nucleus pulposus cells were randomized into four groups, and cultured in the normal culture medium (blank control group), culture medium containing 100 mmol/L glucose (high-glucose group), capspase inhibitor Z-ATAD-FMK (inhibitor group) or Z-ATAD-FMK and 100 mmol/L glucose (combination group). After 6 hours of culture, the viability, reactive oxygen species level, and apoptosis rate were examined in nucleus pulposus cells. The protein expression levels of Grp78 and Caspase-12 were assayed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the blank control group, high glucose increased the nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species accumulation, as well as expression of Grp78 and Caspase-12. Whereas, Z-ATAD-FMK (the inhibitor of Caspase-12) abrogated the cytotoxic effect caused by high glucose. Therefore, endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis is a new signaling pathway of high-glucose induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells. The generation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species is the main contributor of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Core stability training targeting multifidus: monitor using ultrasound combined with surface electromyogram versus no monitor
    Zheng Yaochao1, Lin Caina1, Ke Songjian1, Luo Haijie2, Liu Cuicui1, Ma Chao1, Wu Shaoling1
    2018, 22 (36):  5785-5790.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0562
    Abstract ( 394 )   PDF (738KB) ( 166 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Core stability training has been shown to improve local core muscles. But whether the core stability training monitored by ultrasound imaging combined with surface electromyogram can treat low back pain better remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of multifidus thickness contraction ratio and electromyogram signal characteristics before and after core stability training monitored using ultrasound imaging combined with surface electromyogram, compared with the same training without monitor.
    METHODS: Fifty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated into monitor group (n=26) and control group (n=24), and then underwent core stability training monitored using ultrasound imaging combined with surface electromyogram and without monitor, respectively. The multifidus thickness contraction ratio value and surface electromyogram signal value before and after 4 and 8 weeks of training were compared.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Before training, there were no significant differences in the thickness contraction ratio value and average amplitude of electromyogram of multifidus between two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks of training, the thickness contraction ratio value and average amplitude of electromyogram value of multifidus in both groups especially the monitor group were significantly higher than those before training (P < 0.05). In summary, the core stability training using ultrasound imaging combined with surface electromyogram can obviously increase multifidus thickness contraction ratio and average surface electromyogram value in healthy human. Meanwhile, the effect of monitoring training is greater than the same training without monitor, which provides evidence for low back pain patients undergoing core stability training.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Role of Omi/Beclin-1 signaling pathway in the eccentric exercise-induced skeletal muscle autophagy
    Lei Bingkai1, 2, Sun Junzhi1, Zhao Xiaoqin3, Ding Haili1, Liu Yong2, Wang Ruiyuan2, Li Junping2
    2018, 22 (36):  5791-5796.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0559
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (756KB) ( 130 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Eccentric exercise can cause the ultrastructural changes in the skeletal muscle due to autophagy, thereby affecting the normal the contraction of skeletal muscle.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of eccentric exercise on the skeletal muscle cell autophagy and investigate the underlying mechanisms by observing the skeletal muscle cell autophagy and the changes of Omi/Beclim-1 signaling pathway after eccentric exercise.
    METHODS: Thirty-two healthy male rats were divided into control (n=8) and experimental (n=24) groups. The rats in the experimental group underwent eccentric exercise on a treadmill (16° decline, 16 m/minute for 90 minutes), and then 8 rats were killed at 0, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-II, Omi, HAX-1 and Beclin-1 were determined by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression levels of LC3-II, Omi, and Beclin-1 protein were significantly increased after eccentric exercise, the expression levels of LC3-II and Omi protein peaked at 0 hour, and the expression level of Beclin-1 peaked at 24 hours. The expression level of HAX-1 protein was significantly decreased after eccentric exercise, reached the lowest level at 24 hours, and then returned to normal level. The expression levels at 48 hours after exercise were significantly different from those in the control group. These results suggest that eccentric exercise can result in an increase in skeletal muscle cell autophagy via upregulating Omi/Beclin-1 signaling pathway probably.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Core stability training improves back muscle endurance and increases peak values of isokinetic strength of back muscles
    Chen Jing1, Wang Chun2
    2018, 22 (36):  5797-5802.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0552
    Abstract ( 718 )   PDF (769KB) ( 207 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the core stability training approach on the basis of motor control by deeper muscles of torso can significantly relieve chronic low back pain. However, the mechanism underlying core stability training improving non-specific chronic low back pain is still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of core stability training on muscle strength, muscle endurance, local blood flow, motion perception, and function improvement in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain, and to give valuable advice on the development of exercise prescription for national fitness and rehabilitation training protocol for patients with low back pain.
    METHODS: Based on the pretest indexes of improved Oswestry Disability Questionnaire score and L3 subcutaneous fat thickness, 25 subjects were assigned to trial group and control group. The trial group was given a core stability training for 60 minutes daily, twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks, and the relevant indices were measured pre- and 1 week after trial.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The 6-week core stability training could significantly improve the Oswestry Disability Index, 30 (°)/s back muscular endurance, peak values of isokinetic strength, and the total work of back muscular endurance in the patients with low back pain. But, the training showed no effect on the exercise volume of daily training. The 6-week core stability training had a significant effect on local blood flow volume during the isokinetic test, showing that the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and oxygen saturation in the trial group were significant lower than those in the control group and pre-test, and there was no effect on deoxyhemoglobin. The 6-week core stability training could significantly improve the motion perception, which showed that a significant decrease in the Visual Analogue Scale score, the reset accuracy of motion perception, and electromyography reaction time of back muscles compared with the control group and pre-test values. In summary, the 6-week core stability training plays significant effects on pain perception, motion perception, local blood flow, muscle endurance, and electromyography reaction in patients with low back pain.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Characteristics of isokinetic muscle strength of lower limb joints in elite female short track speed skaters 
    Huang Dawu1, Liu Lu2, Zhu Xing1, Wang Xinbao1, Chen Yueliang3
    2018, 22 (36):  5803-5810.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0609
    Abstract ( 395 )   PDF (729KB) ( 169 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Elite skaters at international level have been shown to hold more rational muscle strength characteristics of joints than the elite skaters at national level. Force indexes are reported to be related to grade, suggesting that the muscle strength characteristics of lower limb joints of skaters are closely related to professional competitive ability.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of isokinetic muscle strength of lower limb joints in elite female short track speed skaters, so as to provide references for strength training and provide data for revealing sports characteristics.
    METHODS: Centripetal isokinetic testing was performed in hip, knee and ankle joints of elite female short trakck speed skaters (numbered as 1, 2, 3 and 4) at international level using Isomed 2000. All skaters underwent thrice subultimate strength adaptive staining before testing, and 2 minutes later, the isokinetic testing was conducted. The angular velocity was set as 60 (°)/s (low velocity) and 180 (°)/s (high velocity), respectively based on preliminary results. The low velocity repeated 5 times and high velocity repeated 7 times, 5 minutes in between. Flexion/extension was a cycle, and the highest values were selected for analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the high and low velocity speed, all data in ankle and knee had good corresponding relationship, but not hip. Peak torques of ankle and knee joints were on a descent with velocity increasing, and average power increased with velocity increasing. Velocity had impaction on muscle ratio in ankle and knee joints but not hip. Velocity had little impaction on peak torque angle. The flexor and extensor of No.1 skater performed well. The balance between right and left legs of No.1 skater needed to be improved. The ankle strength in No. 3 skater performed well, but the strength of knee and hip needed to be improved. The knee strength of No. 4 performed well, but the speed strength of ankle and hip extensors needed to be improved. In summary, the strength of ankle and knee flexors and extensor in Chinese elite athletes get a well development, but not hip. The elite athletes have higher peak torque, muscle strength ratio shows special features, the balance between right and left knee peak torque, and the peak torque angle is stable, which meet the special requirements. Knee muscle strength in four elite skaters reflects the common characteristics. The hip muscle strength should be improved.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Macrophages promote the healing of severe diabetic foot wounds after tibial transverse transport
    Gao Wei, Lin Zhenxun, Zhen Puxiang, Chen Yan, Kuang Xiaocong, Hua Qikai
    2018, 22 (36):  5811-5815.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0616
    Abstract ( 336 )   PDF (680KB) ( 204 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Ilizarov biological theory, tension stress technology, produces a certain tension by biological tissue stretch that can induce tissue regeneration and growth. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of macrophages in promoting the healing of severe diabetic foot wounds by tibial transverse transport.
    METHODS: Ten patients with severe diabetic foot (Wagner grades ≥ 3), admitted in the Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from December 2017 to January 2018 were enrolled. With the consent of the patients and the permission of the ethics committee, the tissue sections were obtained from the edge of the wound before and at 1 month after surgery. The immunohistochemical technique was used to mark the M1 macrophages with CD86 monoclonal antibody, and the M2 macrophages with CD163 monoclonal antibody, and the positive cells were counted in the high magnification field. The Image pro plus 6.0 software was used to collect and analyze the pixels in the image, and the change of M1/M2 ratio was calculated.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The 1-month postoperative M1/M2 ratio was significantly lower than that of the preoperative patients (P < 0.05). Postoperative CD86-positive cells and CD163-positive cells were significantly decreased in 400-fold positive cells counting compared with preoperation (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that tibial transverse transport can turn the macrophages into M2 macrophages, reduce the inflammation of the chronic wound of diabetic foot mediated by macrophages, and promote wound healing.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Effects of aqueous extract of Sigesbeckia orientalis on JNK signaling pathway in rats with gouty arthritis
    Zheng Chunyu1, Yu Xuefeng2, Chen Shuilin2, Xu Yier3, Han Zhongli4, Sun Guicai2
    2018, 22 (36):  5816-5820.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0617
    Abstract ( 412 )   PDF (656KB) ( 169 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Sigesbeckia orientalis containing kirenol,  alkaloid and saponins exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, improves microcirculation, and effectively controls the inflammatory response in acute gout.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of aqueous extract of Sigesbeckia orientalis on JNK signaling pathway in rats with gouty arthritis.
    METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, model and experimental groups (n=8 per group). Animals in the control and model groups were administrated with normal saline and those in the experimental group were treated with aqueous extract of Sigesbeckia orientalis (2 g/kg) via gavage for 7 days. On day 7, sodiate urate was injected into the knee articular cavity of rats in the model and experimental groups at 1 hour after administration to establish the gouty arthritis models. The control group was given the same volume of normal saline. The pathological changes of synovial tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and -1β were detected by ELISA. The protein levels of JNK and p-JNK in the synovial tissue were determined by western blot assay. The mRNA expression levels of c-jun, AP-1 were tested by RT-PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, in the model group, there were inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial cell, fibroblast and small vessel hyperplasia in the synovial tissue. There was an overt decrease in the inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial cell, and fibroblast hyperplasia in the experimental group. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and -1β in the model group were significantly increased, but they were significantly reduced in the experimental group. A significant increase in the protein levels of JNK and p-JNK, and the mRNA expression levels of c-jun, AP-1 in the synovial tissue were found in the model group, which was reversed in the experimental group. These results suggest that the occurrence of gouty arthritis is related to the abnormal activation of JNK signaling pathway, and Sigesbeckia orientalis can significantly improve the symptoms of gouty arthritis via inhibiting JNK signaling pathway.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Lipid metabolism after autologous orthotopic liver transplantation in rat models of fatty liver 
    Ding Chen1, Jiang Yi2, Pan Fan2, Cai Qiucheng2
    2018, 22 (36):  5821-5827.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0560
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (977KB) ( 150 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Incidence of primary non-function and early graft dysfunction after severe fatty liver transplantation is obviously increased. Therefore, it remains to be further studied to determine the extent to which the lipogenic properties can maximize the survival rate of grafts and receptors.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of autologous orthotopic liver transplantation on lipid metabolism in fatty liver rats.
    METHODS: Totally 160 Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to establish moderate and severe fatty liver models through high-fat diet. Eighty rats were selected for each model. The rats with moderate and severe fatty liver were randomly divided into two subgroups, and then received orthotopic liver transplantation (groups A and B) or not (groups B and C). Liver function, lipid metabolism and liver histopathology were examined before surgery, 1 day, 1, 3 and 5 weeks after surgery.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Liver function: in the group A, the levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase peaked at 1 day postoperatively, and then gradually decreased. The levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase in the group B at 5 weeks after surgery were higher than those in the group A (P < 0.05). Lipid metabolism: the postoperative total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein levels in each group showed an overall downward trend, and the high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin levels showed an overall upward trend. At 5 weeks after surgery, the total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low-density lipoprotein levels in the group A were significantly lower than those in the group B (P < 0.05), and the high-density lipoprotein and adiponectin levels were higher than those in the group B (P < 0.05). Liver histopathology: in the group A, the liver presented moderate steatosis at 1 day after surgery, and the degree of steatosis reversed at 5 weeks after surgery. In the group B, the liver presented severe steatosis at 1 day after surgery, and the liver presented moderate and severe steatosis at 5 weeks after surgery. No significant improvement was found, and there were infiltration of inflammatory cells, venous congestion in the manifold area and mild cholestasis. These results indicate that after autologous orthotopic liver transplantation, both middle and heavy fatty liver rats had different degrees of aggravation of lipid metabolism disorder. Compared with moderate fatty liver, heavy fatty liver can lead to more serious lipid metabolism disorder and slow recovery.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Establishment of the model of pronation-external rotation trimalleolar fracture after closed osteotomy 
    Qiu Peng1, Cheng Yongzhong1, Liu Guangwei2, He Da1, Zhu Jianfei1, Cheng Hao1, Wen Jianmin1, Wu Liyan1
    2018, 22 (36):  5828-5832.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0618
    Abstract ( 301 )   PDF (599KB) ( 128 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Closed osteotomy has been widely applied in the clinic, but little is reported on its basic experiment.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the novel modeling method of pronation-external rotation trimalleolar fracture, so as to provide a new idea for closed osteotomy model.
    METHODS: The drilling position was determined by measuring the fracture line on X-ray films of 16 cases of typical pronation-external rotation trimalleolar fracture. According to its damage mechanism, unarmed violence was carried out after the closed bone drilling by minimally invasive osteotomy guider along the fracture line in the body surface projection. The mechanical parameters in the modeling process were measured and the model was validated by X-ray.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The fracture line of 16 specimens met the criteria of pronation-external rotation trimalleolar fracture. The success rate of lateral or internal malleolus fracture was 100%, that of posterior malleolus fracture was 43.75%, and that of tibiofibular separation was 62.50%. Fracture and dislocation occurred in eight cases (50%), including two (12.5%) cases of posterior-lateral dislocation, and six (37.5%) cases of external dislocation. These results suggest that the modeling method has high success rate, good repeatability and operability, and can completely retain the muscle, tendon, fascia, and skin, which provides a fracture model with complete soft tissues for the manual reduction of trimalleolar fracture and biomechanical study, and provides a new idea for establishing closed fracture model.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Gene chipset analysis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease intervened by polyene phosphatidylcholine
    Liu Rui1, He Jia2, Liu Xiufang2, Feng Xiaoqiu1, Gu Zhanxin2, Kang Shanping1
    2018, 22 (36):  5833-5839.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0619
    Abstract ( 311 )   PDF (1398KB) ( 145 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: With the development of information technology and integration with the biomedical field, a large number of big data related to genomics and transcriptomics, have been generated, and these data are analyzed through a combination of bioinformatics and computer science. Further the interrelationships between multiple genes are explored. The targets of polyene phosphatidylcholine protecting liver, improving lipid metabolism and intervening nonalcoholic fatty liver and underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To predict and investigate the regulatory mechanism of polyene phosphatidylcholine improving fat metabolism of hepatocyte based on screening the difference between mRNA (Clariom™ S Assay) and miRNA expression.
    METHODS: Serum of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving intragastric administration of polyene phosphatidylcholine was extracted. BRL rat hepatocytes were cultured in the medium containing 50% of fetal bovine serum to establish the model of nonalcoholic fatty hepatocytes. Then polyene phosphatidylcholine serum was used as experimental group and negative control serum was used as control group, respectively. Total RNAs were extracted and differently expressed miRNAs were detected by Clariom S expression profile chip for expression level of mRNA and miRNA. Bioinformatics method was used to predict target genes of differential miRNAs regulation. Enrichment of functions and signaling pathways of the target genes was conducted by fat metabolism related genes.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In screening and predicting, 5 629 target genes were involved in 13 kinds of biological processes, 14 kinds of cellular components, and 11 kinds of molecular functions. Metabolic pathways, purine metabolism and steroid biosynthesis pathway were enriched. rno-miR-21-5p, rno-miR-370-3p, rno-miR-542-3p were the center of the molecular network. According to IPA database, 56 genes with fat metabolism effective interaction were screened out. These results show rno-miR-21-5p, rno-miR-370-3p, rno-miR-542-3p and Metabolic pathways, purine metabolism and steroid biosynthesis pathway may play a role in the differentiation process of non-alcoholic fatty liver induced by phosphatidylcholine.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy can significantly inhibit the growth of endothelial cells and induce cell apoptosis
    Ge Wenjia, Ma Xiaorong, Ouyang Tianxiang
    2018, 22 (36):  5840-5845.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0697
    Abstract ( 423 )   PDF (884KB) ( 115 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of safe and effective method for hypertrophic scar. Fibroblast hypertrophy, vascular endothelial cell hyperplasia and neovascularization are key points for hypertrophic scar formation. Continuous laser radiation has been shown to induce fibroblast apoptosis. Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been extensively applied in the treatment of tumor and skin diseases, which provide novel therapy for hypertrophic scar.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of ALA-PDT on endothelial cell apoptosis.
    METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in vitro, and divided into four groups: control group (no treatment), single-drug group (incubation with 2 mmol/L 5-aminolevulinic acid), single-light group (3 J/cm2 photodynamic irradiation for 8 minutes) and ALA-PDT group (after incubation with 2 mmol/L 5-aminolevulinic acid for 4 hours, irradiated by 3 J/cm2 photodynamic for 8 minutes, and cultured for 24 hours in dark).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fluorescence microscopy showed that the accumulation of fluorescence in umbilical vein endothelial cells was ALA-dependent and peaked at a concentration of 2 mmol/L. Cytotoxicity test showed no significant difference in cell viability in the simple-drug group. Cell viability in the ALA-PDT group was significantly inhibited at a drug concentration of 2 and 4 mmol/L (P < 0.01). Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis showed that ALA-PDT could induce cell apoptosis when ALA concentration was 2 mmol/L (P < 0.01). These results indicate that ALA-PDT can significantly inhibit the growth of endothelial cells and induce apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Changes of immune function of mesenteric lymph nodes in rats with spleen deficiency syndrome after acupuncture at Zusanli
    Zeng Ronghua, Wu Huiting, Zhou Lu, Ouyang Hougan, Gao Shuliang, Wang Jianmin, Ouyang Yanchu, Cui Tiantian
    2018, 22 (36):  5846-5851.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0698
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (821KB) ( 125 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal tract and lymphoid tissue are important parts of intestinal immunity, and intestinal immunity plays a critical role in spleen deficiency.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the change of the structure of mesenteric lymph node tissues, lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and macrophage phagocytosis in rats with spleen deficiency syndrome, and to explore the correlation between spleen deficiency and intestinal mucosal immunity and the mechanism of acupuncture for spleen deficiency syndrome.
    METHODS: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawely rats of SPF grade provided by the Experimental Animal Center, Anhui Medical University were randomly divided into three groups: model group, acupuncture group and blank control group. A rat model of spleen deficiency was established by compounding fatigue and spleen-inflicted and eating disorders. The urine D-xylose excretion rate was measured during the model establishment and during the treatment period. After the model was successfully established, rats in the acupuncture control group were acupunctured at bilateral Zusanli (St36), once daily for 14 consecutive days. The model group naturally recovered, and the blank control group received no intervention. At the end of treatment, mesenteric lymph nodes were harvested and the ability of proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes was measured by MTS method. Morphological changes of mesenteric lymph nodes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Perls Prussian blue stain staining was used to detect the number of mesenteric lymph node macrophages.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mesenteric lymph node tissue changes showed that: in the blank control group, the structure was complete. In the model group, the mesenteric lymph node network structure destroyed, lymph nodes and other structures were incomplete, lymph node subcortical area was in diffuse enlargement and widened, showing hyperfunction. In the acupuncture group, the mesenteric lymph node trabecula showed a substantial network structure, and the structure of lymphoid nodules basically recovered. The proliferation ability of mesenteric lymph nodes: the trend of T and B lymphocytes was the same, but the proliferation rate of T lymphocytes was significantly higher than that of B lymphocytes (P < 0.01). The proliferation rates of T and B lymphocytes in the model group were significantly lower than those in the blank control group (P < 0.01). The proliferation rate of T lymphocytes in the acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in the model group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proliferation rate of T lymphocytes between acupuncture and blank control groups (P > 0.05). The proliferation rate of B lymphocytes in the acupuncture group was significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P < 0.01). The proliferation rate of B lymphocytes did not differ significantly between acupuncture and model groups (P > 0.05). The macrophage count in the acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in the model group, and significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that acupuncture at Zusanli can activate the immune response of mesenteric lymph nodes of spleen asthenia rats, promote phagocytosis and activation of mesenteric lymph node macrophages, and promote the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocyte of mesenteric lymph nodes, especially T lymphocyte proliferation. Therefore, the intestinal immune function can be improved, the spleen deficiency syndrome is improved, and the digestive function disorder of the intestine is adjusted.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Roles and application values of P75 neurotrophin receptor in bone tissue engineering 
    Shen Mengjie, Yang Kun, Liu Qi
    2018, 22 (36):  5852-5857.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0590
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (645KB) ( 120 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: P75 neurotrophin receptor holds low affinity, which not only plays an important role in nerve growth, development and maintenance of functional integrity, but also has a close relationship with bone tissue repair and stem cell enhancement.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress and value of P75 neurotrophin receptor in bone tissue repair and regeneration.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of CBM, CNKI, PubMed and Elsevier was performed for retrieving articles concerning P75 neurotrophin receptor in bone tissue regeneration published from September 1987 to April 2018. The keywords were “P75, P75NTR, bone repair, bone regenerate, tooth development, facial nerve, stem cell” in Chinese and English, respectively. Totally 47 eligible articles were included in final analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: P75 neurotrophin receptor has been reported to not only promote tooth development and facial nerve repair, but also promote mineralization of bone tissue and shorten bone healing time. It also indirectly promotes bone healing by regulating the characteristics of stem cells. However, some researchers believe that apoptosis induced by P75 neurotrophin receptor may hinder fracture healing and even lead to fracture failure. Whether P75 neurotrophin receptor can promote bone repair or inhibit bone tissue repair needs further investigation. At present, its research is still limited to basic research, and there are few reports on its clinical application.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Exosomes in the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
    Gao Kun, Zhu Wenxiu, Cao Yafei
    2018, 22 (36):  5858-5864.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0264
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (743KB) ( 244 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of arthritis at molecular level still remains unclear. Exosomes have been revealed to play a key role in the immune regulation of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis to provide a new direction for the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
    METHODS: A computer-based online retrieval of PubMed, Embase, CNKI, WanFang and VIP databases was performed using the keywords of “exosomes, extravesicles, osteoarthritis, rheumatid arthritis, mechanisms, mechanism signal, signal pathway, inflammation” in English and Chinese, respectively. The literatures published between October 1st 2008 and October 1st 2017 will be retrieved. The roles of exosomes in the pathogenesis of arthritis were summarized and analyzed to provide a new direction and reference for the basic research and clinical prevention and treatment of arthritis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Exosomes effect on the inflammatory immune regulation is an issue of concern, and most of studies focus on the tumor immune regulation, inflammatory pathway regulation, molecular markers, and drug loading. Exosomes contain numerous protein molecules, DNA, RNA, mRNA and microRNAs, and have low immunity and signaling transfer, so they can exert effects by intercellular signaling. Exosomes can affect the balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory responses, and exosomes contain abundant inflammation-related miRNAs that facilitate the cell communication, and play a critical role in inflammatory responses and collagen cartilage synthesis. Furthermore, exosomes can regulate the balance between chondrocyte and extracellular matrix destruction and synthesis, and ADAMTS/MMPs in exosomes exert critical effect in extracellular matrix regulation.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Sports rehabilitation of chronic ankle instability: research status and characteristics
    Qin Huasheng1, Pan Weimin2, Li Ran1, Li Xintong1
    2018, 22 (36):  5865-5871.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0585
    Abstract ( 464 )   PDF (680KB) ( 223 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Sports rehabilitation is a noninvasive and effective treatment method of sport injuries. Chronic ankle instability is one of the most common symptoms of exercise, with high recurrence incidence, so it is difficult to restore.
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the latest sports rehabilitation method for chronic ankle instability, and to summarize the research status of related methods.
    METHODS: The first author retrieved the articles addressing various sports rehabilitation methods and research progress of chronic ankle instability included in the databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL and CNKI from January 2003 to June 2018. The key words were “chronic ankle instability, CAI, ankle instability, exercise rehabilitation, athletic rehabilitation, physical therapy, ankle foot orthoses, manual therapy, functional training” in English and Chinese, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The commonly used protectors for chronic ankle instability are elastic bandage, muscle effect paste and ankle protector, which mainly prevent the recurrence of injury by fixing the ankle joint by external force. The commonly used free hand therapy includes joint loosening and dynamic joint loosening. The training methods include sensory training, balance training and neuromuscular control training. These three kinds of methods hold good therapeutic effects and deserve further promotion and application.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Biological mechanism of oxidative stress induced by mechanical stimulation in the development of diseases 
    Shi Peipei, Li Xiaona, Wei Junchao, Song Jie
    2018, 22 (36):  5872-5878.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0397
    Abstract ( 399 )   PDF (794KB) ( 190 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical stimulation and oxidative stress play an important role in the physiological and
    pathological processes in vivo. Changes of mechanical environment in each mechanical system may lead to occurrence and development of a series of diseases.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the relationship between mechanical stimulation and oxidative stress in related diseases, in lung tissue and cardiovascular system.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of PubMed, CNKI, WanFang, SpringerLink, and ScienceDirect databases was performed for relevant literature addressing the mechanical environment and oxidative stress in the development of lung tissue injury and cardiovascular disease published from 2001 to 2017. The keywords were “mechanical stimulation, oxidative stress, lung injury, cardiovascular disease” in English and Chinese, respectively. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 61 eligible articles were included for further analysis and summary.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Abnormal mechanical stimulation can cause excessive release of reactive oxygen species in lung epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and other types of cells, which results in cell apoptosis, increased cell permeability and the inflammatory response through a series of signal cascade, eventually leading to lung injury and cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Exploring the oxidative stress induced by mechanical stimulation and its possible molecular mechanisms will not only contribute to understanding the mechanisms of related diseases, but also provide new insights and targets for the prevention and treatment of diseases in the clinic.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程
    ORCID: 0000-0002-7062-560X(史佩佩)

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    Biomechanical characteristics of running based on knowledge mapping
    Gao Zhanle, Wang Chun
    2018, 22 (36):  5879-5888.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0699
    Abstract ( 241 )   PDF (1138KB) ( 126 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Most studies focus on the technical characteristics of sprinting or running in competitive sports, but biomechanical researches are few in China.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the status and development trend of biomechanics of running using CiteSpaceV and bibliometrics theory.
    METHODS: Literature concerning biomechanics of running in the database of Web of Science™ and published between 1985 and 2017 was retrieved. The keywords were “run, jog, sprint, marathon and biomechanics”. The basic situation and progress of biomechanical research on running were analyzed using CiteSpaceV and bibliometrics theory.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Biomechanical research has been increasing since 2004. The main research countries are the United States, Britain, and Australia. The main fields of research in running biomechanics are sports science, engineering, orthopedics and life sciences. The main contents of the research include basic gait, patellofemoral joint pain syndrome, landing pattern, anterior cruciate ligament injury, muscle mechanics, different shoe running characteristics and running stability. The performance of different sports shoes and the lading way have become a research hotspot and a future research trend.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Physical activity of people with intellectual disability measured by motion sensor
    Wang Dandan, Zhang Lei, Wu Xueping
    2018, 22 (36):  5889-5896.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0612
    Abstract ( 195 )   PDF (861KB) ( 124 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Documented benefits of physical activity include improvement in physical function and life skills for people with intellectual disabilities, thus reducing family burden. The measurement toll of physical activity in foreign countries has been well studied, while it is still in the early stage in China.
    OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the researches concerning measuring physical activity using motion sensor tools in people with intellectual disabilities, so as to provide reference for physical activity health promotion program in these populations.
    METHODS: Web of Science was searched with keywords of “intellectual disability, mental retardation, physical activity, exercise” from 2007 to 2017. The measurement tools must be accelerometer or pedometer.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometer and pedometer have high validity and reliability in measurement of physical activity among people with intellectual disabilities. 0%-43% people with intellectual disabilities meet the physical activity recommendation guidelines, which is lower than the proportion of typically developing people. Cross-sectional studies show that physical activity is related to body mass index, blood pressure and VO2max. Physical activity participation is a direct factor influencing physical function, while social and environment factors are the indirect factors. Intervention of exercise and health knowledge learning can increase physical activity to some extent. Future studies should be focused on horizontal and longitudinal relationship between physical activity and health factors. The formulation and implementation of the physical activity intervention program should not only pay attention to the pertinence of the scheme design, but also pay attention to the persistence of the intervention time, while the periodicity of the effect evaluation should never be ignored.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Molecular mechanisms of bone morphogenetic protein, Wnt, fibroblast growth factor and sonic hedgehog signaling pathways in tooth development
    Liu Zhe1, 2, Lian Wenwei 1, 2
    2018, 22 (36):  5897-5904.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.1000
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (740KB) ( 326 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: During the development of teeth, several signaling pathways, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wnt, and sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathways, transmit message between epithelium and mesenchyme. These mediators are required for cell division, differentiation, migration, survival and apoptosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To review how the BMP, FGF, Wnt, and Shh signaling pathways regulate tooth development in order to provide reference for the study on stem cell differentiation into odontogenic cells. 
    METHODS: Articles were retrieved from CNKI and PubMed database (from 2004 to 2017) with the key words of “bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor pathway, Wnt protein, sonic hedgehog, tooth development, tooth organogenesis”. Studies related to molecular mechanisms of BMP, FGF, Wnt, Shh signaling pathway in tooth development and the recent articles with detailed, rigorous content as well as unambiguous viewpoint were included.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The BMP, FGF, Wnt, and Shh signaling pathways are the pivotal molecular cascades throughout the whole stage of tooth development, regulating initiation, morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of dental germ. Moreover, the four signaling pathways are closely related, promoting and restricting each other, and form a complex network. The reverse control mechanism of antagonistic factor is an important part of the network, which is critical to the terminal pattern and amount of the teeth.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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