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Table of Content

    18 March 2024, Volume 28 Issue 8 Previous Issue   
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    Urolithin A mediates p38/MAPK pathway to inhibit osteoclast activity
    Huang Haoran, Fan Yinuo, Wei-Yang Wenxiang, Jiang Mengyu, Fang Hanjun, Wang Haibin, Chen Zhenqiu, Liu Yuhao, Zhou Chi
    2024, 28 (8):  1149-1154.  doi: 10.12307/2023.893
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (1680KB) ( 91 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Overactive osteoclasts disrupt bone homeostasis and play a bad role in the pathological mechanisms of related skeletal diseases, such as osteoporosis, fragility fractures, and osteoarthritis. Studies have confirmed that ellagic acid and ellagtannin have the potential to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. As their natural metabolites, urolithin A has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects, but its effect on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of urolithin A on osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand and its mechanism.
    METHODS: Mouse mononuclear macrophage leukemia cells (RAW264.7) that grew stably were cultured in vitro. Toxicity of urolithin A (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 μmol/L) to RAW264.7 cells were detected by cytotoxic MTS assay to screen out the safe concentration. Different concentrations of urolithin A were used again to intervene with receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Then, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and F-actin ring and nucleus staining were performed to observe its effect on the formation and function of osteoclasts. Finally, the expressions of urolithin A on upstream and downstream genes and proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway were observed by western blot and RT-qPCR assays.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Urolithin A inhibited osteoclast differentiation and F-actin ring formation in a concentration-dependent manner and 2.5 μmol/L had the strongest inhibitory effect. Urolithin A inhibited the mRNA expression of Nfatc1, Ctsk, Mmp9 and Atp6v0d2 and the protein synthesis of Nfatc1 and Ctsk, related to osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Urolithin A inhibited the activity of osteoclasts by downregulating the phosphorylation of p38 protein to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
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    Effect of Yishen Gushu Formula on bone metabolic markers and clinical efficacyn in patients with osteoporosis of kidney deficiency and blood stasis type
    Zhang Xiaoyun, Liu Hua, Chai Yuan, Chen Feng, Zeng Hao, Gao Zhengang, Huang Yourong
    2024, 28 (8):  1155-1160.  doi: 10.12307/2023.870
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (858KB) ( 43 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: With the variation of disease treatment modes and the in-depth research on senile osteoporosis in recent years, increasing studies have confirmed that traditional Chinese medicine has a significant effect on the prevention and treatment of senile osteoporosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Yishen Gushu Formula on bone metabolic markers in patients with osteoporosis of kidney deficiency and blood stasis type.
    METHODS: 102 patients with senile osteoporosis of kidney deficiency and blood stasis type who were treated at Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July 2020 to March 2022 were enrolled, including 32 males and 70 females, aged 71-93 years. All patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 51 patients in each group. The control group was treated with calcium carbonate D3 granules and sodium alendronate tablets, while the treatment group was treated with Yishen Gushu Formula beyond the control group. Treatments in each group lasted 3 months. Bone mineral density of the L1-4 lumbar vertebrae and left femoral neck, visual analog scale score, and serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal peptide and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase were measured before and 3 months after treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score and therapeutic efficiency were also assessed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 3 months of treatment, the bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-4) and left femoral neck was significantly increased in both two groups (P < 0.05), and the bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-4) and left femoral neck was significantly higher in the treatment group than the control group (P < 0.05). The visual analog scale scores of both groups after 3 months of treatment were lower than those before treatment (P < 0.05), and the visual analog scores of the treatment group after 3 months of treatment were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After 3 months of treatment, the serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal peptide and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase were significantly improved in both two groups, while compared with the control group, the serum levels of osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the serum levels of type I collagen cross-linked C-terminal peptide and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase were significantly lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05). After 3 months of treatment, the Traditional Chinese medicine syndrome scores were decreased in both two groups, while the Traditional Chinese medicine syndrome scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group. After 3 months of treatment, no significant adverse reactions occurred in both groups. The total effective rate was 88.2% and 70.6% in the treatment and control groups respectively, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). To conclude, Yishen Gushu Formula combined with anti-osteoporosis drugs can significantly improve the clinical symptoms of patients with senile osteoporosis of kidney deficiency and blood stasis type and prevent disease progression by regulating bone metabolism, increasing bone mineral density, and relieving pain.
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    Functional exercise for tendon adhesion in a model of deep flexor tendon II injury of the third toe
    Cheng Jie, Wang Jihong, Zhang Pei
    2024, 28 (8):  1161-1167.  doi: 10.12307/2023.871
    Abstract ( 254 )   PDF (1810KB) ( 28 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the modified Tsuge suture method can be used to repair chicken tendon injuries. However, the lack of post-repair functional exercise leads to obvious tendon adhesions. Therefore, a functional exercise after tendon repair is very important.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore a scheme for passive functional exercise against tendon adhesion in a chicken model of flexor toe tendon rupture following repair using the modified Tsuge suture method.
    METHODS: A total of 100 Sanhuang chickens, 10 months of age, were taken to make animal models of deep flexor tendon II rupture of the third toe of the right foot. Animal models were randomized into five groups (n=20 per group): groups A, B, C and D were given plaster immobilization for 3 weeks after surgery, and were simultaneously given passive functional exercise 1, 2, 3, and 0 times a day for 3 weeks, respectively; group E had  neither plaster immobilization nor passive functional exercise after surgery. The gross morphology of the chicken claw, the morphology of the tendon anastomosis end and the degree of peritendinous adhesion were observed. The slipping distance of the deep flexor tendon of the third toe, the flexion angles of all joints, the pathological morphology of the tendon at the anastomotic end and the hydroxyproline content were measured. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The tendon of group E was completely ruptured around 6 day after surgery and was removed from the experiment. The chicken claws in groups B and C had better grasping morphology, group D had almost no grasping morphology, and group A had worse grasping morphology than groups B and C. In groups B and C, the tendon anastomosis end was not obviously expanded, with the texture similar to that of normal tendon tissue. Compared with group C, tendon adhesion was relatively mild in group B. In group D, the tendon anastomosis end was obviously expanded, with the hard texture, obvious peritendinous scar and serious adhesion. Expansion at the tendon anastomosis end was more obvious than groups B and C but less severe than group D. The slipping distance and the related flexion angles of the deep flexor tendon of the third toe were better in groups B and C than groups A and D (P < 0.05). The content of hydroxyproline in the tendon of chickens in group B was higher than those in groups A, C and D (P < 0.05). Findings from hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining showed that collagen fibers of the tendon in groups A, C and B were gradually arranged in a directional manner, where the number of bright red and thick type I collagen fibers was gradually increased and the number of tiny green type III collagen fibers was gradually decreased. In group E, collagen fibers of the tendon were poorly arranged in a directional manner and type I and type III collagen fibers were cross-distributed. To conclude, adequate passive functional exercises twice a day following repair with the modified Tsuge suture method could effectively alleviate tendon adhesion and reduce tendon rupture in the chicken model of deep flexor tendon rupture.
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    RAS-selective lethal small molecule 3 inhibits the fibrosis of pathological scar fibroblasts
    Shen Jiangyong, He Xi, Tang Yuting, Wang Jianjun, Liu Jinyi, Chen Yuanyuan, Wang Xinyi, Liu Tong, Sun Haoyuan
    2024, 28 (8):  1168-1173.  doi: 10.12307/2024.202
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 44 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Abnormal extracellular matrix accumulation and excessive proliferation of fibroblasts are the main manifestations of pathological scars. Excessive proliferation of fibroblasts leads to the production of large amounts of collagen-based extracellular matrix. Therefore, to investigate the role of fibroblast fibrosis in the formation of pathological scar will provide a new idea for revealing the mechanism of pathological scar and biological therapy. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of RAS-selective lethal small molecule 3 (RSL3) on the fibrosis of human pathological scar fibroblasts. 
    METHODS: Then cases of pathological scar tissue and normal skin tissue samples from the same individuals, provided by the Department of Burn Plastic Surgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, were collected. Fibroblasts of human pathological scar and human normal skin were extracted and used in the following experiments. The general condition of the pathological scar tissue and the normal skin tissue was detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The appearance of fibroblasts from pathological scar and normal skin were observed by inverted microscope. The fibroblasts were verified by immunofluorescence assay. The cells were treated with different concentrations of RSL3 (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 μmol/L). The inhibitory concentration of RSL3 on fibroblasts was detected by cell counting kit-8. Control group (without treatment) and RSL3 intervention group (treated with 7 μmol/L RSL3 for 24 hours) were set up. The mRNA and protein expressions of glutathione peroxidase 4, type I collagen, type III collagen and α-smooth muscle actin were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Level of malondialdehyde in cells was detected. The residual scratch area was measured by cell scratch test after 24 hours to calculate the percentage of residual scratch area.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 in the pathological scar group was higher than that in the normal skin group (mRNA: t=3.252, P < 0.01; protein: t=5.075, P < 0.01). The expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 in the pathological scar fibroblast group was higher than that in the normal skin fibroblast group (mRNA: t=10.32, P < 0.01; protein: t=26.22, P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 was decreased (mRNA: t=2.798, P < 0.05; protein: t=4.643, P < 0.01), the content of malondialdehyde was increased (t=2.917, P < 0.05), the expression of type I collagen (mRNA: t=15.84, P < 0.01; protein: t=4.610, P < 0.01), type III collagen (mRNA: t=28.86, P < 0.01; protein: t=7.713, P < 0.01) and α-smooth muscle actin (mRNA: t=2.671, P < 0.05; protein: t=7.417, P < 0.01) were decreased in the RSL3 intervention group. Compared with the control group, the migration ability was weakened in the RSL3 intervention group (t=14.06, P < 0.01). To conclude, RSL3 can inhibit the expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 and then inhibit the ability of fibrosis and migration of pathological scar fibroblasts. 
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    Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of P53 and P21 in articular cartilage and subchondral bone of aged rats with knee osteoarthritis
    Huang Xiarong, Hu Lizhi, Sun Guanghua, Peng Xinke, Liao Ying, Liao Yuan, Liu Jing, Yin Linwei, Zhong Peirui, Peng Ting, Zhou Jun, Qu Mengjian
    2024, 28 (8):  1174-1179.  doi: 10.12307/2023.955
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (1190KB) ( 52 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: There are many treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis, among which electroacupuncture, as an important non-drug treatment, is effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, but its exact mechanism is not clear.
    OBJECTIVE: Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of p53 and P21 in articular cartilage and subchondral bone of aged rats with knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Eight 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the young group and sixteen 24-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into old group (n=8) and electroacupuncture group (n=8). The rats in the electroacupuncture group received electroacupuncture stimulation once a day, 5 days a week, for 8 continuous weeks, and the other two groups did not do any treatment. Eight weeks later, the level of type II collagen C-terminal peptide in peripheral blood was detected by ELISA, the morphology of left knee cartilage and subchondral bone was observed by safranin O-fast green staining, the degree of knee cartilage degeneration was evaluated by modified Mankin’s score, the microstructure of left knee cartilage and subchondral bone was detected by micro-CT, and the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13, P53, P21 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and western blot respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the young group, the level of C-terminal peptide of type II collagen in the peripheral blood was increased in the old group (P < 0.05). The micro-CT results showed that the bone volume fraction, bone mineral density and the number of bone trabeculae were decreased in the old group compared with the young group (P < 0.05), while the trabecular separation increased (P < 0.05). Safranin O-fast green staining showed that in the old group, the surface layer of cartilage was uneven with fissures, the morphology of chondrocytes was irregular and stained unevenly, the boundary between the cartilage and subchondral bone was blurred, and the matrix loss was serious. The Mankin’s score was higher in the old group than the young group (P < 0.05). The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13, P53, P21 at mRNA and protein levels increased in the old group compared with the young group (P < 0.05). Compared with the old group, electroacupuncture decreased the level of C-terminal peptide of type II collagen (P < 0.05), increased the bone volume fraction, bone mineral density and the number of bone trabeculae (P < 0.05), and decreased the trabecular separation (P < 0.05). Safranin O-fast green staining showed that in the electroacupuncture group, the surface of cartilage was smooth and red staining was uniform, and the cell morphology and structure were between the young group and the old group. Following electroacupuncture treatment, the Mankin’s score (P < 0.05), matrix metalloproteinase 13 and P21 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and matrix metalloproteinase 13 and P53 protein expression decreased (P < 0.05), while there was a decreasing trend of P53 mRNA and P21 protein expression, but with no statistical significance (P > 0.05). To conclude, electroacupuncture may delay articular cartilage degeneration and subchondral osteoporosis in aged rats by inhibiting the expression of P53 and P21, so as to protect joints and delay joint aging.
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    Effects of static traction on the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the rat intervertebral disc
    Mo Jun, Luo Zongping
    2024, 28 (8):  1180-1185.  doi: 10.12307/2023.995
    Abstract ( 207 )   PDF (1339KB) ( 49 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Traction is clinically used for the early treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, but its effect on the normal intervertebral disc remains unknown. Whether it directly causes intervertebral disc degeneration or has a positive effect is the key point of this study. 
    OBJECTIVE: To design a static traction model and observe the effect of static traction on the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc
    METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 months of age, were included in the study. The intervertebral disc spaces between 7/8, 8/9 and 9/10 were stretched by 1 mm, and the intervertebral disc spaces between 6/7 and 10/11 were used as control. Five rats were randomly selected at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of traction to perform MRI T2-weighted scans of the caudal vertebra, tissue section staining, and RT-PCR gene assays for anabolic metabolism to observe the effects of static traction on the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After short-term static traction of the rat caudal vertebra, the T2-weighted image signal in the nucleus pulposus region was enhanced. During the traction period, nucleus pulposus cells grew well, the intercellular matrix was abundant, and the annulus fibrosus arranged regularly. The RT-PCR results showed that after traction, the mRNA expression of proteoglycan increased, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 decreased, the expression of type I and II collagen decreased, and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 increased and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 increased. These gene results also indicated that traction made proteoglycan more inclined to an anabolic state, and type I and II collagen more inclined to a catabolic state. To conclude, static traction promotes proteoglycan anabolism making the nucleus pulposus moist.
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    Effects of croton cream on JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway and neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats
    Yue Yun, Wang Peipei, Yuan Zhaohe, He Shengcun, Jia Xusheng, Liu Qian, Li Zhantao, Fu Huiling, Song Fei, Jia Menghui
    2024, 28 (8):  1186-1192.  doi: 10.12307/2023.997
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (2122KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Croton cream can activate ERK pathways and have anti-apoptotic effects on neuronal cells. It is not clear whether it synergistically exerts anti-apoptotic effects by inhibiting the activation of JNK and p38 pathways.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects and mechanisms of croton cream on neuronal damage and apoptosis in the ischemic cortex of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    METHODS: (1) Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, croton cream low-dose group, croton cream medium-dose group, croton cream high-dose group and nimodipine group, with 15 rats in each group. Except for the sham operation group, animal models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were prepared in rats by the thread method. Rats in the three croton cream groups were given 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg croton cream, respectively. Rats in the sham operation and model groups were given the same amount of normal saline, once a day, for 7 consecutive days. The optimal concentration of croton cream, namely the high dose of croton cream, was selected based on neurological deficit score, TTC staining, brain tissue water content, hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining. (2) Another 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, croton cream group, JNK inhibitor group, croton cream+JNK inhibitor group, p38 MAPK inhibitor group, croton cream+p38 MAPK inhibitor group, and nimodipine group, with 15 rats in each group. Animal models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were prepared using the thread method in all the groups except in the sham operation group. Thirty minutes before modeling, 10 μL of SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and 10 μL of SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) were injected into the lateral ventricle of the rats, respectively. Rats in croton cream groups were intragastrically given 60 mg/kg croton cream. Seven days later, the JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis-related proteins and cell apoptosis were detected by western blot, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with the sham operation group, neurological deficit score, cerebral water content, cerebral infarction volume and apoptosis rate were significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.05), where nerve cells showed scattered distribution. Compared with the model group, neurological deficit score, water content of brain tissue and cerebral infarction volume were significantly decreased in the croton cream medium-dose group, high-dose group and nimodipine group (P < 0.05), and the pathological morphology of nerve cells was significantly improved. (2) Compared with the JNK inhibitor group, p-JNK/JNK, p-p38/p38 and Bax expressions in rat brain tissue and the apoptotic rate were significantly decreased in the croton cream+inhibitor groups (P < 0.05), while the expression of and Bcl-2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05). To conclude, croton cream may inhibit the activation of JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway and reduce neuronal apoptosis to achieve neuroprotective effects in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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    Mechanism of Mongolian Medicine Erden-uril on osteoarthritis in rats
    Zhao Garida, Ren Yizhong, Han Changxu, Kong Lingyue, Jia Yanbo
    2024, 28 (8):  1193-1199.  doi: 10.12307/2023.953
    Abstract ( 132 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 97 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The clinical application of Mongolian Medicine Erdun -uril in the treatment of osteoarthritis is effective, but its therapeutic effect and related mechanism are still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the repairing process of osteoarthritis in rats by Mongolian Medicine Erdun-uril and analyze its mechanism.
    Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks of age) were selected to establsih an osteoarthritis model using intraarticular injection of sodium iodoacetate solution into the unilateral knee joint. Two weeks after modeling, the model rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n=6) was given normal saline by gavage, and low and high dose groups (n=12 per group) were given Erdun-uril 1.4 and 2 g, respectively, 3 times per day. After 2 and 4 weeks of continuous administration, blood samples, articular cartilage and periarticular bone tissue were taken from rats to detect changes in cartilage metabolic markers (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, proteoglycan), bone metabolic markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, keratan sulfate), inflammatory markers (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α), lipid metabolic markers (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol). Histopathological changes were also observed.
    ResultS and CONCLUSION: qRT-PCR results showed that after 2 and 4 weeks of administration, the mRNA expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, proteoglycan and bone alkaline phosphatase and keratan sulfate in knee cartilage of rats were significantly reduced in the low and high dose groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001), with the reduction being more significant in the high dose group. After 2 and 4 weeks of administration, compared with the control group, serum tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 levels were decreased (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) and total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) in the low and high dose groups, with the improvement being more significant in the high dose group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that in the control group, there were large defective areas on the surface of the knee cartilage with unknown structure and severe inflammatory cell infiltration; in the low dose group, the surface of the knee cartilage was rough with disordered cell arrangement and the cartilage structure did not improve significantly after 2 weeks of administration, while the number of inflammatory cells in the knee cartilage was reduced and the cartilage structure was restored to some extent after 4 weeks of administration; in the high dose group, the structure of the knee cartilage become clear after 2 weeks of administration and even clearer after 4 weeks of administration, and the inflammation was significantly reduced after 2 weeks of administration. To conclude, Mongolian Medicine Erdun-uril with better anti-inflammatory properties can improve cartilage metabolism and obviously alleviate osteoarthritis in rats.
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    Effect of aerobic exercise on glycolipid metabolism, skeletal muscle inflammation and autophagy in type 2 diabetic rats
    Wang Ji, Zhang Min, Li Wenbo, Yang Zhongya, Zhang Long
    2024, 28 (8):  1200-1205.  doi: 10.12307/2024.219
    Abstract ( 241 )   PDF (954KB) ( 52 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Obesity and its relevant chronic inflammation are important risk factors for inducing type 2 diabetes. This inflammatory response will further involve skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in catabolic and autophagic fluxes in skeletal muscle. Aerobic exercise is the mainstream mode of exercise in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, and may also has a certain protective effect on skeletal muscle.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects and regulatory mechanisms of aerobic exercise on glucolipid metabolism, skeletal muscle inflammation and autophagy in type 2 diabetic rats.
    METHODS: Animal models of type 2 diabetes were established in rats by 8-week high-fat feeding combined with streptozotocin injection, and the experimental rats were then divided into normal control group, normal exercise group, diabetic control group and diabetic exercise group. The exercise group performed 4 weeks of aerobic exercise (16 m/min, 60 min/d, 5 d/wk). The levels of blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride in serum were measured by an automated biochemical analyzer. Serum insulin level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the insulin resistance index and area under the glucose metabolism curve were calculated. The levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α in skeletal muscle were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, and the expression levels of forkhead box protein O3 (FoxO3), LC3 and p62 in skeletal muscle were measured by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The area under the glucose tolerance curve and insulin resistance index both increased significantly in type 2 diabetic rats (P < 0.001, P=0.025), and aerobic exercise significantly reduced the area under the glucose tolerance curve and insulin resistance index in the normal exercise group (P < 0.001, P=0.038) and diabetic exercise group (P < 0.001, P=0.004). Serum high-density lipoprotein significantly decreased (P=0.030), and low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride (P=0.027, P=0.014) levels significantly increased in the diabetic control group compared with the normal control group. Aerobic exercise significantly reduced triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels in the normal exercise group (P=0.019, P=0.008) as well as triglyceride levels in the diabetic exercise group (P=0.022). Both interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α levels were significantly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats compared with the normal control group (P < 0.001, P=0.007), and aerobic exercise significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor α levels in the diabetic exercise group (P=0.017). The LC3-II/LC3-I was significantly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic rats compared with the normal control group. Aerobic exercise significantly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I in the normal exercise group (P < 0.001) and decreased the LC3-II/LC3-I, FoxO3 and p62 protein expression levels in the diabetic exercise group (P=0.026, P=0.050, P=0.048). To conclusion, type 2 diabetes model established by high-fat feeding combined with streptozotocin injection has obvious glycolipid metabolism disorder, and leads to inflammatory response and excessive activation of autophagy in skeletal muscle. Aerobic exercise can improve glycolipid metabolism, reduce local inflammation in skeletal muscle and inhibit autophagy, and finally play a protective role in skeletal muscle.
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    Effect of vessel number on computational fluid dynamics in vascular networks
    Dai Yuexing, Zheng Liqin, Wu Minhui, Li Zhihong, Li Shaobin, Zheng Desheng, Lin Ziling
    2024, 28 (8):  1206-1210.  doi: 10.12307/2023.961
    Abstract ( 258 )   PDF (1677KB) ( 48 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Mechanical factors can affect the angiogenic ability of vascular endothelial cells. How the vessel number affects the hydrodynamic properties of microvessels remains to be clarified. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of vessel number on the hydrodynamics of vascular networks based on computational fluid dynamics. 
    METHODS: Three three-dimensional models of vascular network with different vessel numbers were constructed using the Geometry module of ANSYS 19.0 software, and then the vascular network was meshed to tetrahedral elements in Mesh module. The vascular network was assumed to rigid wall without slip, and the blood was assumed to laminar, viscous, and incompressible Newtonian fluid. Blood density, velocity, and a series of blood viscosity coefficients were also established. The Navier-Stokes equation was used for calculation. Hydrodynamic properties of different parts of vascular network with different vessel numbers were analyzed and compared. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The streamline, velocity, and mass flow all had the same trend in the vascular network, that is, the outlet and inlet were higher and the middle junction of vascular network was lower. The more the number of vessels, the thinner the blood flow lines in each part of the vascular network. Also, the velocity, mass flow, and wall shear decreased with the increase of the number of blood vessels. Therefore, the changes in vessel number could influence the hydrodynamic environment in the vascular network. Computational fluid dynamics indicates that the changes in vessel numbers can influence the hydrodynamic properties of blood, and provides a new idea for treating bone hypoperfusion-induced diseases (fracture nonunion, bone defect, osteoporosis, etc.) through tonifying kidney and activating blood circulation based on the coupling between angiogenesis and osteogenesis.
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    Correlation between lower limb alignment and risk factors of patellofemoral pain syndrome in young men
    Han Bing, Liu Hongbin, Wang Hehong, Zhao Hanqing, Zhao Riguang, Sun Yiyan, Zhang Yu
    2024, 28 (8):  1211-1216.  doi: 10.12307/2023.858
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (1035KB) ( 72 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome are still unclear and research on risk factors is gradually becoming a hot topic in order to improve the therapeutic outcome of this disease.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lower limb alignment and patellofemoral pain syndrome in young male runners.
    METHODS: In the same running population, 21 patients with bilateral knee pain, 29 patients with single knee pain and 20 normal runners were collected from January 2021 to July 2022. Full-length X-ray examination of both lower limbs in standing position was performed in all subjects. The lateral distal femoral angle, medial tibial proximal angle, joint line congruence angle, hip-knee-ankle angle, and knee physical valgus angle were measured and statistically analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the parameters between the left and right knees in each group (P > 0.05). Compared with the normal group, no significant changes in lateral distal femoral angle, medial tibial proximal angle, joint line congruence angle, and hip-knee-ankle angle were observed in the single knee pain group and double knee pain group, while the knee physical valgus angle was significantly increased in these two groups (P < 0.05). To conclude, increased knee physical valgus angle may be a risk factor for patellofemoral pain syndrome.
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    Cadmium promotes senescence of annulus fibrosus cells via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
    Liu Xin, Hu Man, Zhao Wenjie, Zhang Yu, Meng Bo, Yang Sheng, Peng Qing, Zhang Liang, Wang Jingcheng
    2024, 28 (8):  1217-1222.  doi: 10.12307/2023.990
    Abstract ( 216 )   PDF (1315KB) ( 52 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a common environmental pollutant, which can damage multiple organs and tissues, such as the kidney and bone, but its effect on annulus fibrosus cells in the intervertebral disc has been less reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cadmium chloride on the senescence of annulus fibrosus cells and the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
    METHODS: Annulus fibrosus cells from Sprague-Dawley rat intervertebral discs were harvested and passage 3 cells were intervened with different concentrations of cadmium chloride (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 μmol/L). Cell viability and proliferation were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay. Transcriptome sequencing and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis were performed on annulus fibrosus cells with or without cadmium chloride addition. Passage 3 annulus fibrosus cells were divided into control group, cadmium chloride group and LY294002 group. Cell proliferation rate was detected by EdU method, positive cell rate was detected by senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, and expressions of senescence-associated proteins (p16, p21 and p53) and p-Akt at protein and mRNA levels were measured by western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: 5 μmol/L cadmium chloride could inhibit the proliferation of annulus fibrosus cells. Results from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis showed that the main signal transduction pathways included PI3K/Akt, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways, which were related to cell senescence and proliferation. PI3K/Akt signaling pathways with significant differential expression were selected for validation. Compared with the control group, the EdU-positive rate was significantly decreased in the cadmium chloride group (P < 0.05), while the β-galactosidase-positive rate, the expression of senescence-associated proteins (p16, p21 and p53) and p-Akt significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the cadmium chloride group, the EdU-positive rate and p-Akt expression were significantly decreased in the LY294002 group (P < 0.05), while the β-galactosidase-positive rate and the expression of senescence-associated proteins (p16, p21 and p53) significantly increased (P < 0.05). To conclude, cadmium chloride can regulate the senescence of annulus fibrosus cells by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby inducing the occurrence and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration.
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    Effects of Periplaneta americana powder on motor function and autophagic protein Beclin-1 in rats undergoing spinal cord hemisection
    Zhou Bangyu, Li Jie, Ruan Yushang, Geng Funeng, Li Shaobo
    2024, 28 (8):  1223-1228.  doi: 10.12307/2023.965
    Abstract ( 183 )   PDF (1358KB) ( 53 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury involves mechanisms such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy. Activation of autophagy can improve neuromotor function after spinal cord injury and play a protective role in the spinal cord.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Periplaneta americana powder on hindlimb motor function and the autophagy protein Beclin-1 in the injured site of rats after spinal cord hemisection. 
    METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats, 6-8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 per group). In the sham-operated group, the lamina was just opened to exposure the spinal cord followed by suturing. Normal saline group and Periplaneta americana powder group both underwent left hemisection of the spinal cord to prepare animal models of spinal cord hemisection. The normal saline group was continuously gavaged with normal saline for 14 days, and the Periplaneta americana powder group was continuously gavaged with Periplaneta americana powder for 14 days. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan scale score was performed at the 6th hour, 1st day, 3rd day, 7th day and 14th day after operation to observe the hindlimb motor function. After 14 days of administration, the rats were sacrificed and sampled. Immunohistochemistry, western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of Beclin-1 in the injured site of the spinal cord after hemisection. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After operation, the Basso Beattie Bresnahan scale scores were gradually increased in the normal saline group and Periplaneta americana powder group. Compared with the sham-operated group, the Basso Beattie Bresnahan scale scores were significantly reduced in the normal saline group and Periplaneta americana powder group at the 6th hour, 1st day, 3rd day, 7th day and 14th day after operation (P < 0.05). The Basso Beattie Bresnahan scale scores in the Periplaneta americana powder group were significantly higher than those in the normal saline group at the 7th and 14th days after operation 
    (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that Beclin-1 was weakly positive in the sham-operated group, mainly expressed in the cytoplasm; in the normal saline group, Beclin-1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and partially expressed in the nuclear membrane; in the Periplaneta americana powder group, Beclin-1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and partially expressed in the nuclear membrane. The proportion of Beclin-1 positive cells was higher in the normal saline and Periplaneta americana powder groups than in the sham-operated group (P < 0.05), while the proportion of Beclin-1 positive cells was higher in the Periplaneta americana powder group than in the normal saline group (P < 0.05). Western blot assay and immunofluorescence staining showed that the Beclin-1 protein expression was higher in the normal saline and Periplaneta americana powder groups than in the sham-operated group (P < 0.05), and moreover, the Beclin-1 protein expression was higher in the Periplaneta americana powder group than in the normal saline group (P < 0.05). To conclude, Periplaneta americana powder could improve the hindlimb motor function of rats with spinal cord hemisection injury, and the mechanism may be that polysaccharides in the Periplaneta americana powder increase the expression of Beclin-1.
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    Effect of resveratrol on gluconeogenesis in exercise-induced fatigue rats
    Ruan Rong, Lou Xujia, Jin Qiguan, Zhang Libing, Xu Shang, Hu Yulong
    2024, 28 (8):  1229-1234.  doi: 10.12307/2023.960
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (871KB) ( 56 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural antioxidant extracted from plants. Its mechanism of improving exercise-induced fatigue mainly focuses on the protective effect against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, the protective mechanism of resveratrol on exercise-induced fatigue was mainly discussed from the perspective of gluconeogenesis.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on gluconeogenesis in exercise-induced fatigue rats.
    METHODS: After 1 week of adaptive training, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 12 rats in each group: blank control group, resveratrol group, exercise group, resveratrol + exercise group. Weight-bearing swimming training was used to simulate long-term medium-high intensity exercise. After swimming with a weight of 5% for 1 hour every day, 50 mg/kg resveratrol solution or the same volume of dimethyl sulfoxide solvent were given orally, 6 days a week, for a total of 6 weeks. Samples were collected 24 hours after the last exercise, and the levels of urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, blood glucose, liver glycogen and lactic acid and pyruvate in liver tissue were detected by the kit. The activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was detected by microassay, and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the gene expression of silent information regulator 1, cAMP-response element binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the exercise group, plasma urea nitrogen and creatine kinase levels of rats were significantly increased (both P < 0.05), liver lactate and pyruvate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratio were significantly increased (all P < 0.01), and blood glucose and liver glycogen contents were significantly decreased (both P < 0.01). Resveratrol supplementation could effectively improve the above conditions. Exercise significantly decreased the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), and resveratrol supplementation significantly increased the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver tissue (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression levels of silent information regulator 1, cAMP-response element binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α in liver tissue of the exercise group were significantly decreased (all P < 0.01), while resveratrol supplementation could significantly increase the gene expression levels of this pathway. To conclude, resveratrol can relieve exercise-induced fatigue caused by long-term medium-high intensity exercise, and its mechanism may be related to up-regulating the gluconeogenesis regulatory pathway, improving rate-limiting enzyme activity, promoting liver gluconeogenesis, and increasing blood glucose and liver glycogen levels.
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    Effect of ginseng polysaccharide on the expression of prostaglandin E2/6-keto-prostaglandin 1alpha in traumatic osteoarthritis model rats
    Li Rui, Zhang Guihong, Wang Tao, Fan Ping
    2024, 28 (8):  1235-1240.  doi: 10.12307/2023.999
    Abstract ( 222 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 27 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Ginseng extracts have been found to significantly improve osteoarthritis, but the therapeutic effects of ginseng polysaccharide extracts on osteoarthritis have not been reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ginseng polysaccharide on the expression of prostaglandin E2/6-keto-prostaglandin F1α in traumatic osteoarthritis model rats.
    METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into healthy group, model group, ginseng polysaccharide low-dose group, ginseng polysaccharide medium-dose group, ginseng polysaccharide high-dose group and dexamethasone group. Except for 10 rats in the healthy group, the other rats were taken to establish traumatic osteoarthritis models. The healthy group and model group were given 0.2 mL of normal saline intraperitoneally. The low-, medium-, and high-dose groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 μg/mL ginseng polysaccharide, respectively. In the dexamethasone group, 0.2mg/kg dexamethasone (0.2 mL) was injected intraperitoneally. Injections were given once every 3 days, for 4 consecutive weeks. Serum prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α levels were detected by ELISA. The bone and joint function of rats were assessed by the Mankin’s score. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathologic morphology of the knee joints of rats. Western blot and PCR were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, interleukin-10 in articular cartilage tissue, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the model group, serum prostaglandin E2 levels were decreased in the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group, while serum 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α levels were increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group, the above-mentioned indicators were significantly improved in the high-dose group, and there was no significant difference between the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, the Mankin’s score was reduced in the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P > 0.05). Compared with the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group, the Mankin’s score was significantly reduced in the high-dose group (P < 0.05). The cartilage tissue layer of rats in the model and low-dose groups was significantly thinned, the cracks and chondrocytes deep into the bone layer were largely lost, the tide line was seriously broken and blurred, the collagen fibers in the synovial layer were increased and thickened, and a large number of chondrocytes were destroyed and arranged irregularly. These pathological changes were improved in the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group compared with the model group as well as improved in the high-dose group compared with the medium-dose group. Compared with the model group, the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was reduced, while the expression of interleukin-10 was increased in the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P < 0.05). These indicators in the joint were significantly improved in the high-dose group compared with the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the medium-dose group and dexamethasone group (P > 0.05). To conclude, ginseng polysaccharide can improve the inflammatory level and pathological morphology of traumatic osteoarthritis rats and reduce the Mankin’s score. Its mechanism may be related to the regulation of prostaglandin E2/6-keto-prostaglandin F1α levels.
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    Influencing factors of adjacent vertebral re-fracture in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty
    Tong Yibo, Li Minghui
    2024, 28 (8):  1241-1246.  doi: 10.12307/2023.958
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (2709KB) ( 47 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures have a high rate of recurrent fractures in adjacent vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty, but the cause of their occurrence is still controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the influencing factors of adjacent vertebral re-fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with single-segment osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
    METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 210 patients admitted to the Fifth Hospital of Wuhan City, Second Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University from June 2016 to June 2020, who had been diagnosed with new single-segment osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by X-ray and MRI examinations, and received percutaneous vertebroplasty. The patients were followed up for more than 18 months. The general preoperative data and postoperative indicators were collected. The general preoperative data included age, sex, body mass index, fracture segment location, fracture days, fracture cause, whether accompanied by diabetes mellitus, whether accompanied by renal and thyroid dysfunction, and visual analogue scale score on admission. The postoperative indicators included recovery rate of anterior edge of the vertebral body after operation, degree of dispersion of bone cement, leakage of bone cement, use of bone material, single or bilateral injection of bone cement, recovery rate of the injured vertebral mid-column after operation, local Cobb angle of the injured vertebra after operation. According to their real conditions, the patients were divided into a group without adjacent vertebral re-fractures (n=190) and a group with adjacent vertebral re-fractures (n=20). The presence or absence of postoperative re-fracture of the adjacent vertebrae of the injured spine was used as the dependent variable and the categorical variables such as preoperative general data and postoperative indicators were used as independent variables for statistical analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After percutaneous vertebroplasty, patients with adjacent vertebral re-fractures showed significant differences in age, body mass index, postoperative vertebral body anterior edge recovery rate, degree of cement dispersion, and cement leakage from those without adjacent vertebral re-fractures (P < 0.05). However, sex, time of fracture, cause of fracture, presence of diabetes or kidney disease or thyroid disease, location of the initial vertebral fracture segment, mode of cement injection, local Cobb angle of the injured vertebra, recovery rate of the injured vertebral mid-column, and use of bone tissue were not statistically significant in relation to re-fracture of the adjacent vertebra after percutaneous vertebroplasty (P > 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age, vertebral body anterior edge recovery rate and cement leakage were independent risk factors for re-fractures of the adjacent vertebra after percutaneous vertebroplasty. To conclude, age, vertebral body anterior edge recovery rate and leakage of bone cement are the influencing factors of adjacent vertebral re-fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty. However, factors such as the degree of bone cement dispersion and the local Cobb angle of the injured vertebra were not correlated with adjacent vertebral re-fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty.
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    Relationship between lumbar spine development and hip development in children with spastic cerebral palsy
    Zuo Xinwei, Liu Gang, Bai Huizhong, Xu Lin, Zhao Yi, Ren Jingpei, Hu Chuanyu, Mu Xiaohong
    2024, 28 (8):  1247-1252.  doi: 10.12307/2023.987
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (1370KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Most scholars now believe that children with cerebral palsy who have severe spinal deformities in early childhood (< 15 years of age) may have a higher risk of progression of spinal deformities, which may result from imbalances in movement due to pelvic tilt, pain, etc.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lumbar spine development and hip joint development in children with spastic cerebral palsy. 
    METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 102 children with spastic cerebral palsy admitted at Dongzhimen Hospital Affiliated to Beijing University of Chinese Medicine from January 2014 to December 2021. All admitted children had X-rays of the pelvic position and the lumbar lateral position. Anteroposterior X-ray of the pelvis was performed to measure femoral head migration percentage, central edge angle, neck-shaft angle, and acetabular index. The sagittal Cobb angle, sacral slope, arch-top distance, and lumbar lordosis index were measured by the lateral X-ray of the lumbar spine. Correlation of the two sets of indicators was further analyzed. All children were divided into normal group, risk group, hip subluxation group and total hip dislocation group according to their femoral head migration percentage, and the differences in lumbar spine indexes between groups were evaluated.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Pearson correlation analysis showed that the femoral head migration percentage was moderately positively correlated with sagittal Cobb angle and arch-top distance, and weakly positively correlated with lumbar lordosis index; the central edge angle was moderately negatively correlated with the arch-top distance and weakly negatively correlated with the sagittal Cobb angle; the neck-shaft angle was weakly positively correlated or not correlated with the sagittal Cobb angle and lumbar lordosis index; and the acetabular index was weakly positively correlated with the sagittal Cobb angle and arch-top distance. No statistically significant correlation was found between the remaining indicators. According to the femoral head migration percentage, the children were divided into four groups, including 25 cases in the normal group, 41 cases in the risk group, 27 cases in the hip subluxation group, and 9 cases in the total hip dislocation group. The sagittal Cobb angle was significantly increased in the risk group, the hip subluxation group and the total hip dislocation group compared with the normal group, showing an increasing trend group by group, and there were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal group, the lumbar lordosis index in the risk group and the hip subluxation group increased significantly, and there were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). There was an increase trend in the lumbar lordosis index of the total hip dislocation group compared with the normal group. Compared with the normal group, the arch-top distance in the hip subluxation group and the total hip dislocation group increased significantly (P < 0.05), and there was a stepwise increasing trend. There was no significant difference in sacral slope between groups. To conclude, the development of the lumbar spine in children with cerebral palsy is closely related to the development of the pelvic hip joint, and the most obvious relationship is between lumbar lordosis and hip dislocation.
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    Cone-beam CT evaluation of bone mass in the external oblique line of the mandible in adolescents with different cervical vertebral bone ages
    Zhuang Xinyi, Peng Yuanhao, Yu Ting, Lyu Dongmei, Wen Xiujie, Cheng Qian
    2024, 28 (8):  1253-1258.  doi: 10.12307/2024.209
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (1038KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The application of miniscrew in adolescents is increasing day by day, but at present, there are few studies on bone mass in the external oblique line of the mandible in adolescents at home and abroad, and there is no systematic study on bone mass in the external oblique line of the mandible in adolescents in different growth and development periods.
    OBJECTIVE: To measure the bone mass in the external oblique line of the mandible in adolescents with different cervical vertebral bone ages using a cone-beam CT and to investigate the difference of bone mass in the external oblique line of the mandible in adolescents with different cervical vertebral bone ages and the correlation between bone mass in this area and the cervical vertebral bone age. 
    METHODS: The cone-beam CT data of 105 adolescent patients before orthodontic treatment were collected and divided into CS3 group (n=24), CS4 group (n=26), CS5 group (n=29) and CS6 group (n=26) using the cervical vertebral maturation method. The adolescent mandibular buccal shelf was reconstructed by Mimics Medical 21.0 software. The width of buccal bone at 6 and 11 mm under the cemento-enamel junction and the bone height at 4 and 5 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction of right mandibular first and second molars were measured. The measured data were statistically analyzed. The measurement was made on four planes: plane 1 is the plane where the proximal mesial root of the mandibular right first molar is located; plane 2 is the plane where the distal mesial root of the mandibular right first molar is located; plane 3 is the plane where the proximal mesial root of the mandibular right second molar is located; and plane 4 is the plane where the distal mesial root of the mandibular right second molar is located.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In each group, the bone width on the buccal side of the external oblique line increased gradually from the first molar proximally to the second molar distally in adolescents, and the width of buccal bone at 6 and 11 mm under the cemento-enamel junction showed significant difference among different layers (P < 0.05). The bone width of buccal bone at 11 mm under the cemento-enamel junction was greater than that at 6 mm. The bone height on the buccal side of the external oblique line increased gradually from the first molar proximally to the second molar distally in all four groups, and the bone height at 4 and 5 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction showed significant differences at different layers (P < 0.05). The bone height at 4 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction was greater than that at 5 mm. On the fourth plane, the bone width at 11 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction was smaller in the CS3, CS4, and CS5 groups than in the CS6 group (P < 0.05). On the third plane, the bone heights at 4 mm and 5 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction were smaller in the CS3 and CS4 groups than in the CS6 group (P < 0.05). On the fourth plane, the bone height at 5 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction was smaller in the CS3 and CS4 groups than in the CS6 group (P < 0.05). On the fourth plane, the bone height at 4 mm buccal to the cemento-enamel junction was smaller in the CS3 group than in the CS6 group (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that there was no correlation between bone mass and the cervical vertebral bone age, except that there was a weak correlation between bone mass at some measurement sites and cervical vertebral bone age. To conclude, the bone mass in the external oblique area of the mandible in adolescents does not change significantly with the increase of cervical vertebral bone age. The buccal side of the mesial root and distal root of the mandibular second molar in the external oblique area of CS3-CS6 adolescents meets the requirement of bone mass for miniscrew implantation, which is a site available for miniscrew implantation.
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    Effect of rehabilitation training guided by Pro-kin balance system on proprioception and balance function of the affected knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
    Zhang Xihui, Li Zhengrong, Li Shineng, Xing Zengyu, Wang Jiao
    2024, 28 (8):  1259-1264.  doi: 10.12307/2024.208
    Abstract ( 227 )   PDF (862KB) ( 51 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Pro-kin balance system guidance has a relatively excellent rehabilitation effect on lower extremity proprioception and trunk control in stroke patients, but its effect on knee proprioception and balance function in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been less reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rehabilitation training guided by Pro-kin balance system on proprioception and balance function of the affected knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. 
    METHODS: A total of 84 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament rupture reconstruction surgery were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 42 patients in each group. The patients in the control group received routine rehabilitation intervention after surgery, and those in the observation group were given rehabilitation training based on the guidance of Pro-kin balance system. The training in each group lasted for 8 weeks. Lysholm score and International Knee Documentation Committee score were used to evaluate the change of knee joint function before and after the intervention. Average weight-bearing strength difference, trajectory error, swing value and 30°, 45° and 60° passive angulation errors of the affected knee joint were used to evaluate the changes in the proprioception of the affected knee. The area and length of motion trajectory under open and closed eyes were used to evaluate the change of balance function. The satisfaction of patients in both groups with this rehabilitation training was investigated. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After training, Lysholm score and International Knee Documentation Committee score of patients in both groups were significantly higher than those before training (P < 0.01), and the above scores in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). After training, the average weight-bearing strength difference, trajectory error and swing value of the two groups were significantly lower than those before training (P < 0.01), and the above scores in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01). After training, the passive angulation errors of 30°, 45° and 60° of the affected knee joints in both groups were significantly lower than those before training (P < 0.01), and those in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). After training, the area and length of motion trajectory in both groups with eyes open were significantly smaller than those before training (P < 0.01), and the above indicators in the observation group were significantly smaller than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). After training, the area and length of the movement track of the patients in both groups with eyes closed were significantly smaller than those before training (P < 0.01), and the above indicators in the observation group were significantly smaller than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The satisfaction of patients in the observation group was 95, which was significantly higher than 81% in the control group (P < 0.05). To conclude, compared with the conventional rehabilitation training, the rehabilitation training based on Pro-kin balance system is more effective in improving the function, proprioception and balance function of the affected knee joints of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament rupture reconstruction, and the patients’ satisfaction is higher.
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    Evaluation of the relationship between neck and shoulder pain and scalene muscles based on shear wave elastography
    Chen Zhiling, Huang Xuecheng, Pan Min, Huang Ying, Wu Yuntian
    2024, 28 (8):  1265-1270.  doi: 10.12307/2024.217
    Abstract ( 237 )   PDF (1159KB) ( 48 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In clinical work, the stiffness of neck soft tissue in patients with neck and shoulder pain is mainly detected through palpation, which is highly subjective and lacks an objective basis. Real-time shear wave elastography is a quantitative elastic ultrasound technique that can objectively assess muscle elasticity and muscle status.
    OBJECTIVE: To apply real-time shear wave elastography to assess the stiffness of scalene muscles in patients with neck and shoulder pain and to observe the characteristics of muscle stiffness changes in the bilateral anterior, middle and posterior scalene muscles in patients with neck and shoulder pain.
    METHODS: From December 2021 to June 2022, 36 healthy subjects (control group) and 36 patients with neck and shoulder pain (test group) were recruited at the Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. Real-time shear wave elastography was applied to measure the mean values of elastic modulus and cross-sectional area of the anterior and middle and posterior scalene muscles bilaterally in the neutral and lateral flexion positions of the neck in both groups.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the same position, there were no significant differences between the mean Values of elastic modulus of the left and right anterior scalene muscles as well as between the mean Values of elastic modulus of the left and right middle scalene muscles in each group (P > 0.05); there were no significant differences between the cross-sectional area of the left and right anterior scalene muscles as well as the cross-sectional area of the left and right posteromedial scalene muscles in each group (P > 0.05); and the elastic modulus and cross-sectional area of the posteromedial scalene muscles were significantly higher than those of the anterior scalene muscles in both groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The mean Values of elastic modulus of the anterior and posteromedial scalene muscles were higher in the test group than in the control group in the neutral and lateral neck flexion positions (P < 0.001), while the cross-sectional areas of the anterior and posteromedial scalene muscles were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). To conclude, real-time shear wave elastography can be used to visually evaluate the differences in the mean Values of elastic modulus of the anterior and posteromedial scalene muscles in different states of the neck muscles in patients with neck and shoulder pain, whose bilateral scalene muscles are in a state of strain and stiffness.
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    Mechanism by which static exercise improves insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes
    Wei Juan, Li Ting, Huan Mengting, Xie Ying, Xie Zhouyu, Wei Qingbo, Wu Yunchuan
    2024, 28 (8):  1271-1276.  doi: 10.12307/2023.998
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (991KB) ( 107 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the key pathological link of type 2 diabetes. Static exercise can effectively improve skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of static exercise on insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic mice based on the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/glucose transporter (GLUT4) signaling pathway.
    METHODS: After 1 week of adaptive feeding, 7 out of 40 C57BL/6 mice were randomly selected as blank group and fed common diet, while the other mice were fed high-fat diet and taken to prepare type 2 diabetes models through the low-dose streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four mice were successfully modeled and they were randomly divided into model group (n=8), metformin group (n=8) and static exercise group (n=8), which continued to be fed high-fat diet. The metformin group was given 200 mg/kg metformin dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg) by gavage, once a day, for 6 weeks. The static exercise group was given normal saline daily by gavage and carried out static exercise, 30 minutes a day, 6 days per week. The model group was given the same dose of normal saline daily by gavage without exercise intervention. After the intervention, the fasting blood glucose of each group was detected, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed, and the area under the glycemic curve was calculated. Glycosylated hemoglobin, serum insulin, insulin resistance index were detected by ELISA. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein were detected using biochemical methods. The mRNA expression levels of PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius of mice were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Morphological changes of the gastrocnemius were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was calculated.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the blank group, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, area under the glycemic curve, insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Whereas, these indicators were significantly lower in the static exercise and metformin group than the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the blank group, serum insulin and high-density lipoprotein levels were significantly declined in the model group (P < 0.01) and the mRNA expression of PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius of mice were also significantly reduced (P < 0.01). These indicators were significantly elevated in the metformin group and static exercise group compared with the blank group (P < 0.01). Compared with the blank group, the muscle fibers in the model group were disordered, and the muscle cells atrophied and the muscle fiber gap widened. The cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was significantly decreased in the model group compared with the blank group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, atrophy of the gastrocnemius fibers and muscle fiber space were improved in the static exercise group and the metformin group, and the cross-sectional area of muscle fiber was significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that static resistance training may promote glucose uptake and utilization by up-regulating the expression of PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle tissue, thereby improving the morphology and function of skeletal muscle tissue, alleviating insulin resistance and regulating glucose homeostasis.
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    Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the distribution pattern of stress in bone tissues with different characteristics
    Xiaheida·Yilaerjiang, Nijiati·Tuerxun, Reyila·Kuerban, Baibujiafu·Yelisi, Chen Xin
    2024, 28 (8):  1277-1282.  doi: 10.12307/2024.214
    Abstract ( 235 )   PDF (2005KB) ( 67 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Less is reported on the influence of cortical bone thickness on displacement and equivalent stress.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of cortical bone thickness on the maximum displacement and equivalent stress at the implant-bone interface through a three-dimensional finite element method, thereby providing some suggestions for oral implantation.
    METHODS: In this experiment, we selected the cone-shaped CT image data of a patient who was scheduled for mandibular first molar implant restoration. First, we established a mandibular model in Mimics13 software, and then imported it into Solid works 2022 software. According to the related product information, we drew the cone-shaped implant (4.1 mm×10 mm) and the upper prosthesis model. Cortical bone models were obtained according to different cortical bone thicknesses (2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0 mm) and named D1, D2, D3, and D4, respectively. All the models were imported into ANSYS Workbench 2021 software and cross-combined. Finally, we applied vertical and oblique loads to the four groups of models, and analyzed the stress of the models in each group.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The peak equivalent stress is lowest in the cancellous bone and highest in the upper prosthesis, that is, at the abutment-implant junction. The peak stress increases with the decrease of cortical bone thickness. The peak stress of the abutment increases with the decrease of cortical bone thickness, and a similar explanation can also be applied to the other implant restoration components. The peak stress in bone tissue and implants increases with the increase of cortical bone thickness. In models D1, D2, D3, the peak stress in implants is higher than that in bone tissue, but the results are reversed in D4.
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    Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in exercise preconditioning-induced improvement of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Lou Guo, Zhang Yan, Fu Changxi
    2024, 28 (8):  1283-1288.  doi: 10.12307/2023.993
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 55 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Exercise is an effective strategy to prevent and treat various cardiovascular diseases and protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Its mechanism of action needs to be studied in depth. 
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of aerobic exercise preconditioning on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and to explore the effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (including coupling and phosphorylation). 
    METHODS: Eighty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into sedentary (n=40) and exercise (n=40) groups. The rats in the exercise group were subjected to aerobic exercise for 8 weeks while those in the sedentary group were quietly fed and caged. After 8 weeks of intervention, three experiments were performed. (1) Experiment 1: After the last training, cardiac function, cardiac nitric oxide metabolite content and cardiac eNOS, phosphorylated enOS-S1177, eNOS dimer and eNOS monomer protein expression levels were detected. (2) Experiment 2: Rats were divided into sedentary control group, exercise control group, sedentary+eNOS inhibitor group, exercise+eNOS inhibitor group, all of which were subjected to an in vitro myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury experiment. eNOS inhibitor was continuously infused into the sedentary+eNOS inhibitor group and exercise+eNOS inhibitor group 10 minutes before reperfusion, and cardiac function and myocardial infarction area were detected 3 hours after reperfusion. (3) Experiment 3: Rats were divided into sedentary control group, exercise control group, sedentary+eNOS coupler group and exercise+eNOS coupler group, all of which were subjected to an in vitro myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury experiment. The rats in the sedentary+eNOS coupler group and exercise+eNOS coupler group were treated with eNOS coupler. Myocardial infarct area, cardiac nitric oxide metabolite content, cardiac protein expression of eNOS, phosphorylated enos-S1177, eNOS dimer, eNOS monomer and 3-nitrotyrosine were detected 3 hours after reperfusion. The phosphorylated eNOS-S1177/eNOS ratio reflected the phosphorylated/dephosphorylated level of eNOS and eNOS dimer/monomer ratio reflected eNOS coupling/uncoupling level.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Experiment 1: Compared with the sedentary group, the exercise group had increased cardiac output and left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.05), increased nitrite and S-nitrosothiol contents (P < 0.05), upregulated phosphorylated eNOS-S1177, eNOS protein expression and phosphorylated eNOS-S1177/eNOS ratio (P < 0.05), eNOS dimer protein expression and eNOS dimer/monomer ratios were elevated (P < 0.05). Experiment 2: Compared with the sedentary control group, left ventricular development pressure increased (P < 0.05) and myocardial infarct area decreased (P < 0.05) in the exercise control group. Compared with the exercise control group, left ventricular development pressure decreased (P < 0.05) and myocardial infarct area increased (P < 0.05) in the exercise+eNOS inhibitor group. Experiment 3: Compared with the sedentary control group, the exercise control group had increased left ventricular developmental pressure (P < 0.05), decreased myocardial infarct area (P < 0.05), decreased phosphorylated eNOS-S1177/eNOS ratio (P < 0.05), decreased eNOS dimer/monomer ratio (P < 0.05), increased S-nitrosothiol content (P < 0.05), and decreased 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression (P < 0.05). Compared with the exercise control group, the exercise+eNOS coupler group had decreased left ventricular developmental pressure (P < 0.05), increased myocardial infarct area (P < 0.05), increased phosphorylated eNOS-S1177/eNOS ratio (P < 0.05), increased eNOS dimer/monomer ratio (P < 0.05), and elevated 3-nitro tyrosine protein expression (P < 0.05). To conclude, aerobic exercise preconditioning could induce cardioprotection, which is related to uncoupling and dephosphorylation of eNOS during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion, thereby inhibiting the excessive production of nitric oxide and reducing nitro-oxidative stress.
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    Involvement of miR-144-3p in Cbs+/- mouse hepatocyte autophagy induced by high-methionine diet
    Sheng Siqi, Xie Lin, Zhao Xiangyu, Jiang Yideng, Wu Kai, Xiong Jiantuan, Yang Anning, Hao Yinju, Jiao Yun
    2024, 28 (8):  1289-1294.  doi: 10.12307/2024.201
    Abstract ( 222 )   PDF (1042KB) ( 44 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: High-methionine diet can cause liver injury in Cbs+/- mice, and hyperhomocystinemia is related to the occurrence and progression of various liver-related diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, and alcoholic fatty liver disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various cellular processes including cell survival, differentiation and autophagy, which are of great significance. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the critical role of miR-144-3p on Cbs+/- mouse hepatocyte autophagy induced by high methionine die.
    METHODS: (1) Ten male cystathione-β-synthase normal (Cbs+/+) mice and another 10 male mice with single gene knockout (Cbs+/-) of similar body mass, 4 weeks of age, were fed a high-methionine diet and executed after 12 weeks to take liver tissue. (2) Human hepatocytes (HL-7702) were cultured in vitro and divided into control [0 μmol/L homocysteine (Hcy)], Hcy (100 μmol/L Hcy), mimic-NC (transfected with mimic-NC), mimic-NC + Hcy (mimic-NC transfecton+100 μmol/L Hcy), miR-144-3p mimic (transfected with miR-144-3p mimic), and miR-144-3p mimic + Hcy (miR-144-3p mimic transfection+100 μ mol/L Hcy), inhibitor-NC (transfected with inhibitor-NC), inhibitor-NC + Hcy (inhibitor-NC transfection + 100 μmol/L Hcy), miR-144-3p inhibitor (transfected with miR-144-3p inhibitor), and miR-144-3p inhibitor + Hcy (miR-144-3p inhibitor transfection + 100 μmol/L Hcy). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-144-3p in liver tissue and hepatocytes. After transfection of miR-144-3p mimic or inhibitor, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to detect the transfection efficiency of miR-144-3p and its effect on the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3B and p62. The levels of alanine transferase and aspartate aminotransferase in hepatocyte supernatants were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between the expression of miR-144-3 in hepatocyte and the levels of alanine transferase and aspartate aminotransferase in hepatocyte supernatants were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the Cbs+/+ group and control group, the expression of miR-144-3p in the liver tissue of the Cbs+/- group and in hepatocytes of the Hcy group was decreased (P < 0.01). The expression of LC3B-II/I was decreased in hepatocyte after transfection of miR-144-3p mimic, while the protein expression of p62 was increased (P < 0.01). The opposite results were obtained after transfection of miR-144-3p inhibitor (P < 0.01). Compared with the mimic-NC group, the levels of alanine transferase and aspartate aminotransferase were decreased in the miR-144-3p mimic group (P < 0.01), while the opposite results were obtained in the inhibitor-NC group (P < 0.01). The expression of miR-144-3p in hepatocytes was negatively correlated with the levels of alanine transferase (P < 0.01, r=-0.887 6) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.01, r=-0.829 9) in the supernatant of hepatocytes. To conclude, Hcy promotes hepatocyte autophagy by inhibiting the expression of miR-144-3p, which subsequently aggravates liver injury.
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    Research progress in gout-induced bone destruction mechanism
    Lin Zeyu, Xu Lin
    2024, 28 (8):  1295-1300.  doi: 10.12307/2024.207
    Abstract ( 369 )   PDF (1157KB) ( 82 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In chronic gout patients, sodium urate is deposited in bone joints and around synovial membranes, eroding and destroying bone, leading to serious complications such as gouty arthritis and deformity. Research on the mechanisms by which sodium urate crystals erode and destroy bone can help early clinical intervention in gouty diseases and prevent and delay the complications caused by bone destruction.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the destructive effects of gout crystals on bone through clinical imaging studies and experimental basic research, review the current progress and development prospects of research on the phenomenon and mechanism of bone destruction caused by gout, guide the clinical early intervention of gouty bone destruction, and guide the direction of research on the role of bone destruction.
    METHODS: The Chinese search terms were “gout, bone destruction, bone erosion” and the English search terms were “tophi, gout, RANKL, bone destruction, bone erosion,” which were used in the computer search of WanFang and PubMed databases. Finally, 64 articles were selected for review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The specific manifestations of clinical studies (imaging, histopathology) to some extent elaborate the osteolytic process of gout, and in basic studies, the mechanism of gout-causing bone destruction can be divided into the five aspects: (1) Sodium acid crystals have an important role in bone destruction, directly affecting osteocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and proresorptive factors that promote bone destruction; (2) Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and other proresorptive factors are involved in bone destruction; (3) T cell-mediated cellular immunity functions as a bridge in bone destruction, and activated T cells induce osteoclast differentiation; (4) Monocytes/macrophages are not only precursors of osteoclast-like cells, but also induce the expression of proresorptive factors such as Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; (5) Neutrophils affect the morphology of osteoclast arrangement, and neutrophil extracellular trap networks promote osteolysis by promoting osteoclast differentiation.
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    Abnormal modification of alpha-synuclein and its mechanism in Parkinson’s disease
    Qi Xue, Li Jiahui, Zhu Yuanfeng, Yu Lu, Wang Peng
    2024, 28 (8):  1301-1306.  doi: 10.12307/2024.228
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (975KB) ( 63 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The formation of Lewy bodies due to abnormal α-synuclein aggregation is a characteristic pathological change in Parkinson’s disease. In recent years, several studies have revealed that the formation of α-synuclein aggregates is closely related to its post-translational modifications. The modification of α-synuclein such as phosphorylation, nitration, acetylation, and ubiquitination has attracted extensive attention in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson’s disease. 
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress in the effect of modification types and sites of α-synuclein on the characteristic pathological formation and progression of Parkinson’s disease.
    METHODS: PubMed and CNKI databases were searched by the first author with the key words of “α-synuclein, Parkinson’s disease, phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, nitration” in English and Chinese respectively to collect and sort out the literature related to abnormal modification of α-synuclein in recent years. Finally, 61 articles were included for further review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Abnormal modification of α-synuclein is closely related to its protein structure and its positive and negative charges. Its amino terminus is positively charged and prone to ubiquitination and acetylation modifications. The central hydrophobic region is prone to forming β-pleated sheet due to its hydrophobic property. The carboxyl terminus is negatively charged, which is the main phosphorylation modification region. Phosphorylation modification sites promote phosphorylation modification and are closely related to α-synuclein aggregation, while protein kinases can target the activation of translational modifications, which may help to promote or inhibit aggregate formation. The degradation pathway of α-synuclein mainly plays a role in removing pathological proteins. Various kinase catalysts contribute to impaired protein ubiquitination modifications that lead to abnormal protein accumulation, thereby exacerbating neurodegeneration. The amino-terminal acetylation of α-synuclein improves the shuttle ability of the protein to the cell membrane and slows down the protein aggregation, which may be the protection target of nerve cells. However, the acetylation modification of the mutant protein produces the opposite effect. The protein nitration modification is mainly related to oxidative stress. The aggregation tendency of the protein modified by nitration is enhanced under the action of reactive oxygen species. Different post-translational modifications have different effects. Therefore, elucidating the main mechanisms of their post-translational modifications and inhibiting the post-translational modifications that contribute to protein aggregation may provide a reference for new targets for early diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
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    Chronic inflammation regulates adipose tissue fibrosis
    Wang Weiqing, Zhou Yue
    2024, 28 (8):  1307-1312.  doi: 10.12307/2023.860
    Abstract ( 423 )   PDF (921KB) ( 55 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In recent years, studies have shown that obesity is closely related to chronic inflammation. Due to excessive energy intake, inflammatory macrophage infiltration and inflammatory response occur in visceral adipose tissue, which is crucial for the regulation of adipose tissue fibrosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the molecular mechanism of inflammation-related signals involved in the regulation of adipose tissue fibrosis and to provide reference for the treatment of adipose tissue fibrosis and related metabolic diseases through anti-inflammatory pathways.
    METHODS: Relevant documents were retrieved from CNKI and PubMed, and the Chinese and English search words were “inflammation, inflammatory factors, inflammatory signals, lip fibrosis, adipose fibrosis, adipose tissue fibrosis” respectively. The search period was from January 2003 to December 2022. Finally, 52 documents meeting the criteria were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During obesity, visceral adipose tissue expands through adipocyte proliferation and hypertrophy to store excess energy, and defects caused by remodeling or functional changes mainly include impaired angiogenesis, adipocyte apoptosis promoted by white adipose tissue hypoxia, macrophage infiltration, and adipocyte fibrosis. Adipose tissue fibrosis has adverse effects on the natural growth of adipose cells. The factors that trigger chronic inflammation of adipose tissue include a variety of signal stimuli, such as adipocyte death caused by hypoxia, mechanical signal transduction caused by extracellular matrix remodeling and lipogenic factor imbalance. Inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-type lectins and adiponectin secreted by adipocytes and other inflammatory signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB, transforming growth factor-β/Smad and MAPK jointly regulate the process of adipose tissue fibrosis.
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