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    18 March 2021, Volume 25 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Effect of platelet-rich plasma on pressure ulcers after spinal cord injury
    Jiang Hongying, Zhu Liang, Yu Xi, Huang Jing, Xiang Xiaona, Lan Zhengyan, He Hongchen
    2021, 25 (8):  1149-1153.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3034
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (644KB) ( 41 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can promote accelerated healing of pressure injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of PRP on pressure injury of patients with spinal cord injury. 
    METHODS: From July 2017 to December 2019, 40 patients with spinal cord injury complicated by stage 3 and stage 4 pressure ulcers were randomly divided into a PRP group (n=20) and a control group (n=20) using a random number table. Patients in the control group were given routine wound care and standardized rehabilitation treatment, whereas those in the PRP group received PRP treatment based on routine wound care and standardized rehabilitation treatment once a week. The surface area, wound type and exudate volume were assessed by pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH) before treatment and 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after treatment. The total PUSH score, score of each item in the PUSH scale, and clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. An ethical approval was obtained from the Biomedical Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University, with an approval No. 2019(622).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The total PUSH score and scores in terms of wound area, type, and exudate volume were significantly reduced after treatment in the PRP group (P < 0.01), while those scores in the control group were also significantly reduced at 6 and 8 weeks after treatment (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the total PUSH score and scores on exudate volume were significantly lower in the PRP group at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment, and the scores on wound type were significantly lower in the PRP group at 6 and 8 weeks after treatment. The healing rate in the PRP group was 100% after treatment, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (35%; P < 0.001). These findings indicate that PRP treatment contributes to the recovery of pressure injury in patients with spinal cord injury.
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    Structural changes of the temporomandibular joint in adolescents with skeletal Class III malocclusions after maxillary protraction: an X-ray measurement analysis
    Liu Yafei, Wang Yalin, Zuo Yanping, Sun Qi, Wei Jing, Zhao Lixia
    2021, 25 (8):  1154-1159.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3046
    Abstract ( 80 )   PDF (765KB) ( 14 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: For skeletal Class III malocclusions, the positional relationship between the upper and lower jaws and abnormal occlusion can impact the shape of the condyle and the glenoid fossa, as well as the movement of the mandible and the function of the masticatory muscles. Maxillary protraction appliances are one of the effective methods for the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in adolescents, which can reconstruct the positional relationship of the jaws and improve the glenoid fossa-disc-protrusion relationship in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporomandibular joint changes in adolescents with skeletal Class III malocclusions treated with maxillary protraction.
    METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (11 girls and 18 boys; age range from 12-14, with a mean age of (12.90±0.99) years were treated with maxillary protraction. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and after treatment. A coordinate system was set to quantitatively analyze the changes of temporomandibular joint fossa, condyle and temporomandibular joint spaces in sagittal and vertical directions.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After maxillary protraction, no displacement of the gleniod fossa and the condyle in the sagittal direction was observed (P > 0.05). Simultaneously, in the vertical direction, there was no significant displacement of the gleniod fossa as well as no posterior and superior condyle displacement      (P > 0.05). However, the anterior condyle moved upward (P < 0.05). No significant changes in the anterior, superior and posterior space of the temporomandibular joint were observed (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that maxillary protraction treatment can adaptively remodel the temporomandibular joint in adolescents with skeletal Class III malocclusion will undergo adaptive remodeling, but will not adversely affect the function of the temporomandibular joint due to the unchanged joint space.
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    Alteration of low frequency fluctuation amplitude at brain-resting state in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain
    Gao Yan, Zhao Licong, Zhao Hongzeng, Zhu Yuanyuan, Li Jie, Sang Deen
    2021, 25 (8):  1160-1165.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3044
    Abstract ( 73 )   PDF (791KB) ( 25 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown that chronic pain could cause functional and structural alterations; however, the neural mechanism of psychosomatic symptoms caused by chronic discogenic low back pain (CDLBP) remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the alterations of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of resting spontaneous brain activity in CDLBP patients and their relationships with clinical symptoms.
    METHODS: Resting-state brain functional MRI scans were performed in 67 CDLBP patients (CDLBP group) and 78 age-, sex- and education level-matched healthy controls (control group). The disease course, Visual Analogue Scale score, Oswestry Disability Index and Self-rating Depression Scale score were analyzed for CDLBP patients. The average ALFF values of the two groups were calculated using DPARSF and REST software, the differences of ALFF values between the two groups were compared by independent two-sample t-test, and the relationships between the ALFF values derived from significant regions and the course of disease and clinical symptoms were analyzed. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University (approval No. 20150210).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the regions with significantly increased ALFF values in the CDLBP group included the left insular lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral prefrontal lobe, left caudate nucleus and right inferior frontal gyrus (all P < 0.05, Gaussian random field (GRF) corrected). Compared with the control group, the regions with significantly decreased ALFF values in the CDLBP group included the right superior orbital frontal gyrus and right lingual gyrus (both P < 0.05, GRF corrected). Correlation analysis showed that the mean ALFF values in the right inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate nucleus were positively correlated with the Visual Analogue Scale (all P < 0.05). All these findings suggest that patients with CDLBP have abnormal spontaneous brain activities in multiple brain regions, and these alterations are correlated with the degree of pain.
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    Concentrated growth factors in the repair of a full-thickness condylar cartilage defect in a rabbit
    Wu Xun, Meng Juanhong, Zhang Jianyun, Wang Liang
    2021, 25 (8):  1166-1171.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3043
    Abstract ( 78 )   PDF (884KB) ( 23 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Concentrated growth factors can promote the repair of tissue injuries. Its effect on the repair of condylar cartilage injuries is rarely documented.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of concentrated growth factors on the repair of full-thickness condylar cartilage defects in rabbits.
    METHODS: Concentrated growth factors were prepared by collecting the venous blood of rabbits. A full-thickness cartilage defect penetrating the subchondral cortex was created at both sides of condyle in rabbits. The experimental side was filled with concentrated growth factors, and the control side healed naturally. The histomorphology was examined at 2, 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The degree of cartilage repair was evaluated by the modified Pineda cartilage repair scale. The release rate of concentrated growth factors was measured at different observational times. The study protocol was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Peking University Health Science Center (approval No. LA201809).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fillings of fibrous and cartilage-like tissue in the defect were observed on both of the experimental and the control sides at 2 weeks postoperatively. Toluidine blue was stained homogeneously in the experimental side. Intercellular fibrous tissues with interpenetrating and heterogeneous toluidine blue staining appeared in the control side. At 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, the repaired cartilage was identified in the experimental side. On the contrary, fibroid tissue hyperplasia was found in the control side, where toluidine blue staining showed no heterochromatin. Based on the modified Pineda cartilage repair score, the mean value of the total score in the experimental side was better than that in the control side at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The difference in the mean value of the total score (P < 0.05) was significant between 2 and 12 weeks in the control side, but there was no significant difference in the experimental side (P > 0.05). ELISA tests showed that insulin-like growth factor 1, transforming growth factor β1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor could be released continuously for more than 14 days. The release rates of these cytokines were decreased with time. These results indicate that concentrated growth factors can improve the early repair of full-thickness condylar cartilage defects in rabbits to some extent. 
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    Morphology and activity of human nucleus pulposus cells under different hydrostatic pressures
    Liu Zhichao, Zhang Fan, Sun Qi, Kang Xiaole, Yuan Qiaomei, Liu Genzhe, Chen Jiang
    2021, 25 (8):  1172-1176.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3036
    Abstract ( 75 )   PDF (909KB) ( 18 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Compressive stress can change the morphology and activity of cells, but whether the morphology and activity of nucleus pulposus cells change under hydrostatic pressure still needs further study.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology and activity of human nucleus pulposus cells in vitro. 
    METHODS: The human nucleus pulposus cells were separated, cultured and passed on for three generations, and pressurized for 2, 4 and 6 hours under the hydrostatic pressure of 0.3, 1, and 3 MPa. Then, the morphological changes and growth of the cells before and after pressurization were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe the ultrastructural changes and differences of the cells. Cell counting kit-8 was used to detect the proliferation activity, morphology and activity of the cells under different hydrostatic pressures. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Cell culture and passage: The growth curves of the first, second and third generations of human nucleus pulposus cells were S-shaped, and the cells proliferated fastest in a straight line from 3 to 7 days. The protuberances of the 5th and 6th generation cells were long shuttle shaped, grew slowly and degenerated. (2) Cell morphology: the human nucleus pulposus cells were shrunk under hydrostatic pressures of 0.3, 1, 3 MPa. At 0.3 and 1 MPa, the cells became slightly smaller and the morphology was basically complete; at 3 MPa, the cells were most obviously shrunk and the morphology was incomplete. The results showed that when the human nucleus pulposus cells were pressurized for 2, 4 and 6 hours under 0.3, 1 and 3 MPa hydrostatic pressures, the change of cell morphology was the most obvious under 3 MPa hydrostatic pressure, but there was no obvious change under the same hydrostatic pressure for different time. (3) Cell viability: Under 0.3 MPa hydrostatic pressure, the proliferation rate of human nucleus pulposus cells first increased and then decreased with the increase of time, and the cell proliferation rate reached the peak at 4 hours. Under 1 and 3MPa hydrostatic pressures, the proliferation rate of the cells gradually decreased with the increase of time, and the cell proliferation rate under 1 MPa hydrostatic pressure was significantly higher than that under 3 MPa hydrostatic pressure at the same action time (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that proper hydrostatic pressure stimulation helps to promote the proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells, and long-term improperly high hydrostatic pressure stimulation can reduce the proliferation rate of human nucleus pulposus cells, leading to the occurrence of intervertebral disc degeneration.
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    Morphological measurement and analysis of the mandible in adult females with different vertical skeletal types
    Fan Jiabing, Zhang Junmei
    2021, 25 (8):  1177-1183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3059
    Abstract ( 79 )   PDF (767KB) ( 66 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A review of previous epidemiological investigations shows that the detection rate of malocclusion is the highest in Angle I, but the classification is limited by the failure to consider the comprehensive mechanism of the formation of malocclusion in the three-dimensional direction of the length, width and height of teeth, jaws and facial structures, and the profound impact of the position of the mandible and facial bones on a person’s appearance. Therefore, the morphological characteristics of the mandible and chin should be fully considered before orthodontic treatment.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the similarities and differences of the three-dimensional facial morphology in adult females with different vertical skeletal types of skeletal Class I by measuring the three-dimensional morphology of the chins and mandibles through cone-beam CT multi-planar reconstruction.
    METHODS: According to SN-MP angle, the cone-beam CT images of 86 females with skeletal Class I aged from 18 to 35 years were imported into MIMCS19.0 to make multi-planar reconstruction, and then the data was divided into three groups: < 29° (low angle group, 30 cases), 29°-39° (average angle group, 30 cases), and > 39° (high angle group, 26 cases). Then, the mandibular linear distance and angle were measured, and the mandibular outline was measured through the three-dimensional reconstruction.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the increase of mandibular plane angle, the morphology of mandible tended to be: (1) the mandible ascending ramus became shorter, and the mandible body grew; (2) the notch of mandibular angle deepened gradually, and the opening of the mandibular angle increased gradually relative to the cranial-jaw; (3) the alveolar process of the chin became longer and the shape of chin became gentle; (4) counterclockwise rotation of the chin and compensatory inclination of lower anterior teeth towards tongue occurred. Comparing different vertical skeletal types of skeletal Class I in adult females, both the morphologies of the mandible and chin are different, and the mandibular plane angle is related to the morphology of the mandible and chin.
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    Muscle force response characteristics of the slipping leg after an unexpected slip
    Song Liming, Su Hailong
    2021, 25 (8):  1184-1189.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3045
    Abstract ( 76 )   PDF (906KB) ( 32 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Surface electromyogram signal is often used for qualitative analysis of muscles in the process of autonomic balance recovery  after unexpected slips, but there is little research on the response characteristics of muscle force. 
    OBJECTIVE: By the combination of gait analysis and simulation technology to study the muscle force response characteristics of the slipping leg when an unexpected slip of the heel occurs during walking straightly.
    METHODS: Five healthy subjects were recruited, wearing shoes uniformly, and asked to walk normally on two different straight footpaths (dry oil-free and oil-coated paths). The Vicon motion system and AMTI force measuring platform were used to collect the motion data. Based on the AnyBody Modeling System, a human musculoskeletal model matching with the subjects was established. The model was driven by the motion data, and the data of muscle force were collected and analyzed. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The recovery time after an unexpected slip was 15%-45% of a gait cycle and the single support phase was shortened. In the course of autonomic recovery, the muscle strength of the semitendinosus was increased by 25.6% (P < 0.05), and the muscle strength of the short head of biceps femoris increased by 14%. The maximum muscle strength of the medial gastrocnemius increased from 8.4 N/kg to 13.6 N/kg, and that of the lateral gastrocnemius increased by 17.4%. These findings indicate that: in the process of recovering the balance after unexpected slips, the semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and gastrocnemius produce great muscle force, and meanwhile, the time of single support phase is shortened, so as to quickly transfer the gravity of human body from the sliding leg to the dragging leg and keep the body balance. After the balance recovery from the slip, the human body will make a prediction in the later period of the swing phase to prevent the slip again. 
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    Micro-injury of the Achilles tendon caused by acute exhaustive exercise in rats: ultrastructural changes and mechanism
    Shen Jinbo, Zhang Lin
    2021, 25 (8):  1190-1195.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2990
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (964KB) ( 18 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that injury and scar of the Achilles tendon in rats with terminal disease are difficult to heal, and the early treatment of Achilles tendon micro-injury caused by exhaustive exercise can avoid the accumulation of injury and prevent the occurrence of terminal disease. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the mechanism of Achilles tendon micro-injury caused by acute exhaustive exercise.
    OBJECTIVE: Through the comparison of the changes of ultra-structure, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Collagen-I, Collagen-III, matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA and protein expression in the Achilles tendon before and after exhaustive exercise, to discuss the mechanism of Achilles tendon micro-injury caused by acute exhaustive exercise in rats.
    METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group and an exhaustive exercise group. No intervention was performed in the control group. In the exhaustive exercise group, rats were subjected to treadmill running. After exhaustive exercise, the two groups of rats were immediately killed under anesthesia. Through the observation using hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electronic microscopy, Achilles tendons were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and double antibody sandwich ABC-ELISA to show the genetic expression and protein expression of TGF-β1, Collagen-I, III, MMP-1 and TIMP-1. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the acute exhaustive exercise group showed the disordered arrangement of collagen fibers in Achilles tendon and the partially damaged structure of tendon cells. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF-β1, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in the exhaustive exercise group than the control group (P < 0.05), whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of Collagen-I and Collagen-III were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the over-expression of TGF-β1 results from the gradual accumulation of Achilles tendon micro-injuries caused by acute exhaustive exercise. Collagen synthesis decreases while the degradation accelerates; the tendon function is impaired as the micro-injuries continue. There is a similar variation tendency of MMP-1 and TIPM-1, which reminds an irreversible damage do not occur. Micro-injuries of the Achilles tendon caused by acute exhaustive exercise should be treated and repaired in time, avoiding excessive damage and scar repair.
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    Expression and localization of diacylglycerol kinase zeta and protein kinase C beta II in mouse back skin with different coat colors
    Li Jing, Xie Jianshan, Cui Huilin, Cao Ximei, Yang Yanping, Li Hairong
    2021, 25 (8):  1196-1200.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3038
    Abstract ( 61 )   PDF (714KB) ( 17 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: In the skin and hair pigmentation mechanism, diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) has not been reported to participate in pigmentation. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and localization of DGKζ and protein kinase C βII (PKCβII) in the mouse back skin with different coat colors and their correlation with the formation of coat color. 
    METHODS: The back skin of 2-month-old mice with different coat colors (white, gray, and black, 6 mice for each color) was taken to detect DGKζ and PKCβII mRNAs by real-time PCR, DGKζ, PKCβII and p-PKCβII proteins by western blot, and DGKζ and p-PKCβII expression by immunohistochemistry. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Animal Experimental Center of Shanxi Medical University.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: DGKζ and PKCβII mRNAs were both expressed in the back skin of mice with three kinds of coat colors, with its relative expression amount being: gray group > white group; black group > white group (P < 0.05). Both DGKζ and PKCβII proteins were expressed in the back skin of mice with different hair coat colors. The ratio of p-PKCβII to PKCβII showed that the change of PKCβII activity had the same tendency with DGKζ expression: gray group > white group; black group > white group (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry staining showed that DGKζ and p-PKCβII were positively expressed in the outer root sheath of hair follicle, hair matrix cells and melanocytes in the hair matrix in the back skin of gray and black mice, while were negative in the hair follicles of white mice. According to the expression and localization of DGKζ, PKCβII in white, gray and black mouse back skin, we can speculate that DGKζ and PKCβII may participate in the formation of the coat color.
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    Quantitative analysis of renal blood flow perfusion using contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rats with hemorrhagic shock during resuscitation
    Zeng Zhen, Hu Jingwei, Li Xuan, Tang Linmei, Huang Zhiqiang, Li Mingxing
    2021, 25 (8):  1201-1206.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3054
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (837KB) ( 34 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The amount of renal blood perfusion is often in parallel with renal function. If contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used to quantitatively analyze changes in renal blood flow perfusion during resuscitation so as to indirectly reflect changes in renal function, this will provide a new way for the clinical assessment of hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of the kidney.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish a reperfusion model of severe hemorrhagic shock in Sprague-Dawly rats and to explore the value of CEUS parameters in evaluating renal perfusion.
    METHODS: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, five in each group: sham operation group, and 2-, 6-, and 24-hour hemorrhagic shock reperfusion groups (2-, 6-, and 24-hour HS-R groups). CEUS examination was performed in each group, and the quantitative parameters of peak intensity, time to peak, area under curve, average transit time were checked and obtained. The correlation between time-intensity curve parameters and serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, renal tissue myeloperoxidase, endothelin 1, and prostaglandin E1 levels was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham operation group, the pathological injury was significant in the HS-R groups, especially in the HS-R group, with increased peak intensity, time to peak, area under curve, and average transit time (P < 0.05) as well as increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels. There were significant differences in peak arrival time and average transit time among groups. Bivariate Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that time to peak and average transit time were significantly correlated with serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, renal tissue myeloperoxidase, endothelin 1, and prostaglandin E1 levels. To conclude, (1) CEUS can effectively monitor and quantitatively evaluate the renal perfusion changes during the recovery of hemorrhagic shock. (2) Time to peak and average transit time are two indexes of the time-intensity curve with some reference value. (3) After hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion, the kidney injury is aggravated but not alleviated, and the injury is the most serious at 24 hours after resuscitation. (4) CEUS provides a new idea for clinical evaluation of hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of the kidney. 
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    High fat and high sugar diet combined with streptozotocin to establish a rat model of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis
    Tang Hui, Yao Zhihao, Luo Daowen, Peng Shuanglin, Yang Shuanglin, Wang Lang, Xiao Jingang
    2021, 25 (8):  1207-1211.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3048
    Abstract ( 101 )   PDF (880KB) ( 38 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: A high-fat and high-sugar diet to induce a diabetic osteoporosis model is time-consuming, with high cost and poor model stability. Induction by streptozotocin is one of the most common methods to establish an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. At present, there are few reports on the identification of this disease model.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish a rat model of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis rat models, and to identify the animal model established.
    METHODS: Thirty-two male 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into a normal control group (n=16) and a model group (n=16) according to their body mass using a random number table method. The model group was fed with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 4 weeks, and a small dose of streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected at 35 mg/kg to induce a type 2 diabetic osteoporosis model; the normal control group was fed with normal maintenance feed for 4 weeks, and an equal dose of 10 mL/kg citric acid-sodium citrate buffer was intraperitoneally injected. Two groups of rats were studied from the aspects of morphology, histology and imaging. An approval was obtained from the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of Southwest Medical University. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were 16 rats in the model group, 12 rats were modeled, and the modeling rate was 75%. Compared with the normal control group, in the model group, the body mass of rats showed a gradual downward trend and a slightly upward trend after the injection of streptozotocin. These rats presented symptoms of diabetes, such as polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia. Fasting blood glucose level increased significantly (P < 0.05), and showed a continuous state. The histological section showed that the trabecular bone was sparsely distributed. Imaging results showed that the bone volume fraction and the number of trabeculae in rats were significantly reduced, and the separation of trabecular bone was significantly increased, indicating a significant osteoporosis. To conclude, the 7-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats which are fed with high-sugar and high-fat diet for 4 weeks can be given low-dose streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) to successfully establish the animal model of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis. From the aspects of morphology, histology, imaging, the successful establishment of diabetic osteoporosis model can be determined.
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    Differential mRNA expression profile and competitive endogenous RNA regulatory network in osteoarthritis
    Li Jiacheng, Liang Xuezhen, Liu Jinbao, Xu Bo, Li Gang
    2021, 25 (8):  1212-1217.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3072
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (1205KB) ( 47 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The possible causes of osteochondroarthritis have been identified as cartilage degeneration, autophagy, mechanical changes, cartilage hypertrophy, internal immunity, oxidative stress, and pain. 
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis that is a degenerative disease of articular cartilage caused by a variety of factors.
    METHODS: GSE51588 and GSE19060, the chip data sets related to osteoarthritis in GEO database, were retrieved, and differential genes were analyzed with the help of R language. miRDB, miRTarbase and starBase databases were used to predict the targeted miRNAs of osteoarthritis related mRNAs respectively, and miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed. GeneMANIA and FUNRICH were used to analyze the mRNAs mentioned in the regulatory network. lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulatory network was constructed by retrieving LncRNADisease database and osteoarthiritis related IncRNA, using Starbase database to predict their miRNAs. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 11 significantly differentially expressed mRNAs were screened by R language analysis. Through the cross-mapping of miRDB, miRTarbase and starBase and the predicted targeted miRNAs and the above 11 differentially expressed mRNAs, 290 miRNAs were identified to be involved in the construction of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network related to osteoarthritis. Fifteen incRNAs related to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis were retrieved in the LncRNADisease database, 270 miRNAs were predicted using Starbase database, and the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulatory network consisting of 5 IncRNAs, 106 miRNAs and 8 mRNAs was constructed. Seven major biological processes and two major signaling pathways were obtained through FUNRICH. Finding from our further analysis indicate that differentially expressed mRNA is mainly related to the biological processes of protein metabolism, cell communication, signal transduction, immune response, metabolism, energy pathway and cell growth. By participating in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, it provides ideas for the determination of therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis.
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    Signal pathway variation after induction of inflammatory response in rats with acute spinal cord injury
    Chai Le, Lü Jianlan, Hu Jintao, Hu Huahui, Xu Qingjun, Yu Jinwei, Quan Renfu
    2021, 25 (8):  1218-1223.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3060
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (721KB) ( 30 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that treatment with awn needles can improve the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury, reduce the expression of high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB-1) and pro-inflammatory factors, and inhibit the activity of nuclear transcription factors and the occurrence of neuronal apoptosis.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the mechanism of inflammatory response and the HMGB-1/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway after spinal cord injury. 
    METHODS: The T9-10 spinal cord injury model was made according to the internationally recognized modified Allen’s modeling method. The blood samples of the spinal cord and tail artery were obtained for Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scoring at 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after modeling. The HMGB-1 content in the spinal cord and tail artery serum was measured by ELISA to determine the highest point of HMGB-1 in the spinal cord and the change rule of HMGB-1 content in serum and spinal cord. Taking the highest HMGB-1 content as the research point and using glycyrrhizic acid as the HMGB-1 inhibitor, the rats were divided into four groups: model group, glycyrrhizic acid group (intragastric administration of glycyrrhizic acid, 200 mg/kg), blank group and sham operation group. The highest HMGB-1 expression was determined by ELISA. The spinal cord was obtained at the highest point of HMGB1 expression. The correlation between HMGB-1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and inflammation after spinal cord injury was explored by immunoblotting and RT-PCR detection, and the pathological changes of spinal cord in rats were observed. Approval for this study was obtained by the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University .
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression of HMGB-1 in the spinal cord and blood at 3 days after spinal cord injury was significantly higher than that at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days (P < 0.05). At 3 days after spinal cord injury, the expressions of HMGB-1, TLR4, NF-κB, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the glycyrrhizic acid group were lower than those in the model group, but higher than those in the blank group and sham operation group (P < 0.05). The expressions of HMGB-1, TLR4 and NF-κB at gene and protein levels in the glycyrrhizic acid group were lower than those in the model group, but higher than those in the blank group and the sham operation group (P < 0.05). To conclude, after spinal cord injury, HMGB-1 in blood and spinal cord increased significantly and reached the highest value at 3 days. After inhibiting HMGB-1, it was found that the HMGB-1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway is one of the important pathways to induce inflammation after spinal cord injury.
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    Effects of silymarin on liver injury and bone metabolism induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice
    Chen Jiming, Wu Xiaojing, Liu Tianfeng, Chen Haicong, Huang Chengshuo
    2021, 25 (8):  1224-1228.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3041
    Abstract ( 89 )   PDF (727KB) ( 24 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Studies have found that silymarin has a regulatory role in multiple genes, which contributes to bone remodeling and prevents bone loss. In a mouse model of fracture healing, silymarin supplementation can improve tibia healing by increasing bone mineral density and serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of silymarin on liver injury and bone metabolism induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.
    METHODS: Twenty-four common Kunming mice, 10 weeks old, half male and half female, were randomly divided into three groups according to body mass. In the control group, subcutaneous injection of peanut oil 10 μL/g (double first dose) was given once every 5 days, followed by intragastric administration of 10 mL/kg/d distilled water. In the model group, animal models were made by subcutaneous injection of 40% carbon tetrachloride, followed by the same treatments as described in the control group. In the silymarin group, intragastric administration of silymarin solution 50 mg/kg/d was given after modeling. Treatments in each group lasted for 4 weeks. Each mouse was weighed every other week and was fasted for 12 hours the night before the final treatment. Under anesthesia, the mouse eyeballs were taken and blood sample from each mouse was taken to determine the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity; the liver was taken to measure the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the liver homogenate; the right femur was taken to measure the bone calcium content; and the right tibia was taken for Micro CT detection to detect the changes in bone structure parameters. An approval by the Animal Ethics Committee of Guangdong Medical University was obtained with an approval No. PJ2013011.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the model group was significantly increased (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced (P  < 0.05), bone calcium and tibial bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and connection density were significantly reduced (P  < 0.05), structural model index and anisotropy degree were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and significant liver damage and decreased bone mass and bone microstructure damage were observed. Compared with the model group, silymarin significantly reduced the activity of alanine aminotransferase (P  < 0.05), and also significantly reduced the structural model index and the degree of anisotropy (P < 0.05), making the trabecular bone structure and trend more consistent. There was a clear network structure, and the bone microstructure remained intact. After the administration of carbon tetrachloride, the mice suffered liver damage with decreased bone mass and damaged bone microstructure, and silymarin administration had a certain preventive effect on liver damage and bone loss caused by carbon tetrachloride in mice.
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    Role and mechanism of Guilu Erxianjiao in treatment of osteoarthritis based on network pharmacology
    Geng Qiudong, Ge Haiya, Wang Heming, Li Nan
    2021, 25 (8):  1229-1236.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2991
    Abstract ( 111 )   PDF (2024KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown that Guilu Erxianjiao has a remarkable effect on osteoarthritis, but its pharmacological mechanism is not yet clear.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the potential targets, action networks and potential mechanisms of Guilu Erxianjiao for the treatment of osteoarthritis using network pharmacology. 
    METHODS: The chemical constituents and corresponding targets of Guilu Erxianjiao were obtained with the help of TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM and TCMID databases, and the known disease targets of osteoarthritis were searched in OMIM, GeneCards and Drug Bank databases. Perl language was used to map the targets of the active ingredients of the drug to the targets of the disease to obtain the targets of Guilu Erxianjiao for treating osteoarthritis. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software was used to build a “drug-compound-target” interaction network. STRING software was used to construct a protein-protein interaction network, followed by a topological analysis on the obtained protein-protein interaction network to screen the key components and key targets that play a therapeutic role. R language was used to perform gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Gnomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to understand its potential mechanism of action, construct the “pathway-target” of the Guilu Erxianjiao. The relationship between the main pathway and targets was then obtained. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It is predicted that 69 active ingredients and 201 targets of Guilu Erxianjiao for treating osteoarthritis will be obtained. There are 6 key components such as quercetin, kaempferol and β-sitosterol, and 20 key targets such as  interleukin-6, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, and cysteine-containing aspartate proteolytic enzyme 3. The results of GO and KEGG analysis showed that, through the above key targets, the Guilu Erxianjiao affected 13 major pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, interleukin-17 signaling pathway, and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, and played a role in preventing and treating osteoarthritis by the focus on regulating inflammation, cartilage metabolism, apoptosis and proliferation. In conclusion, the above key targets and pathways have constructed an action network for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis by Guilu Erxianjiao, and its multi-component-multi-target-multi-channel treatment features provide new ideas and clues for the further basic research and clinical application of Guilu Erxianjiao. 
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    Ultrastructural changes of the white zone cells of the meniscus in a rat model of early osteoarthritis
    Liu Xiangxiang, Huang Yunmei, Chen Wenlie, Lin Ruhui, Lu Xiaodong, Li Zuanfang, Xu Yaye, Huang Meiya, Li Xihai
    2021, 25 (8):  1237-1242.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3042
    Abstract ( 55 )   PDF (1453KB) ( 22 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: The research focuses of knee osteoarthritis are on mainly articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovium. There are few studies on the ultrastructure of the meniscus in animal models.
    OBJECTIVE: On the basis of observing the ultrastructure and types of chondrocytes in the white zone of the meniscus, to observe the ultrastructural changes of the white zone cells of the meniscus in an animal model of early osteoarthritis, in order to explore the relationship between the microstructural changes and the physiological functional changes in the meniscus.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a model group. Rats in the model group were made into the model of early knee osteoarthritis by intraarticular injection of papain. After 5 weeks, the meniscuses of three rat models in each group were taken, located and observed for the ultrastructure of the white zone cells through a transmission electron microscope. An ethics approval was obtained from the Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the control group, most of cells were fusiform in the superficial layer of meniscus and were triangular-like in the deeper layer. They were rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, with presence of Golgi and other organelles. Extracellular collagen fibrils were mainly type II collagen fibrils. The cells in the white zone of meniscus were chondrocytes. In the model group, the meniscal surface became rough, the cells were swollen, cytoplasmic organelles were reduced and swollen, glycogen was accumulated, and most of nuclei were abnormal with heterochromatin agglutination. Extracellular collagen fibrils became disordered and sparse. These findings indicate that the mild degeneration of chondrocytes and matrix in the meniscus can reduce the ability of cells to synthesize and secrete matrix components, which may lead to the physiological hypofunction.
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    Genome-wide identification, classification and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciclin gene family for osteoblast specific factor 2
    Tan Jingyu, Liu Haiwen
    2021, 25 (8):  1243-1248.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2348
    Abstract ( 65 )   PDF (764KB) ( 22 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: There is no systematical report on the conserved structure, protein characteristics and phylogenetic relationship of the Fasciclin gene family. 
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evolutionary history of the Fasciclin gene family, and to systematically analyze the conservative structure, protein characteristics, and phylogenetic relationships of this gene family
    METHODS: Based on the published genome data of eight species such as people, chimpanzee and zebrafish, HMM models were established using the HMMER software to analyze the characteristics and genetic structure, structure domain and biochemical characteristics, evolutionary relationships and expression characteristics of the Fasciclin gene family. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the eight species of fish (zebrafish), amphibian (xenopus), bird (chicken), reptile (Trionyx sinensis), mammal (rat, mouse) and primate (chimpanzee, human), 5, 5, 4, 5, 5, 4, 4, and 4 fasciclin candidate genes were retrieved respectively. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the fasciclin gene in these eight species, the evolutionary tree of fasciclin gene families can be divided into four evolution branch. The two branches of all are more conservative, likely to be the main osteoblast specific factor; the third branch may be osteoblast specific factor of amphibians, mammals and primate; and the final branch also has a good conservative, but the Xenopus and mouse in the branch has two copies of the genes, and this branch may play an important role in the evolution of these two species. Overall, in the evolution of species, the gene family has no larger changes, and such genes may be important for the growth and development. The lack of such genes may lead to the death of the individual or the extinction of species.
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    Research hotspots of organoid models in recent 10 years: a search in domestic and foreign databases
    Zhang Xiumei, Zhai Yunkai, Zhao Jie, Zhao Meng
    2021, 25 (8):  1249-1255.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3073
    Abstract ( 113 )   PDF (722KB) ( 61 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Organoid models can partially restore the tissue and molecular characteristics of cells in the body, which is a preclinical model with good potential. Compared with precise and regenerative medicine methods, organoids with tissue organ functions can simulate body organs to the greatest extent. Moreover, organoid drug sensitivity data is more accurate than whole-genome sequencing. The technology for organoids can be combined with in vitro gene editing technology to achieve a genetic modification at organ level.   
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the research hotpots of organoid models in domestic and foreign databases in the past 10 years. 
    METHODS: A computer search of WanFang, Web of Science, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.org and SooPAT was performed for articles regarding organoids in the past 10 years, and the research hotspots of organoid models were analyzed and concluded.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Retrieval results of WanFang database: A total of 187 articles were included. In 2019, Chinese research on organoids showed an explosive growth. Among them, there were more studies on intestinal organoid models. The main application areas included precision medicine, tumor research and personalized medicine. (2) Retrieval results of the Web of Science Core Collection: A total of 2 450 articles were included. Twenty highly cited articles were analyzed using Histcite software. Among them, five classic original articles of organoids were screened out, and introduced intestinal organoids, pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional brain organoids, prostate cancer organoids cultured from biopsy specimens and circulating tumor cells for a long time, kidney organoids containing nephrons, and three-dimensional organoid models of human stomach tissue, which are the pioneers in various fields and lay the foundation for future research on organoids. (3) Retrieval results of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and ClinicalTrials.org: There were 13 study protocols related to organoid research in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and 23 in the ClinicalTrials.org. Research on clinical application of organoids in the United States is more extensive and develops earlier, but there are mostly cohort studies and single-arm trials. In recent years, China has achieved some results in the field of clinical organoid research, and two high-profile randomized controlled trials are underway. (4) Retrieval results of SooPAT Chinese patent database: There were 55 authorized patents, mainly involving the new culture method of 3D brain organoids, the research and development of high-throughput 3D cell, tissue-like and organoid dynamic culture systems. At present, researchers have successfully constructed a variety of organoid models, such as intestine, brain, kidney and various cancer tissues. However, due to insufficient evidence of clinical randomized controlled trials, the clinical applicability remains to be explored. Tumor organoids that are directly generated by tumor tissues of cancer patients in vitro can be used to analyze potential drug targets, screen anti-cancer drugs and develop new anti-tumor drugs, which will be the main research directions in the field of organoids in the future.
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    Mechanism of Yougui Yin for steroid-induced femoral head necrosis based on network pharmacology
    Li Zhongfeng, Chen Minghai, Fan Yinuo, Wei Qiushi, He Wei, Chen Zhenqiu
    2021, 25 (8):  1256-1263.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3057
    Abstract ( 64 )   PDF (1757KB) ( 19 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Existing cell experiments, animal experiments and clinical experiments have found that Yougui Yin can play a positive role in steroid-induced femoral head necrosis, but the specific pharmacological mechanism of Yougui Yin is not described.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of Yougui Yin in the treatment of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis based on network pharmacology, and to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of Yougui Yin in the treatment of steroid-induced femoral head necrosis. 
    METHODS: The Chinese Medicine Computing System Pharmacology Analysis Platform (TCMSP) was used, with oral bioavailability and drug-like properties as the limiting conditions, to retrieve the main active ingredients of six kinds of traditional Chinese medicines including Monkshood, Cinnamon, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cornus officinalis, stir-baked rhizoma dioscoreae, wolfberry in Yougui Yin and predict key target genes. Target genes related to steroid-induced femoral head necrosis were searched in OMIM and GeneCards databases, and the intersection target genes of Yougui Yin and steroid-induced femoral head necrosis were obtained through R language, followed by drawing the Wayne diagram. Using Cytoscape 3.6.1 software, we drew a “component-disease-target” Chinese medicine regulatory network, and then established a protein-protein interaction network with the help of the STRING platform. Finally, the R language and Bioconductor platform were used to perform gene ontology enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis on the intersection genes. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were 43 main effective components in Yougui Yin, including quercetin, glycotein, diosgenin, karanjin, stigmasterol, etc. and 102 key target genes, including ESR1, AKT1, NCOA1, PTGS1, JUN, etc. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed 137 molecular functions, 2 119 biological processes and 41 cell components. KEGG pathway analysis yielded 153 signal pathways. To conclude, Yougui Yin may play an anti-osteoporosis and anti-inflammatory role by regulating steroid hormone receptor, phosphatase binding and other molecular functions, participating in biological processes such as active oxygen metabolism and steroid hormone response, affecting cell composition such as membrane raft and RNA polymerase II transcription factor complex, so as to treat steroid-induced femoral head necrosis with the help of endocrine resistance and other signal pathways.
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    Research hotspots of blood flow restriction training for dyskinesia based on visualization analysis
    Wang Mengting, Gu Yanping, Ren Wenbo, Qin Qian, Bai Bingyi, Liao Yuanpeng
    2021, 25 (8):  1264-1269.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3058
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (895KB) ( 46 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Blood flow restriction training, as an emerging training method, can effectively increase muscle cross-sectional area and improve muscular function, providing a new way for sports intervention of dyskinesia. However, there are many controversies in the field from mechanism to application.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the current research hotspots and main contents in the application of blood flow restriction training, and to provide new ideas and directions for future research and development in this field.
    METHODS: A total of 441 articles regarding blood flow restriction training published from 2009 to 2019 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database for a visual analysis using CiteSpace 5.6.R3. Based on key literatures, the analysis was performed by integration of mapping and data.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The research on blood flow restriction training has been on an upward trend since the 21st century, mainly published by the United States, Japan and their institutions with more achievements and higher influence. The development of the research theme has gradually changed from the impact on local tissues and organs to the impact on body functions, from the training and application in general populations to intervention therapy in special populations. Hot keywords are blood flow restriction, strength, skeletal muscle, muscle hypertrophy, growth hormone, and adaptation; its research hotspots mainly include different physiological adaptation mechanisms, training methods that influence variables, rehabilitation for people with dyskinesia, effects on cardiovascular function, etc. Low-intensity blood flow restriction training as an effective exercise intervention is mainly used in the clinical treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurological diseases. Future research can focus on long-term exercise benefits, physiological adaptation mechanisms, application effects in different populations, and safety of training methods.
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    Review and prospect of international research on preschool children’s movement development assessment: a CiteSpace-based visual analysis
    Luo Lin, Song Naiqing, Huang Jin, Zou Xiaodong
    2021, 25 (8):  1270-1276.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3056
    Abstract ( 71 )   PDF (672KB) ( 34 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Foreign scholars have developed some scientific and applicable assessment tools for children’s movement development. However, because the assessment tools will be affected by the regional, cultural and ethnic norm data, these foreign assessment tools cannot be directly used in China. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand the development of international assessment tools for children’s movement development in order to help researchers in related fields to develop scientific assessment tools for children’s movement development assessment in China.
    OBJECTIVE: By using the methods of literature analysis, visual analysis and mathematical statistics, to analyze the discipline characteristics, dynamic evolution and frontier hot spots of the international children’s movement development assessment research in the past 30 years, in order to comprehensively understand the research overview of the international children’s movement development assessment from a macro perspective.
    METHODS: The Web of Science Core Collection database from 1990 to 2020 was searched using search topics #1 “elementary or pupil or primary school or middle school or secondary school or children or preschool or Kindergarten or Pediatrics”, #2 “motor skills or gross motor or fine motor or coordination or motor developmental delay or developmental coordination disorder or motor difficulty or motor development defect or motor development or motor proficiency or motor competencies”, #3 “questionnaire or tools or assessment or scale or test”, and #4 (#1 and #2 and #3). Finally, 11 680 literatures were selected as the research data of this paper and Citespace5.5R2 software was used for literature visualization analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The research on the evaluation of children’s movement development is characterized by interdisciplinary subjects such as pediatrics, neuroscience and neurology, psychology, neuroscience, education and education research, sports science, etc. The evolution of international assessment of children's movement development can be divided into basic development stage, rapid development stage and high-speed development stage. The development of assessment tools in different stages always revolves around the impact of movement development on different children’s cognition, personality, social adaptation and physical health. The cutting-edge trend of international assessment of children’s movement development mainly focuses on movement development and interventions in premature infants, movement development in children with muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy, and coordination in autism children, the relationship between children’s movement development and children’s physical health, as well as the prediction of children’s physical activity based on children’s movement development.
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    Correlation between body fat distribution and characteristics of daily physical activity in college students
    Shu Wenbo, Chen Mengchi, Li Hua, Huang Liqian, Huang Binbin, Zhang Wenhai, Wu Yachen, Wang Zefeng, Li Qiaoli, Liu Peng
    2021, 25 (8):  1277-1283.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3055
    Abstract ( 71 )   PDF (653KB) ( 22 )   Save
    BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. In recent years, the obesity rate of college students in my country has been on the rise. Undergraduates are under great academic pressure and have little exercise time, and their obesity needs attention from the society.
    Studies have found that different intensities of physical activities improve fat composition of obese or overweight people of different sexes to different extent.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of daily physical activity and fat distribution in college students, and to explore the correlation between physical activity and fat distribution.
    METHODS: In total, 1 875 college students from a college of Guangxi Province were randomly selected using random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (Chinese version) to collect their physical activity data for the past week, and a body composition measuring instrument was used to measure their fat parameter. Male and female college students were divided into three groups according to body fat rate. Male college students:   ≤ 10%, 11%-21%, ≥ 22%; female college students: ≤ 20%, 21%-34%, ≥ 35%. SPSS 23.0 was used for data processing and analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Fat mass: In male college students, total fat mass > subcutaneous fat mass > trunk fat mass > lower limb fat mass > visceral fat mass > upper limb fat mass; in female college students, total fat mass > subcutaneous fat mass > trunk fat mass > lower limb fat mass > upper limb fat mass > visceral fat mass. (2) Physical activity: in college students, low-intensity physical activity > medium-intensity physical activity > high-intensity physical activity. (3) Body fat rate: In male college students, low-intensity, medium-intensity and total physical activity were highest in the < 10% group, followed by 11%-21% group and ≥ 22% group in turn (all P < 0.05), and the high-intensity physical activity in the < 10% group was higher than that in the 11%-21% group and ≥22% group (all P < 0.05). In female college students, low-intensity and medium-intensity physical activity in the < 20% group was higher than that in the 21%-34% group and ≥ 35% group (all P < 0.05), and the high-intensity and total physical activity was highest in the < 20% group, followed by 21%-34% group and ≥ 35% group in turn (all P < 0.05). (4) Correlation analysis: In male college students, low-intensity physical activity was significantly negatively correlated with total fat mass, visceral fat content, trunk fat mass, and lower limb fat mass (all r < 0, all P < 0.05), and other fat parameters were significantly negatively correlated with medium-intensity, high-intensity and total physical activity (all r < 0, all P < 0.05). In female college students, visceral fat mass was significantly negatively correlated with high-intensity physical activity (r < 0, P < 0.01), and trunk fat mass was significantly negatively correlated with high-intensity physical activity and total physical activity (both r < 0, both P < 0.01), and other fat parameters were significantly negatively correlated with low-intensity physical activity, medium-intensity physical activity, high-intensity physical activity, and total physical activity (all r < 0, all P < 0.05). To conclude, there are sex differences in physical activity and fat distribution among college students, and the fat rate of the group with active physical activity is low. The increase in physical activity of various strengths is beneficial to the reduction of body fat. In male college students, subcutaneous fat mass and upper limb fat mass are mainly affected by medium-intensity and high-intensity physical activity, and in female college students, visceral fat mass and trunk fat mass are mainly affected by high-intensity physical activity.
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    Relationship between hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and hypoxia signaling pathway
    Gu Xia, Zhao Min, Wang Pingyi, Li Yimei, Li Wenhua
    2021, 25 (8):  1284-1289.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3035
    Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (668KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: It is generally known that PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK, Jak/Stat, NF-κB and Notch signaling pathways play important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, gene transcription, and immune inflammation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a crucial role in mediating the hypoxia signaling pathway and acts as a core factor in the hypoxic reaction process. 
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the relationship between HIF-1α and hypoxia signaling pathways, providing new ideas for the research and treatment of altitude diseases.
    METHODS: English literatures published during 2000-2019 were retrieved from PubMed and Medline. Chinese literatures published during 2011-2019 were retrieved from CNKI and WanFang databases. Search terms were “hypoxia inducible factor 1α, signal pathway” in English and Chinese, respectively. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the occurrence of hypoxic-related diseases (inflammation, tumor, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases) and altitude disease, the expression levels of HIF-1 and the key factors of these signaling pathways can change to varying degrees. HIF-1 is closely related to these signaling pathway under the hypoxic conditions, regulates molecular expression in these signaling pathways, or are regulated by these signaling pathways to increase or decrease, in response to the changes in the body under hypoxia conditions.
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    Polymorphism of urate transporter in gout and its correlation with gout treatment
    Ji Zhixiang, Lan Changgong
    2021, 25 (8):  1290-1298.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3039
    Abstract ( 85 )   PDF (670KB) ( 67 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: Urate transporters such as GLUT9, URAT1, NPT1 and ABCG2 are directly involved in the regulation of human serum uric acid levels. The gene polymorphism of urate transporter is closely related to the occurrence and development of gout. Therefore, the targeted therapy of urate transporter is a new way to treat gout.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research progress of polymorphism expression of urate transporter in gout and its correlation with clinical drugs in recent years, therefore providing literature and theoretical basis for further exploration of personalized treatment of gout and hyperuricemia.
    METHODS: The first author searched CNKI, WanFang database and PubMed database. The key words were “Gout, Urate transporter, Hyperuricemia, Polymorphism, GWAS, Therapy” in Chinese and English, respectively. Totally 131 literatures were retrieved. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 78 articles regarding the genetic polymorphism of urate transporter in gout and the correlation between the mechanism of action of gout drugs and urate transporter were screened out and summarized.  
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A large number of studies have shown that urate transporter polymorphism is closely related to uric acid homeostasis, with GLUT9, URAT1, NPT1 and ABCG2 being the most important. These proteins are differentially expressed in different populations and are closely related to the reaction mechanism of gout drugs. In the future diagnosis and treatment, the results of these studies can help assess the need for treatment in patients with hyperuricemia, and help patients with gout formulate personalized and effective treatment plans. It may be a feasible solution to treat hyperuricemia by activating BCRP to enhance the clearance of uric acid in the intestine.
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    Diagnostic potential of circulating microRNA in vascular cognitive impairment
    Yuan Mei, Zhang Xinxin, Guo Yisha, Bi Xia
    2021, 25 (8):  1299-1304.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2993
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (660KB) ( 31 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: To date, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) still lacks effective therapeutic strategy and objective diagnostic tool. Circulating microRNA is considered as a promising diagnostic biomarker due to its advantages of easy acquisition, non-invasive collection, easy detection, strong specificity, and stable expression.
    OBJECTIVE: To review domestic and foreign studies of microRNAs in VCI diagnosis.
    METHODS: Literatures published from January 2009 to January 2020 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, OVID, CNKI and WanFang databases with keywords of “microRNA, vascular cognitive impairment, post-stroke cognitive impairment, diagnosis, biomarker ” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally, 42 literatures were included for analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal cognitive population, differentially expressed microRNAs are found in the serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of VCI patients, and the expression levels of some microRNAs are correlated with the cognitive assessment score. Taking together, circulating microRNA is a new biomarker with potential diagnostic value for VCI. However, the clinical application of microRNAs in VCI still has a large room for development due to the small sample size and low specificity or sensitivity of candidate microRNAs. 
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    Effect of acute high-intensity exercise on appetite hormones in adults: a meta-analysis
    Wang Yongsheng, Wu Yang, Li Yanchun
    2021, 25 (8):  1305-1312.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.3047
    Abstract ( 92 )   PDF (843KB) ( 44 )   Save
    OBJECTIVE: Acute high-intensity exercise can temporarily suppress appetite, but the effect of appetite hormones in this process is inconclusive. Meta-analysis is used to explore the effects of acute high-intensity exercise on adult appetite hormones, and provide theoretical basis for the follow-up research on the effects of exercise on appetite hormones.
    METHODS: Chinese and International databases such as CNKI, WanFang, Web of Science, PubMed and other databases were searched for articles regarding the effects of acute high-intensity exercise on appetite hormones. The literature search time span was from inception to August 17, 2019. The subjects included in the article were all adults. The intervention measure was a single high-intensity exercise. The outcome indicators were one or combination of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY, peptide YY 3-36, pancreatic polypeptide, and pancreatic height, and glucagon-like peptide-1 expressed by area under curves. In this meta-analysis, an improved version of Cochrane risk bias tool was used to evaluate methodological quality, and Revman 5.3 and STATA15.0 software were used for the meta-analysis of the outcome indicators of the included literature.
    RESULTS: A total of 18 research literatures were included, with a total of 212 subjects, including 179 males and 33 females. The literature quality evaluation results showed that the overall literature quality was high. Meta-analysis results showed that acute high-intensity exercise could significantly inhibit acylated ghrelin level (standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI):-0.45 to -0.08, P < 0.05), and significantly increase peptide YY (SMD=-0.31, 95%CI: 0.07-0.54, P < 0.05). Although there was an increase in the levels of peptide YY 3-36 (SMD=0.29, 95%CI: -0.19 to 0.77, P ﹥ 0.05), pancreatic polypeptide (SMD=0.37, 95%CI: -0.07 to 0.81, P ﹥ 0.05), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (SMD=0.29, 95%CI: -0.17 to 0.75, P ﹥ 0.05) after acute high-intensity exercise, it had no significant significance. 
    CONCLUSION: Overall, acute high-intensity exercise has a certain effect on the level of appetite hormones, which can significantly inhibit orexigenic hormones and increase anorexigenic gastrointestinal hormones. The results suggest that acute high-intensity exercise can effectively regulate the secretion of appetite hormones, thereby controlling appetite and food intake, and can play a positive role in weight management. But future large-sample trials are needed.
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