BACKGROUND: The foot is an important part of the human motor system. Foot diseases and
injuries have become a troubling problem. Orthopedic insoles can effectively
treat and prevent foot diseases and injuries and reduce the risk of injuries.
It has become the main method of physical correction.
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the design principles of
orthopedic insoles, to classify orthopedic insoles according to the production
methods, to sort out the rehabilitation function of orthopedic insoles to human
joint-related diseases, children’s hemiplegia, and sports injuries, to explore
the current research status and shortcomings of orthopedic insoles, and to make
suggestions for future research and development.
METHODS: A search of CNKI, WanFang, Baichain,
Baidu Library, and PubMed was performed for relevant literature published from
2005 to 2019. Search terms were “Orthopedic insoles,” “valgus hallux, flat
feet, high arch, plantar fasciitis,” “knee varus, knee valgus, knee
osteoarthritis,” “scoliosis,” “foot and ankle injury,” “gait,” and “abnormal
gaits” in Chinese and “Orthopedic insoles, Corrective effect, Motion pattern
characteristics” in English. Included articles were screened, summarized and
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The design principles of the insoles include four
aspects: adjusting the force bearing point of the vola and dispersing plantar
pressure; supporting the arch of the foot, improving cushioning ability;
improving the force line of the lower limb, providing a stable support; improving
proprioception and foot comfort. Orthopedic insoles can be divided into three
types: prefabricated, semi-customized and customized. Orthopedic insoles can
play an effective prevention and rehabilitation function in ankle, knee, spinal
deformity, hemiplegia-type cerebral palsy in children, and sports injuries.
Orthopedic insoles have certain limitations in clinical application and in
therapeutic effects. In the development and evaluation of orthopedic insoles,
the changes in foot shape and shoe shape during human movement should be
considered to reflect the concept of “foot-shoe integration.” Different shapes,
materials, and hardness of orthopedic insoles can be used to conduct more
in-depth research on the effects of orthopedic insoles to prevent and treat
injuries and improve exercise capacity.