BACKGROUND: Progress of lung infection after kidney transplantation is rapid, and the adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs is critical, which related to the prognosis of pneumonia and the maintenance of renal function. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis for the pneumonitis post-kidney transplantation is of great significance for choosing the appropriate treatment scheme.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary infection at different periods after kidney transplantation, and then to explore the proper treatment scheme.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 178 cases of pulmonary infection at different periods after kidney transplantation was performed. According to the progress of patients with lung inflammation, the lung infection was divided into three phases: early, advanced, and phases, and then given different immunosuppressive treatments combined with glucocorticoids; for those with unclear pathogens, given broad-spectrum antibiotics, antiviral, anti-fungal and other drugs, and targeted anti-infective treatment was underwent once pathogen was confirmed.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) There were 178 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation, 90 cases occurred at postoperative 1-6 months (78 cases at postoperative 2-4 months), 16 cases occurred at postoperative 6-12 months, 14 cases occurred at postoperative 12-24 months, 12 cases occurred at postoperative 24-36 months, and 46 cases occurred at postoperative more than 36 months. (2) The clinical symptoms of pulmonary infection at the early stage were not obvious, fever was the earliest or primary symptom, and sometimes it was the only symptom. In some cases, the patients appeared with dry cough, expectoration with white mucous sputum, and the amount of sputum increased if infected with mixed bacteria or fungus. But the pulmonary signs are unobvious, and the main imageology feature of lung tissues showed interstitial inflammation. (3) Totally 173 patients were cured, the recovery rate reached to 97.2% and the curative efficacy was satisfactory. (4) Among five patients who dead from pulmonary infection, three were died from acute respiratory failure, and two were for multiple organ failure. Three patients presented with acute rejection to transplant kidney and were cured, and six patients suffered impaired renal function. (5) These results suggest that there is potential risk for pulmonary infection after renal transplantation and it develops rapidly. Based on the situation of pulmonary infection, the physicians can adjust the dose of immunosuppressor and hormone in time, so as to improve the immunosuppressive state and clarify the pathogen for pulmonary infection, then corresponding treatment for anti-infection will be offered, which is beneficial to increase the recovery rate of pulmonary infection and improve the stability of transplanted renal functions.