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    18 July 2018, Volume 22 Issue 20 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Parameter identification and kinetics of the vibration in promoting bone healing system
    Qu Yun-xia1, Ma Wen-bo1, Zhang Tao2, Hou Shu-jun1, Li Kai1, Li Xin-ye1, Liu Yan-shi2
    2018, 22 (20):  3117-3122.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0833
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (1710KB) ( 108 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Fracture healing is an extremely complex process in biological repair and reconstruction. Local mechanical environment of the fracture site plays a regulatory role in the process of fracture healing.
    OBJECTIVE: To design a bone stress stimulator and to carry out the dynamics modeling and parameter identification.
    METHODS: Based on the mechanism of vibration in promoting bone healing, a bone stress stimulator was designed. A two-degree-of-freedom damped spring system forced vibration model was simplified. Five healthy male volunteers (about 25 years old) were recruited to identify the main parameters of the vibration in promoting bone healing system (the identification of the total stiffness of the rubber spring K1, the plantar muscle stiffness K2, the plantar muscle damping r1, and the kirschner wire bending stiffness K’). The simulated callus amplitude was obtained and the experiments of vibration to promote bone healing were performed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to the theoretical analysis, and experimental research combined with the stable working range of the prototype, the system could generate axial fretting at tibial fragment and the bone fracture interface produced a certain mechanical stimulation under the conditions of excitation frequency of 26-40 Hz and excitation force of 100-350 N. Due to the omission of the stress shielding effect of the external fixator on the amplitude of the callus, the simulation results were slightly higher than the test results. The amplitude of the callus after disassembled was greater than that of the complete fixation. These results show that the stress-stimulator can make the tibial fragment to produce fretting which is beneficial to bone healing. In the clinic, it is recommended to use external stent with adjustable axial stiffness, constant external stiffness, which can effectively overcome the stress shielding.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Role of doxycycline in the fibronectin-induced degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells
    Zhang Hai-fei, Zhao Guang, Zhang Zhi-yu
    2018, 22 (20):  3123-3129.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0296
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (798KB) ( 135 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Doxycycline has a certain effect on disc degeneration progression, but the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in intervertebral disc remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits MMPs expression in intervertebral disc by cytologic experiment in views of intramolecular signal transduction.
    METHODS: The human nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in vitro, and 45 000 fibronectin fragments were added into the culture medium to make the degeneration model. The degenerative models were divided according to different action time and different concentrations. The expression levels of type II collagen and MMP13 in each group were detected by western blot assay. After treatment with 10 mg/L doxycycline for 24 hours, the expression levels of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, P38, p-P38, JNK, and p-JNK proteins in each group were determined by western blot assay. Based on the above experimental results, the inhibition of ERK and JNK pathways was selected, and the effect of doxycycline on the expression of MAPK pathway protein was detected by western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fibronectin could induce the degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells, showing an increase in expression level of MMP13 and a decrease in expression of type II collagen. Doxycycline could inhibit the expression of MMP13 in degenerative nucleus pulposus cells induced by fibronectin, but not in a time- or dose-dependent manner. After degenerative nucleus pulposus cells induced by fibronectin were treated with doxycycline, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK was inhibited, and dual inhibition effectively blocked the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK compared with MAPK inhibitors or doxycycline alone. So doxycycline may block ERK1/2 and JNK activation in the nucleus pulposus cells to inhibit MMP expression, and thus reduce the extracellular matrix degradation. Thereafter, doxycycline exerts a potential role in preventing and treating disc degeneration.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Formation and remodeling of the sinus venosus and the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion in human embryo
    Yang Yan-ping, Li Hai-rong, Cao Xi-mei, Jing Ya, Cui Hui-lin, Zhang Tao
    2018, 22 (20):  3130-3135.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0293
    Abstract ( 285 )   PDF (1278KB) ( 116 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Formation and remodeling of sinus venosus and the function of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion (DMP) in human embryonic heart remain controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the function of DMP and the sinus venosus development in the process of human embryo atrial separation.
    METHODS: The human embryos were fixed for 24 hours immediately after harvesting, followed by staged based on Carnegie stage (CS10-CS17) under stereo microscope. Serial sections of human embryos were stained immunohistochemically.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During CS10-CS12, the isl1 positive cells of the pharyngeal ventral mesenchyme and the dorsal pericardial wall extended to the sinus venosus wall to contribute to myocardium formation. From CS13, isl1 began to express in the coronary sinus and the caval vein wall and these blood vessels began to be myocardialized. Meanwhile, the isl1 positive cells participated in the formation of DMP.At CS15, the DMP contributed to the atrial separation and was myocardialized gradually. These data suggest that in human embryo, the sinus venosus is formed and the myocardium of the venous tributaries is derived from the isl1 positive cells of second heart field. The formation and function of the DMP in human embryo are similar to those of the mouse embryo.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Alterations of fucosylation in human osteoarthritis cartilage
    Zhao Lian1, Liu Shao1, Li Yi2, Yu Han-jie3, Zhao Hong-mou2, Liang Xiao-jun2, Yang Jie2, Ji Wei-na2
    2018, 22 (20):  3136-3143.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0803
    Abstract ( 382 )   PDF (1052KB) ( 194 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis is characterized as cartilage degeneration and inflammation. However, the mechanism related to abnormal glycosylation modification of the cartilage remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the abnormal glycosylation modification associated with osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: The lectin microarray was employed to investigate the glycan profile of the articular cartilage from 8 patients with knee osteoarthritis and 10 healthy volunteers. The alterations of glycopatterns of osteoarthritic and normal chondrocytes in vitro were evaluated by lectin microarray. In addition, RT-PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the expression levels of related glycosylation enzymes.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The glycopatterns of Fucα-1, 3/6GlcNAc, multivalent Sia and Manα1-6Man which identified by lectins of PSA, LTL, WGA and NPA increased in the osteoarthritic cartilage tissues and chondrocytes compared with the controls. In contrast, high mannose type of N-glycan and bi/tri/tetr-antennary N-glycans which recognized by Con A and PHA-E+L exhibited a decrease in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues and chondrocytes. According to the results of RT-PCR and western blot, glycosyltransferase FUT9 up-regulated in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues and chondrocytes, which may contribute to the alteration of α-1,3-fucosylation in osteoarthritic cartilage. We concluded that the high level of α-1,3-fucosylation may be related with inflammatory microenvironment in osteoarthritic cartilage.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Shaoyang Shenggu formula regulates the expression of collagen type II and matrix metalloproteinase 13 in degenerative cartilage cells of C518 rat’s knee joint
    Guan Tai-yuan1, Qi Ji2, Zhang Lei1, 2, Fu Shi-jie1, Ping Rui-yue3, Wang Guo-you1, Ao Liang1, Wang Li-sheng1,
    2018, 22 (20):  3144-3149.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0820
    Abstract ( 244 )   PDF (961KB) ( 202 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Shaoyang Shenggu formula is an effective prescription for osteoarthritis, which probably works via regulating cartilage degeneration, but the mechanism of action still needs an in-depth study.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Shaoyang Shenggu formula on the expression of collagen type II and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) in degenerative cartilage cells of C518 rat’s knee joint.
    METHODS: C518 degenerative cartilage cells were selected, and then observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining. Afterwards, the cells were treated with Shaoyang Shenggu formula, glucosamine hydrochloride and normal saline, respectively. The expression levels of collagen type II and MMP-13 were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with normal saline, Shaoyang Shenggu formula and glucosamine hydrochloride significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type II, and significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP-13. Moreover, the regulatory effects were more obvious in the group of Shaoyang Shenggu formula (P < 0.05). To conclude, Shaoyang Shenggu formula delays the articular cartilage degeneration of the rat knee through regulating the expression of collagen type II and MMP-13 in C518 degenerative cartilage cells.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Amino acid complex preparation alleviates the central fatigue after high-intensity intermittent training
    Wu Hong-jiang1, Zhang Dong-mei2
    2018, 22 (20):  3150-3154.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0858
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (708KB) ( 103 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Intense competition and frequent competition schedule are the salient features of competitive sports. Especially the ball games usually continue for several days, meanwhile athletes need continuous high-intensity physical demands. Central nervous system plays an important role in the process of fatigue formation, and central fatigue status directly affects the competition results.
    OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), arginine and citrulline on central fatigue during sports.
    METHODS: The model of high-intensity intermittent sports was established, and 12 male basketball players were randomly divided into trial group (0.17 g/kg BCAA, 0.04 g/kg arginine and 0.04 g/kg citrulline), and control group (same volume of placebo). The sports program was 30-second high-intensity cycle, thrice for 3 cycles and resting for 3-4 minutes between cycles. The motion response time, attention distribution and blood samples were tested before and after exercise.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The motion reaction time and the Q value of attention distribution in the trial group were superior to those in the control group. The blood tryptophan/BCAA ratio was significantly reduced in the trial group, but the NH3 accumulation showed no significant difference between groups. Our study shows that BCAA, arginine and citrulline supplementation can alleviate the central fatigue during high-intensity intermittent sports.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Finite element analysis of shear wave velocity influenced by force in muscle
    Ji Qian-yi1, Chen Xiao1, 2, Xu Chang1
    2018, 22 (20):  3155-3160.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0319
    Abstract ( 401 )   PDF (816KB) ( 146 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Force distribution in muscle is still a hotspot. The in vitro experiments show that the Young’s modulus of human muscle changes obviously under the influence of external force. However, it is difficult to detect force distribution in vivo. Shear wave elastography is a promising non-invasive imaging diagnostic method, which has been introduced into the study on muscle force distribution.
    OBJECTIVE: To testify the relationship between shear wave velocity and stress by establishing the hyperelasticity finite element model for muscles, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the application of shear wave elastic imaging to detect the force distribution in muscle.
    METHODS: The hyperelasticity finite element model was established based on in vitro experimental data. The shear wave speeds in muscle tissues under tension were studied by applying different statistic loads in axial direction.
     RESULTS AND CONCLOSION: The results showed that the shear wave speeds increased from 6.1 m/s to 13.1 m/s as the load increased. The speed was linearly related to the load. Therefore, shear wave elastography can measure the force distribution in muscle by measuring shear wave speeds.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Balance ability, muscle strength, and neuromuscular response of lower extremities in older adult women during backward exercise
    Ba Hong-bing1, Cheng Liang2
    2018, 22 (20):  3161-3166.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0239
    Abstract ( 285 )   PDF (665KB) ( 225 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of systematic study concerning the impact of backward movement on the physical posture control in elderly women.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of regular backward exercise on the balance, muscle strength and neuromuscular response latency of the lower extremities in healthy elderly women, so as to provide a theoretical basis for backward exercise improving the ability of controlling the posture to prevent falling in older adults.
    METHODS: Healthy elderly female volunteers recruited in Qing’an community in Wuhou District, Chengdu were recruited between February and March 2017, and randomly divided into experimental group (n=28) and control group (n=26), which were matched in age, height and body mass. The experimental group was subjected to backward exercise (70 minutes/time), thrice weekly for 24 weeks.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 24 weeks, in the static balance test, there was a decrease in the Sway index in standing on a fixed platform/sponge mat with eyes closed. In the dynamic balance test, the score of backward was increased, the absolute/explosive force of knee joint flexion, and the force and explosive force of ankle joint extension were increased; the anterior response latency of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius was reduced. To conclude, 24-week backward exercise can improve the balance ability of the elderly female subjects, enhance the muscle strength of lower extremities, and shorten the neuromuscular response latency of lower extremities, thus effectively promoting physical posture control.|

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on the growth of hair follicle and the expression of related growth factors
    Zhang You-lai, Xin Guo-hua, Zeng Yuan-lin, Jiang Lan, Wang Xiao, Zou Li-jin
    2018, 22 (20):  3167-3171.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0838
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (675KB) ( 118 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Alopecia has been shown to be caused by the abnormally inactive state of hair follicle stem cells but not their death.
    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in promotion of hair regeneration by observing rhGH acting on the hair follicle cultured in vitro, and to explore the possible mechanism at protein level.
    METHODS: The individual hair follicle was separated and was randomized into two groups, and then cultured in the serum-free medium containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 20 and 40 IU/L rhGH, respectively. The cells were cultured in the normal medium served as the control growp. Six individual hair follicles were added into each pore, and incubated in an incubator at 37 ℃ and 5% CO2. Its length was measured using ocular micrometer under inverted contrast microscope daily. Additionally, the expression levels of growth factors were tested after rhGH application.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the growth speed of hair follicle was increased at different degrees after different concentrations of rhGH was applied. The optimal concentration of rhGH was 10 IU/L, and then decreased. The length of hair follicle in the 1, and 10 IU/L groups was significantly longer than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The growth curve of hair follicle showed a rising tendency in each group, and 0.1 and 40 IU/L rhGH revealed the similar effect. The largest growth gradient appeared before day 6, followed by a slight increase. rhGH downregulated the expression levels of fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor, tumor necrosis factor β and interleukin-21, and upregulated the levels of epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, nerve growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and stem cell factor. In summary, rhGH exerts a positive effect on the growth of hair follicle possibly by activating a variety of related growth factors.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Biomechanical properties of the finite element model of temporomandibular joint
    Zhan Xiang
    2018, 22 (20):  3172-3177.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0257
    Abstract ( 454 )   PDF (980KB) ( 147 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Structure of temporomandibular joint is irregular and complex, so it is difficult to obtain CT data and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Constructing a reliable 3D model simulating temporomandibular joint is of great significance for the studies on temporomandibular joint disturbance.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish the 3D model of soft and hard tissues of temporomandibular joint based on spiral CT scanning data.
    METHODS: A man with normal facial structure and normal occlusion was selected. The 3D finite element model of temporomandibular joint was established based on CT data of temporomandibular joint. According to the actual human temporomandibular joint movement, the finite element analysis was conducted by adjusting the function parameters.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Numerical simulation results showed that when the lateral side of mandible in movement, the stress distribution of contralateral and ipsilateral articular discs was different. There was high stress distribution on the ipsilateral articular disc, which concentrated on the lateral side/posterior part of articular disc. Because the inferior wall of temporal bone wall joints bears the strong compression of temporomandibular joint, the lateral condyle of ipsilateral articular disc distorted, thus perforation or damage easily occurred. (2) The movement of lateral temporomandibular joint is analyzed on the established model by a finite element analysis, and the stress distribution is obtained, which can provide theoretical basis for treatment of condylar fracture and temporomandibular joint replacement.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Shaoyang Shenggu formula for fracture healing in rat models and the expression change of transforming growth factor beta 1 after repair
    Guo Xiao-guang1, 2, Zhang Lei1, 2, Guan Tai-yuan1, 2, Zhou Xin1, 2, Liu Gang1, 2, Yi Gang1, 2, Liu Yang1, 2, Fu Shi-jie1, 2
    2018, 22 (20):  3178-3183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0236
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (925KB) ( 137 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Shaoyang Shenggu formula has been shown to significantly promote cartilage repair, but its effect on fracture healing is unclear. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) can inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, stimulate the activation of osteoblasts, accelerate the synthesis and accumulation of bone matrix, and reflect the speed of fracture healing to a certain extent.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Shaoyang Shenggu formula on the fracture healing in rats and the underlying mechanism.
    METHODS: Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left tibial fracture modeling, and then equivalently randomized into Shaoyang Shenggu, Ossotide and control groups. At 7, 15, 30 and 56 days after modeling, six rats from each group were selected for X-ray examination. The wet weight of the broken tibia was measured. The serum level of TGF-β1 was tested by ELISA, and the expression level of TGF-β1 in the bone stump was detected by immunohistochemistry.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The X-ray examination revealed that in the Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups, the amount of callus formation in the bone stump was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the density of callus was higher, and the line of fracture was indistinct. The fracture healing degree in the Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups was obviously better than that in the control group. The tibial wet weight in the Shaoyang Shenggu group was gradually increased over time but no significant difference was observed as compared with the Ossotide group (P > 0.05). The wet weight of tibia in the Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). At 7 days after modeling, there was no significant difference in the serum level of TGF-β1 among groups (P > 0.05). At 15, 30 and 56 days after injury, the serum level of TGF-β1 in the Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of TGF-β1 in the bone stump did not differ significantly between Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups (P > 0.05), but the level in the Shaoyang Shenggu and Ossotide groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that Shaoyang Shenggu formula can increase the expression level of TGF-β1 in the rat serum and bone stump, promote the formation of callus in the tibial lesions, and accelerate bone healing.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Immunohistochemical detection in dog models of spontaneous osteosarcoma
    Liu Yang1, Zhao De-zhi1, Xi Zheng1, Deng Zhi-hui2, Sun Qi1, Yu Shui1
    2018, 22 (20):  3184-3189.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0273
    Abstract ( 399 )   PDF (1247KB) ( 178 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Molecular features of osteosarcoma are not fully understood because of the complexity of osteosarcoma gene. In human osteosarcoma, there are highly expressed alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), as well as slightly expressed desmin, S100 and neuro-specific enolase (NSE). However, whether markers of osteosarcoma are similar to those of human osteosarcoma remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To verify the canine osteosarcoma experiments simulating human disease model and to assess the expression of important markers for human osteosarcoma.
    METHODS: Fifty-nine tissue sections of the canine osteosarcoma were used for immunohistochemical staining. The expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, desmin, S100, NSE, Runx2 and BMP4 were detected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and BMP4 were highly expressed in all tumors, while the expression of desmin, S100 and NSE was variable. The findings are similar to those found in human osteosarcoma, suggesting that canine animals can be used as the models for studying human diseases.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Gubi Tongxiao Granule effects on the cell apoptosis in a rabbit model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femeral head
    Zhou Zheng-xin, Li Wen-hua, Zhu Lei, Han Shi-ding
    2018, 22 (20):  3190-3194.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0303
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (717KB) ( 160 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femeral head (ONFH) is an atrophic debility of bones in Chinese medicine, the pain of which is caused by cold-induced blood stasis. Gubi Tongxiao Granule has the effects of reinforcing the kidney to strength the bone and promoting blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels. Its clinical efficacy is satisfactory, but the underlying mechanism is unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the curative efficacy of Gubi Tongxiao Granule for steroid-induced ONFH, and its effect on cell apoptosis, thus providing references for its clinical application. 
    METHODS: Fifty-four healthy rabbits were randomly divided into model, treatment and control (no intervention) groups (n=18 per group). The animal model of steroid-induced ONFH was established in the modeling and treatment groups, and then administered normal saline and Gubi Tongxiao Granule via gavage, respectively, once daily, for 12 consecutive weeks. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment, six animals in each group were sacrificed, and the bilateral femoral heads were removed. The empty bone lacuna rate and apoptotic index were determined, and the histological changes were observed under light microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The empty bone lacuna rate in the control and treatment groups was significantly lower than that in the model group at different time points after treatment (P < 0.05). There was no obvious change in necrotic empty bone lacuna in the control group. At 4 weeks after treatment, the empty bone lacunas were obvious in the model group, and increased in numbers and even broken with time increasing. At 4 weeks after treatment, empty bone lacunas were visible and increased in numbers in the treatment group. The apoptotic index in the control and treatment groups was significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that Gubi Tongxiao Granule is effective for steroid-induced ONFH in rabbits, can effectively inhibit cell apoptosis and improve the pathological changes of the necrotic area.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Histopathological characteristics of femoral head arteriovenous system induced by methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide in adult dogs
    Zhang Yao, Zhao De-wei, Wang Zi-hua, Yu Xiao-wei, Tian Feng-de, Yang Fan
    2018, 22 (20):  3195-3200.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0320
    Abstract ( 294 )   PDF (676KB) ( 150 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Many mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids are closely related to the occurrence of osteonecrosis. However, the differences in pathomorphological changes between femoral head arteries and veins at different periods of steroid-induced osteonecrosis are rarely reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the histopathological changes of the arterial and venous system in adult dogs induced by high-dose corticosteroid combined with lipopolysaccharide, and to explore effects of these changes on the occurrence and development of osteonecrosis.
    METHODS: Fifteen healthy adult dogs were randomly divided into, 4- and 8-week observation groups and control group (n=5 (10 hips) per group). The dogs in the observation groups underwent venous injection of 10 g/kg lipopolysaccharide, then intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg methylprednisolone after 24 hours, for 3 times, with 24 hours in between. Afterwards, the dogs were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks respectively. The bilateral femoral heads were removed for pathological observation. The stenotic degree of arteries and veins in the bone and supporting band was measured.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 4 and 8 weeks after induction, the structure and morphology of normal intraosseous vein decreased significantly, while the proportion of moderate-stenotic and blocked-collapsed veins increased significantly. Compared with the 4-week observation and control groups, in the 8-week observation group, the thickness of arterial intima in the bone was significantly increased, and the stenotic degree was significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is difference in the occurrence of pathological changes between femoral artery and venous system in adult dogs under the induction of corticosteroids combined with lipopolysaccharide. The venous system presents the pathological changes at the early stage after induction (4 weeks), and the pathological changes occurred in the arterial system at 8 weeks.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Expression of toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 signaling pathway in rat myocardium after endurance exercise
    Gu Wei-yu, Liu Xiao-ran, Wang Zhi-qiang, Wang Yun-hong
    2018, 22 (20):  3201-3206.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0798
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (1040KB) ( 115 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial ischemia and hypoxia can upregulate the expression of angiotensin II, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor κB (NFκB). In TLR4 deficient mice, cardiac hypertrophy is found to be decreased in the presence of pressure overload, suggesting that TLR4/NFκBp65 is a key signaling pathway in the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of TLR4/NFκBp65 signaling pathway activation on myocardial adaptation in rats subjected to graded endurance training of different exercise protocols.
    METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into three groups: a single bout of exercise, 4- and 10-week endurance training, respectively. Treadmill was used for exercise training. All three groups were subdivided into: control group and exercise groups euthanized 0, 3, and 24 hours after last training.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The expression level of TLR4 was sustained at high level after a single bout of exercise, but the expression level was increased only immediately after last training in 4 and 10 weeks of endurance in rats. The expression level of NFκBp65 showed a sustained increase in 4-week trained rats, but only transiently increased in 10-week trained rats after last run, and the expression was reduced in the 24-hour exercise group when compared with age-matched control group. The expression level of myosin heavy chain1/2/4/6 appeared to be continuously increased after a single bout of exercise and 4 weeks of endurance training, but was only transiently increased after 10 weeks of endurance training. The exercise-induced activation of TLR4/NFκBp65 signaling pathway may participate in the myocardial adaptation.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Changes in parameters of erythrocyte and reticulocyte and erythropoietin production in a rat model of exercise-induced hemoglobin reduction
    Wang Li-ping1, Yu Qun1, Weng Xi-quan2, Lin Wen-tao2
    2018, 22 (20):  3207-3212.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0298
    Abstract ( 282 )   PDF (620KB) ( 162 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In altitude training, exercise and hypoxia stimulations have significant effects on the formation and apoptosis of erythrocyte cells in athletes.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevention and treatment of exercise-induced hemoglobin reduction and the related mechanisms using normobaric hypoxia stimulation after progressive training, and to observe the changes of erythrocyte- and reticulocyte-related parameters and erythropoietin production in rats.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (n=10) and model group (n=40, induction of exercise-induced hemoglobin reduction by 6-week progressive training). Afterwards, the model rats were equivalently randomized into normoxia, 1-hour hypoxia, 2-hour hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia groups. The hypoxic course lasted for 3 weeks, with 6 days per week. The parameters of erythrocyte, reticulocyte and the erythropoietin production in the kidney and serum were detected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 6 weeks of progressive treadmill running, the counts of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the model group were significantly lower than those in the blank control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the normoxia group, in each hypoxia group, the count and percentage of reticulocytes were significantly increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the volume of reticulocytes and content of hemoglobin in reticulocytes were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), especially in the intermittent hypoxia group. But the concentration of hemoglobin in reticulocytes showed no significant difference among groups. The levels of erythropoietin in the kidney and serum in each hypoxia group were significantly higher than that in the normoxia group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), especially in the intermittent hypoxia group. In summary, hypoxic stimulation especially short-time multiple exposures can accelerate the generation of erythrocytes, which can be used for the prevention and treatment of exercise-induced hypoglobin.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Schisandra extract regulates Th17 cells and regulatory T cell imbalance in dogs undergoing liver transplantation
    Liu Li-ye1, Zhao De-fang2, Gao Fei1, Zhang Tong2, Dong Qin2
    2018, 22 (20):  3213-3217.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0297
    Abstract ( 411 )   PDF (752KB) ( 189 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Schisandra extract has various effects, but little is known about the role of Schisandrins extract in immune changes after liver transplantation.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Schisandra extract on Th17/regulatory T cells (Treg) imbalance in dogs undergoing liver transplantation.
    METHODS: The model dogs undergoing liver transplantation were established, and then divided into control and Schisandra groups (n=10 per group). The control group received glucose and the Schisandra group was given Schisandra extracts postoperatively. The survival rate, liver function, Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood, as well as levels of interleukin 17, interleukin 23, interleukin 10 and tumor growth factor β1 in peripheral blood were determined at 1, 3, 6 and 9 days after liver transplantation. The pathological changes of canine liver were compared between groups.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with control group, the survival rate was significantly increased in the Schisandra group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin in the Schisandra group were significantly lower than those in the control group at 3, 6 and 9 days after liver transplantation (P < 0.05). In the control group, the Treg cells were significantly decreased, and Th17 cells were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Th17 and Treg cells in the Schisandra group showed no significant change, but tended to be increased. Compared with the control group, in the Schisandra group, the levels of interleukin 17 and interleukin 23 were significantly decreased, and levels of interleukin 10 and tumor growth factor β1 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The inflammatory factor infiltration and liver pathology were reduced in the Schisandra group compared with the control group. Our findings imply that Schisandra extracts can significantly improve living conditions, liver function and donor liver’s activity in dogs undergoing liver transplantation, probably by improving the Th17/Treg cell imbalance.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Changes of perivascular astrocyte foot process in the cerebral cortex of a mouse model of sustained hyperglycemia
    Huang Yan1, He Jing1, Xiang Yang2, Wang Zhi-qiang2, Du Guo2, Wang Qing-song1, 2
    2018, 22 (20):  3218-3223.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0288
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (666KB) ( 176 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Sustained hyperglycemia can induce cerebral microvascular disease and peripheral neuropathy, which significantly increases the risk of stroke and neurological dysfunction. Astrocyte foot process around the cerebral microvessels may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of sustained gyperglycemia.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of perivascular astrocyte foot process and gliovascular interface in cerebral cortex of mice with sustained hyperglycemia, and to investigate the mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced cerebral microvascular diseases.
    METHODS: Twenty healthy adult male Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups: control group and hyperglycemia group. The hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitioneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. The expression levels of aquaporin-4 in the astrocyte foot process and collagen type IV in the vascular basement membrane were detected by double immunofluorescent staining to observe the changes in perivascular astrocyte foot process and gliovascular interface. The expression levels of aquaporin-4 in the astrocyte foot process and collagen type IV in the vascular basement membrane were determined by immunohistochemistry.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, in the hyperglycemia group, there was a significant decrease in the colocalization of aquaporin-4 in the astrocyte foot process and collagen type IV in the vascular basement membrane (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of aquaporin-4 and collagen type IV were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression levels of aquaporin-4 in the astrocyte foot process and collagen type IV in the vascular basement membrane in the hyperglycemia group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that sustained hyperglycemia can destroy gliovascular interface, and result in neurovascular unit and blood brain barrier dysfunction, probably by reducing the expression level of aquaporin-4 in the astrocyte foot process.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    A rat model of liver cirrhosis induced by the combination of carbon terachloride and ethanol: establishment and verification
    Bin Wen-ting1, Chang Jia-song1, Wu Jian-ping2
    2018, 22 (20):  3224-3229.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0813
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (725KB) ( 213 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Establishing a stable, reliable, easily handling and highly efficient animal model of liver cirrhosis is the prerequisite for the study on the prevention and treatment of the disease.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish and evaluate an ideal means to induce liver cirrhosis in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
    METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly allotted into control group (n=8), group A (n=21) and group B (n=21). Olive oil was injected subcutaneously into both sides of the abdomen of control rats every 4 days; in the group A, 50% CCl4 in olive oil was injected subcutaneously into the abdomen with a dosage of 3 mL/kg every 4 days, and a 10% ethanol solution (Erguotou liquor and distilled water) constituted the only liquid drank; in the group B, 50% CCl4 in olive oil was injected subcutaneously into the abdomen every four days, the first four and final three doses were 5 mL/kg, and the other doses were 3 mL/kg, and a gradually transition from 5% to 10% ethanol solution (Erguotou liquor and distilled water), constituted the only liquid drank. The modeling time was 9 weeks.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was a slower increase in the rat body mass in the groups A and B compared with the control group, especially in the group B. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the groups A and B were significantly higher than those in the control group. The level of alanine aminotransferase in the group B was significantly higher than that in the group A, but there was no significant difference in the aspartate aminotransferase level between the groups A and B. The cirrhosis with pseudolobules rate and success rate in the group B were higher than those in the group A. There was no significant difference in survival rate between group B and control group. That is to say, the improved method of inducing cirrhotic model in rats by CCl4 combined with ethanol shows a high rate of success and a low rate of mortality.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Cognitive impairment and hippocampal alpha-synuclein change in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion
    He Jing1, Huang Yan1, Du Guo2, Wang Zhi-qiang2, Xiang Yang2, Wang Qing-song1, 2
    2018, 22 (20):  3230-3236.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0311
    Abstract ( 320 )   PDF (746KB) ( 216 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have shown that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH)-induced impairment of cognitive function in rats is associated with increased silent synapses in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, alpha-synuclein can lead to cognitive impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of cognitive function and hippocampal alpha-synuclein in rats with CCH.
    METHODS: The rat model of CCH was prepared by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, and the rats without common carotid artery occlusion were used as controls. The cognitive function was detected by an open field and a Morris water maze at 1 and 3 months after modeling. Afterwards, the expression level of mitochondrial alpha-synuclein in the hippocampal region was detected by western blot assay. Changes of alpha-synuclein in the hippocampus were detected by immunofluorescence.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: CCH group had more significantly decreased escape latency in Morris water maze test, and increasing distance traveled in the open filed test, compared with the control group (P< 0.05). Western blot assay results showed that the expression level of alpha-synuclein in the hippocampal mitochondrion of rats with CCH was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence results revealed that the level of alpha-synuclein was significantly increased in the CCH group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that there is an increase in alpha-synuclein in the hippocampus of rats with CCH, which may be involved in the cognitive impairment following CCH.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Named entity recognition based on bidirectional long short-term memory combined with case report form
    Yang Hong-mei1, Li Lin2, Yang Ri-dong1, Zhou Yi1, 2
    2018, 22 (20):  3237-3242.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0302
    Abstract ( 765 )   PDF (1538KB) ( 1281 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Electronic medical record (EMR) is an important source of medical source, reflecting medical knowledge. There are patient clinical features in EMR, which enables decision support system and precision medicine.
    OBJECTIVE: To extract important medical entities of EMR using information extraction, and to discover hepatocellular carcinoma knowledge.
    METHODS: The EMR database of a Grade-A Tertiary hospital in Guangdong Province was used. We retrieved clinical records (18 542 sentences) of 240 patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma, including admission notes and discharge summaries. The records were remarked according to the predetermined standards. Totally 180 patients’ records (13 839 sentences) were selected randomly for training and 60 patients’ records (4 703 sentences) were remained for testing. Bidirectional long short-term memory combined with case report form was used to identify the model. The performance of NER systems was evaluated on the test datasets, and precision, recall, F1 of strict matching were caculated.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Evaluation on the dataset showed that an F1-measure of 0.853 5 was for admission, F1-measure of 0.726 5 was for the discharge summaries, and an overall F1-measure was 0.805 2. In this study, we have achieved the auto-name entity identification model of EMR, but the accuracy of entity extraction needs further investigation.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Roles and problems of fibroblast growth factor 2 in tendon-bone healing and cartilage repair
    Zhang Jun, Yang Ji-bin, You Qi, Li Yu-wan, Zhu Xi-zhong, Xiong Hua-zhang, Jin Ying, Peng Xu, Ge Zhen, Liu Yi
    2018, 22 (20):  3243-3249.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0280
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (695KB) ( 144 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As an important growth factor in tendon-bone healing and cartilage repair, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has a positive effect on accelerating tendon-bone healing and cartilage repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the application and the current problems of FGF-2 in tendon-bone healing and cartilage repair.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI, PubMed, and Elsevier databases was performed for retrieving articles concerning the application of FGF-2 in tendon-bone healing and cartilage repair published from January 2000 to March 2018. The keywords were “fibroblast growth factor 2, tendon, bone, cartilage, repair, tissue engineering” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally 64 eligible articles were enrolled for result analysis after excluding irrelative articles by reading the titles and abstracts.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: FGF-2 plays an important role in tendon-bone healing process and can accelerate tendon-bone healing by increasing the expression levels of transforming growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein, promoting the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and increasing the contents of collagen type I and III. Moreover, FGF-2 can promote the repair of cartilage injury by activating FGF/FGFR2 and other signaling pathways to promote the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, regulate the expression of sox9 and promote the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes. Besides, it promotes the formation of cartilage by up-regulating the expression levels of endogenous growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 4 in subchondral bone. However, the studies on FGF-2 are in the pre-clinical stage, so more clinical researches are required.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Growth factors in platelets promote soft and hard tissue healing in oral implantology
    Wang Jun-ling, Shao Miao-miao, He Jian-ya, Hu Shu-hai, Li Xiao-jie
    2018, 22 (20):  3250-3255.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0808
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (868KB) ( 264 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: A large number of growth factors in platelets hold the potential of regeneration and repair, which have been shown to promote soft and hard tissue wound healing.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress and application status of growth factors in promoting the healing of soft and hard tissues, and to provide basis for clinical treatment.
    METHODS: WanFang, CNKI and PubMed databases were searched for the articles concerning growth factors promoting the healing of soft and hard tissues. The keywords were “platelet, growth factor, bone healing, concentrated growth factor, planting” in Chinese and English, respectively. The biological characteristics of growth factors and the relationship with the repair of soft and hard tissues were discussed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Once injury signaling is activated, contraction of the injured vessel will appear instantly, and then numerous fibrin and blood platelet productions form clots for hemostasis. Meanwhile, a variety of growth factors are released to stimulate cell mitosis and activation, as well as promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Thereafter, the platelet concentrated technology is developed, and clinical experiments have indicated its positive role in the healing of soft and hard tissues. However, there are still some problems to be solved, such as the manufacturing differences, active ingredients, dosage, time, optimal concentration of concentrated growth factor, as well as the stability of blood platelets.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Notch signaling pathway and the nucleus pulposus cells in degenerative intervertebral disc: roles in the repair and reconstruction
    Zhong Yuan-ming1, Liang Zi-yang2, He Jia2, Xu Wei2, Mo Ri-yang2
    2018, 22 (20):  3256-3262.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0742
    Abstract ( 341 )   PDF (745KB) ( 98 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The Notch signaling pathway regulating bone metabolism and development is well studied. Similarly, the proliferation and differentiation of intervertebral disc cells are closely related to the Notch signaling pathway, and the signaling pathway may sustain the proliferation and differentiation of nucleus pulposus cells in degenerative intervertebral disc. However, the regulatory role and potential effects of Notch signaling pathway in intervertebral disc degeneration remain controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research advances in the mechanisms underlying Notch signaling pathway acting on the nucleus pulposus cells in degenerative intervertebral disc.
    METHODS: A computer-based research of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Cochrane, CNKI, VIP, WanFang databases was conducted for the literature addressing the effect of Notch signaling pathway on the nucleus pulposus cells in degenerative intervertebral disc. The keywords were “Notch signaling pathway, intervertebral disc degeneration, nucleus pulposus cells, stem and progenitor cells” in English and Chinese, respectively. A literature analysis was then performed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The regulatory mechanisms of Notch signaling pathway in cells are complicated. Inhibition of Notch signaling pathway can inhibit the proliferation of nucleus pulposus cells in intervertebral disc, which may be associated with the reduced content of progenitor cells. Hypoxia activates the Notch signaling pathway in nucleus pulposus cells of the degenerative intervertebral disc, which is a major way to control the proliferation of nucleus pulposus cells. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines induce Notch signaling in nucleus pulposus cells dependent on the possible interaction between the Notch signaling and MAPK, NF-κB signaling pathways. The mechanisms of the repair and regulatory roles of Notch signaling pathway in the nucleus pulposus cells of degenerative intervertebral disc need to be explored further.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Application of concentrated platelet products in autologous fat grafting: lack of quantitative indicators and application guidelines
    Zhang Tian-jia, Dai Jie-wen, Wang Xu-dong
    2018, 22 (20):  3263-3266.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0806
    Abstract ( 305 )   PDF (683KB) ( 103 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting is a mature treatment for soft tissue reconstruction, but some disadvantages such as unpredictable results and variable reabsorption still exist. Concentrated platelet products have been shown to promote adipogenesis, reduce postoperative adverse reactions, and enhance fat graft survival combined with adipocytes.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the compositions, properties, research progress and clinical application of platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich fibrin and concentrated growth factor.
    METHODS: A computer-based retrieval of CNKI, WanFang, PubMed and Medline databases was performed for the articles concerning concentrated platelet products and autologous fat grafting published before 2017. The keywords were “platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich fibrin, concentrated growth factor, fat graft, survival” in English and Chinese, respectively. Initially 940 articles were retrieved, and finally 54 eligible articles were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Platelet-rich plasma, the first generation of concentrated platelet products, has been reported to promote fat graft survival by activating various factors. However, its roles still remain controversial because of a subjective but not objective assessment. As the substitute of platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich fibrin possesses overt advantages in manufacturing process and safety. Moreover, its unique anti-inflammatory cytokines, fibrin and sustained-release nerve growth factor achieve satisfactory effects in fat grafting. Compared with platelet-rich fibrin, the newly emerged concentrated growth factor holds CD34+ stem cells and more fibrin, and provides a three-dimensional fibrin graft, ensuring a better outcome in fat transplantation. Importantly, the newly developed concentrated growth factors gel and liquid will be extensively applied in fat transplantation. Nevertheless, assessment methods need to be improved, and CT, MRI and other radiological methods should be adopted. Additionally, more clinical controlled trials are needed to lay down a clinical guidance, so as to enhance the development of concentrated platelet products in fat transplantation.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Correlation of the signaling pathways of bone metabolism and lipid metabolism with bone metabolism related diseases: theoretical advance and research direction
    Bo Mao-sheng1, Zhao Jian-ning1, Hong Ye2
    2018, 22 (20):  3269-3274.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0231
    Abstract ( 475 )   PDF (700KB) ( 312 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the incidence of metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia is on a rise. Lipid metabolism disorder can lead to bone metabolism disorder, further inducing osteoporosis, bone loss, and osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the main pathways between bone metabolism and lipid metabolism, explore the relationship between lipid metabolism and bone metabolism related disease, and provide new therapeutic direction for bone metabolism related diseases.
    METHODS: A computer-based search for literature in PubMed and CNKI databases published from January 2000 to July 2017 was performed using the keywords of “bone metabolism, lipid metabolism, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis” in English and Chinese, respectively. A total of 156 articles were retrieved and 58 eligible articles were in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria after reading the title and abstract.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Lipid metabolism interacts with bone metabolism mainly by Wnt/β-catenin, PPARγ, leptin, bone morphogenetic protein, SREBP and oxidative stress pathways. Lipid metabolism can affect bone metabolism related diseases, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone softening. Statins can treat osteoporosis and bone loss induced by lipid metabolism disorders through activation of Wnt pathway and inhibition of PPARγ pathway. In the future, we devote ourselves to finding the special target at which lipid metabolism is conducive to treatment of bone metabolic diseases.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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    Genetic characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament rupture susceptibility genes
    Yan Mo-qi, Han Feng, Guan Zhe-heng, Wang Yi-fan, Lu Ji-hang, Yang Hui-lin, Sun Ye
    2018, 22 (20):  3275-3280.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.0235
    Abstract ( 327 )   PDF (783KB) ( 142 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACLR) is commonly seen in young athletes, which has a great possibility to induce secondary osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To review ACLR-related genetic researches and summarize the research advances in ACLR susceptibility genes.
    METHODS: PubMed database retrieval was conducted for the literature published before January 2017, using search strategy “gene OR genetic OR genetics and cruciate ligament OR ACL”. Finally, 54 articles addressing human ACLR heredity were included.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Totally 70% of ACLR is a result of non-contact mechanism, and genetic factors have been shown to play a role in the occurrence of ACLR. Case-control studies have reported that several ACLR-related genetic loci have been identified in the candidate susceptibility genes, which are involved in bone and joint biology. However, the results are limited in individual assessment for athletes. Thereafter, a further study on the distribution of polymorphic locus of ACLR susceptibility genes in different populations is needed, to reduce selection bias.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程

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