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    08 January 2014, Volume 18 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Constructing a tissue-engineered muscular conduit of urinary tract in bioreactor
    Wang Ying, Fu Qiang, Zhao Ren-yan
    2014, 18 (2):  165-170.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.001
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (2048KB) ( 471 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Ideal tissue-engineered urinary tract should have good mechanical properties to bear long-term attack of urine and excretion. Muscular conduit of urinary tract in static culture exerts poor strength. It is reported that mechanical stimuli promote cellular growth and secretion of extracellular matrix.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered muscular conduit of urinary tract in bioreactor.
    METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells were harvested by collagen enzyme method. After series culture and expansion in vitro, flow cytometric analysis was carried out to detect the immunophenotypes of adipose-derived stem cells. Then the cell-polyglycolic acid complex was constructed by seeding adipose-derived stem cells on polyglycolic acid fibers. After 1 week of in vitro culture, cell-polyglycolic acid complex was cultured in a bioreactor. The experimental group was subjected to pulsatile stimuli, while the control group was cultured in static state. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture in basic medium, the cell-polyglycolic acid complex was induced in the induced culture medium for 4 weeks, and then engineered tissue was examined both grossly and histologically. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Flow cytometry demonstrated that the adipose-derived stem cells expressed CD90 (99.42%), CD44 (98.12%) and CD105 (93.27%), but not CD34 (4.92%) or CD45 (0.38%). In the experimental group, tissue-engineered muscular conduit of urinary tract appeared bright color with a round lumen. Immunohistochemical staining showed that after cell-polyglycolic acid complex was induced for 4 weeks, the cells expressed desmin and α-smooth muscle actin. More collagen was found in the complex. In contrast, the control group appeared pale surface and its lumen collapsed slightly. Less collagen was in the complex. Tissue-engineered muscular conduit of urinary tract with good structure can be constructed in a bioreactor.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Cartilage repair and motor function recovery in knee joint during articular cartilage defects at different directions
    Geng Xiao-peng1, Wang Xia2, Yang Zhen, Dou Yong-feng, Zhu Kai, Fang Qing-min, Sun Zhao-zhong, Li Jian-jun
    2014, 18 (2):  171-176.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.002
    Abstract ( 510 )   PDF (1850KB) ( 506 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are many researches about repairing articular cartilage defects. In particular, the microfracture technique has been widely used.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe recovery of knee joint motor function and morphological changes in tissue repair during articular cartilage defects with different directions (coronal position and sagittal position).
    METHODS: Articular cartilage fracture models with 2 mm-thick medial femoral condyles of rabbit knee joint were established. According to incision directions, models were assigned to coronal and sagittal groups. At 5, 10 and 20 weeks after model induction, general observation was performed. Specimens were sliced into paraffin sections, and subjected to hematoxylin-eosin staining and collagen staining. Tissue repair at the articular cartilage defects was observed using optical microscope and immunohistochemical method. After model induction, range of motion of rabbit joints was regularly examined in the two groups. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A white line was seen across the femoral condyles at defects in the two groups. Articular surface at defect repair was at the level of in situ cartilage, and reached a bone union. Knee joint treated by operation did not affect function. Under light microscope, partial reconstruction of subchondral bone was seen in the two groups, mainly fibrocartilage repair. The level of bony remodeling was lower than tidal line of adjacent in situ cartilage. Immunohistochemical method exhibited that type I collagen staining gradually reduced at defects of specimens, but type II collagen staining gradually increased. These results suggested that there was no significant difference in the recovery of motor function of knee joint and the repair of articular cartilage with different directions (coronal and sagittal position).



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Cartilage surface of early osteoarthritis in rats induced by papain under scanning electron microscope
    Wang Zong-bao, Xu Ya-lin, Liao Wei-ming, Lu Qing-you, Chen Zhao-hui, Wu Xiang-yang, Sun Xu, Duan Wen-xiu, Bao Yong-jun, Dai Yue-lan
    2014, 18 (2):  177-182.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.003
    Abstract ( 657 )   PDF (896KB) ( 1145 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis animal models induced by papain are commonly used for studying osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the morphology of articular cartilage surface during early osteoarthritis process in rats induced by papain and L-cysteine under scanning electron microscope.
    METHODS: The right knees of Sprague-Dawley rats were given 0.15 mL mixed solution of 2% papain and    0.03 mol/L L-cysteine in the ratio of 2:1. The left knees were given injections of 0.15 mL 0.9% NaCl, as the control group. Another two rats (four knees) maintained untreated, as the normal control group. All the rats were observed with scanning electron microscope at 2, 4, 6 weeks after injection, to explore the surface morphology of medial condyle of femur.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The condyles of normal and control groups revealed numerous shallow pits on the surface of articular cartilage. At 2 weeks after injection, the surfaces of condyles were unsmooth, presenting the shrinkage and distortion. The thinner articular cartilage and local tiny cracks were seen at 4 weeks. The deep and great cracks and cartilage defect were observed on the surface of cartilage at 6 weeks. The time of 4-      6 weeks is a reference point for establishing early osteoarthritis model in rats through injections of 2% papain and 0.03 mol/L L-cysteine.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Insulin-like growth factor 1 promotes in vitro proliferation of chondrocytes in traumatic arthritis
    Zhao Guang, Jing Ji-feng, Zhang Zhi-yu, Zhu Jia-jun, Cui Yan
    2014, 18 (2):  183-186.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.004
    Abstract ( 451 )   PDF (625KB) ( 494 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The early damaged chondrocytes are susceptible to de-differentiate and exert unstable phenotype during the in vitro culture, thus needing some growth factors.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the promotion effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 on the in vitro proliferation of chondrocytes in adult rabbits with traumatic arthritis.
    METHODS: Traumatic arthritis models of adult rabbits were established by using the modified Hulth method. After the models were successfully established, the distal femur and proximal tibia were harvested under sterile conditions, the chondrocytes were cultured. The cultured cells were divided into two groups: control group was cultured with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, while experimental group was cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle’s medium containing 100 μg/L insulin-like growth factor 1. The effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 on the proliferation of chondrocytes in adult rabbits with traumatic arthritis was determined through the cytomorphology, cell counting, and cell activity.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The chondrocytes in adult rabbits with traumatic arthritis were successfully cultured, the majority of cells were mini-cells, presenting small fusiform, round or polygonal shape. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the number of cells in experimental group was higher than that in control group. MTT assay found that the absorbance of cells in experimental group was greater than that in control group (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that, insulin-like growth factor 1 can promote the in vitro proliferation of chondrocytes in adult rabbits with traumatic arthritis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Comparison of mandibular length in patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation
    Yang Chuan, Zu Qing, Leng Chun-tao, Gulibaha•Maimaitili
    2014, 18 (2):  187-192.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.005
    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (732KB) ( 683 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Age and dental age are shown to have some limitations in predicting skeletal maturity.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the mandibular length in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns by using the cervical vertebrae maturation, and to provide valid reference index for orthodontical treatment.
    METHODS: The lateral cephalograms of the 160 cases of Class I (40 males and 40 females) and Class II      (40 males and 40 females) skeletal patterns, aged 8-15 years, were taken before orthodontic treatment. The sample was grouped according to stages of the cervical vertebrae maturation (Hasse and Farman method), and the mandibular length was measured separately. The results were statistically analyzed by the independent-sample t test.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No matter you are a male or female, the mandibular length of Class I was greater than that of Class II at the early stages of growth and development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at accelerated, transition, and deceleration stages (P < 0.05), whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at accelerated, transition, and deceleration stages (P < 0.05). The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, but the possibility of a later “catch up” growth period occurs on Class II girls. And this information has important orthodontic clinical implications.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Odontogenesis-related gene expression during in vitro culture of tooth germ cells
    Ba Jiao-jiao, He Hui-yu, Hu Yang, Ma Mei, Han Xiang-zhen
    2014, 18 (2):  193-198.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.006
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (1979KB) ( 541 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that different genes in tooth germ tissue play a role at different time, contributing to tooth germ development.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressions of dentin matrix protein 1, enamel protein, collagen I and homeobox gene 1 at different stage of in vitro culture of tooth germ cells.
    METHODS: RNA from tooth germ cells was extracted at days 1, 3, 6 of in vitro culture. After reverse transcription, real-time quantitative PCR detection was adopted to measure relative expression of dentin matrix protein 1, enamel protein, collagen I and homeobox gene 1 mRNA.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Dentin matrix protein 1, enamel protein, and collagen I mRNA expressions increased with culture time, and reached the peak at day 3 (P < 0.05), whereas homeobox gene 1 mRNA decreased with culture time (P < 0.05).



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Location and expression of cyclin A2 in neonatal mouse myocardium
    Zhao Ai-chao, Ma Yi-tong, Yao Yong-zhao, Cao Wen, Yu Hai-bin, Yu Hui, Liu Fen, Chen Bang-dang, Ma Xiang
    2014, 18 (2):  199-204.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.007
    Abstract ( 347 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cyclin A2 is a key regulator of cell cycle. Location and expression of cyclin A2 in neonatal mouse myocardium is not clear.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the location and expression of cyclin A2 in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and its relationship with the exit of cardiomyocytes from cell cycle.
    METHODS: Neonatal mice were killed to take myocardial tissues at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after birth. Western blot were used to detect the expression of cyclin A2, proliferating cell nucleus antigen and Phospho-histone H3. Immunohistochemitry detection was used to detect the location of cyclin A2 and expression of proliferation cell nucleus antigen at different time after birth.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Western blot showed the decrease of cyclin A2 after birth till disappeared at day 4 (P=0.001). Cyclin A2 located mainly in the nucleus after birth and exported to the cytoplasm at day 14, and basically disappeared at day 28. Proliferating cell nucleus antigen showed gradually decreased tendency after birth. Mitosis specific marker, Phospho-histone H3, exhibited a gradual decrease after birth, which was consistent with cyclin A2 in expression intensity.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Altered morphology in erythrocytes of autologous blood stored at different temperatures
    Li Guo-zhen, Yuan Li, Liu Shan-ling, Wang Shi-duan
    2014, 18 (2):  205-210.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.008
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (2302KB) ( 539 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion guidelines pointed out: whole blood should be stored at (4±2)℃. The bacterial growth or loss of function should occur if the blood leaves the suitable storage conditions. Recipients will suffer from different degrees of blood transfusion reaction or invalid infusion.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe morphology of erythrocytes of autologous blood stored at different temperatures using microscope.
    METHODS: Blood was obtained from 40 cases of acute normovolemic hemodilution and stored in ACD citrate bags. Whole blood was respectively stored at 4 ℃ and 23 ℃. Blood smear was taken respectively in the blood storage immediately, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after collecting autologous blood. Changes in morphology of erythrocytes were observed with a microscope. Deformity rate of erythrocytes was calculated. Six blood samples were randomly selected to test pH, K+, and free hemoglobin respectively in 6-hour common temperature group and ACD banked blood within the valid period. Six blood samples were randomly selected for the bacterial culture in each group of two groups at 6 hours.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in abnormality rates of erythrocytes between 4 ℃ and common temperature groups at each time point. The pH, K+, free hemoglobin at six hours in the common temperature group were better than those of ACD banked blood within the valid period and there was no bacterial growth in culture between the two groups. Therefore, it is feasible to transfuse autologous blood back to the patient within 6 hours of storage at room temperature.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Phenotype and differentiation capacity of human amniotic epithelial cells cultured in vitro
    Lian Jian-chun, Liu Yang, Liu Chang, Lv Shi-jie, Guo Xin, Nan Feng, Sun Guang-wei, He Xin, Ma Xiao-jun
    2014, 18 (2):  211-217.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.009
    Abstract ( 371 )   PDF (2302KB) ( 602 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Human amniotic epithelial cells are an important source of cells in regenerative medicine as its  
    multipotentation, but new studies mainly focused on differentiation features and there were little research oneffect of culture in vitro on biological property of amniotic epithelial cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of in vitro culture on growth, cell phenotype and differentiation capacity of human amniotic epithelial cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells, and explore the correlation of primarily cultured human amniotic epithelial cells marker SSEA-4 expression level and the change of biological characteristics of human amniotic epithelial cells.
    METHODS: Primarily cultured human amniotic epithelial cells were obtained from amniotic tissues by using the same separation protocol. Human amniotic epithelial cells were cultured in vitro. The proliferation, cell phenotype and the differentiation capacity of human amniotic epithelial cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells were evaluated by means of cell counting kit-8, flow cytometry and real-time PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The SSEA-4 positive cells in primarily cultured human amniotic epithelial cells from different fetal tissues were between 26.7%-97%, which indicated that there was great individual difference among amniotic tissue samples. Moreover, with passage, the SSEA-4 expression in human amniotic epithelial cells decreased significantly, which did not correlate with the SSEA-4 expression in primarily cultured human amniotic epithelial cells. Results indicated that there was great individual difference in SSEA-4 expression level in primarily cultured human amniotic epithelial cells from different amniotic tissue samples. Thus, it is necessary to set up clinical screening indexes to get samples with higher SSEA-4 expression stably and to control the quality of human amniotic epithelial cells. In addition, during culture period, SSEA-4 expression level was affected by culture conditions. The culture conditions of human amniotic epithelial cells should be optimized to maintain SSEA-4 expression at a high level. In addition, the differentiation capacity of human amniotic epithelial cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells was also affected by individual difference among different samples and culture conditions, which will be further studied in the future.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Blood flow simulation of internal carotid artery aneurysm using two-way flow-solid coupling method
    Lv Shao-mao, Zhong Hua, Chen Li-jun, Duan Shao-yin
    2014, 18 (2):  218-224.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.010
    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (2388KB) ( 1120 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamics changes of aneurysm provide the basis for aneurysm treatment and ruptured aneurysm prevention, while finite element analysis is a good technical means.
    OBJECTIVE: To construct the two-way flow-solid coupling model of internal carotid artery aneurysm, and thus simulate its flows.
    METHODS: CT angiography data of internal carotid artery aneurysm were recorded with GE Lightspeed 64 spiral CT scanning, and the corresponding three-dimension model was constructed with mimics10.01 software. Then the fluid-solid coupled flow simulations were done depending on Ansys+Fluent software.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The two-way flow-solid coupling model of internal carotid artery aneurysm was built, with the same morphology and anatomy as the three-dimensional CT imaging. In the whole cardiac cycle, the blood flow of aneurysm body was swirl typed and its velocity was slower than that of the aneurysm neck; the deformation, wall shear stress, pressure and von Mises stress of aneurysm wall were the maximum at the neck, and the minimum at the top. Their highest value was at the 0.16 s (rapid ejection period), and their lowest value at the 0.74 s (relaxation period). On the basis of CT angiography data, to construct the two-way flow-solid coupling model of internal carotid artery aneurysm is a simple and practical method. The blood flow simulation of aneurysm is close to the human physiological conditions, and the results will provide new theoretical basis for the study on the occurrence and development of aneurysm.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Improved suture occlusion method to prepare focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion models in Sprague-Dawley rats
    Sun Nian-xia, Gao Wei-juan, Yi Zhong-liang
    2014, 18 (2):  225-230.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.011
    Abstract ( 537 )   PDF (2081KB) ( 1360 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: During the progress of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rat with transient suture occlusion, bleeding combating and the line being plugged into the cerebral middle artery smoothly are important for successful modeling and research focus.
    OBJECTIVE: To improve Longa suture occlusion method for focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion model in Sprague-Dawley rats in order to establish a simple surgical procedure with low rate of intraoperative bleeding and high rate of successful models.
    METHODS: The two ends of the external carotid artery were clipped with electric knife, in addition to ligation of surgery lines intraoperatively; with the help of pincett, a fishing line was plugged into the carotid artery along the anteriomedialis artery wall (the direction of the internal carotid artery from the pterygopalatine arterial bifurcation). Postoperative behavior scores in rats, infarct volume calculation and histopathological evaluation under optical microscope were done.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Transverse sections of the external carotid artery were changed from a “O” shape to a “-” shape after being clipped with electric knife. Subsequently, line nodes were not easy to fall off any more, effectively preventing intraoperative bleeding. With the power of pincett, the rate of plugging the fishing line into artery was significantly increased. Rat’s neurological score and infarct volumes were significantly increased, and brain tissue pathological injury worsened. The modified suture occlusion method for focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion models effectively prevented line nodes off, successfully increased the rate of suture occlusion and models in Sprague-Dawley rats were developed successfully.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Unilateral olfactory functional deprivation model in the left peripheral nostrils by electric cautery injury: olfactory bulb neurogenesis and transformation
    Zeng Jian-jun, He Xu, Yan Xiao-xin, Luo Xue-gang, Pan Ai-hua
    2014, 18 (2):  231-238.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.012
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (2448KB) ( 588 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Olfactory bulb neurogenesis, transformation and maturation have been considered the hot topic. Olfactory bulb experience and nervous activity can influence olfactory bulb neurogenesis. However, no study reports that olfactory bulb functions can affect olfactory bulb neurogenesis in guinea pigs.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of unilateral olfactory functional deprivation on doublecortin, calbindin and parvalbumin expression in olfactory bulb of juvenile guinea pigs.
    METHODS: Totally 24 guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups, which were killed after establishing olfactory functional deprivation model through electric cautery injury at the left peripheral nostrils. At 3 and       6 weeks after modeling, the specimens were harvested. The expression change of doublecortin, calbindin and parvalbumin in two sides’ olfactory bulb of juvenile guinea pigs was detected by immunohistochemistry.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The number of doublecortin, calbindin and parvalbumin positive cells in olfactory bulb at the un-deprived side was significantly higher than that at the deprived side at 3 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). This finding indicates that olfactory neural activities can affect neurogenesis and transformation in guinea pigs.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effects of exercise training on bradykinin expression in rats with myocardial infarction
    Shen Mei, Yu Min, Che Shi-qin, Jin Ke-xin, Ma Li, Wang Ping
    2014, 18 (2):  239-244.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.013
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (2255KB) ( 443 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Exercise can elicit generation of coronary collateral circulation through numerous pro-angiogenic growth factors. It is not enough via a single factor to clearly definite signaling pathways for the generation of collateral circulation. Many pro-angiogenic growth factors are involved in kallikrein-kinin system, and there is no report about exercise effects on this system.
    OBJECTIVE: To study effects of exercise training on bradykinin expression in rats with myocardial infarction.
    METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control group, myocardial infarction group and exercises training group. Rats in the control group were subjected to thoracotomy with no coronary artery ligation. Rats in the other two groups were modeled. In the exercise training group, 3 days after myocardial infarction, rats were subjected to 30-minute exercise training on treadmill, once a day for 4 weeks. At the terminal of the experiment, blood samples were obtained to analyze bradykinin expression by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and the myocardium was sampled to analyze relative blood flow by microsphere method.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After exercise training, bradykinin level in the exercise training group was significantly higher than that in the myocardial infarction group (P < 0.001). At the end of experiment, the relative blood flows of the exercise training and myocardial infarction groups were both increased compared with before experiment (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). At the end of experiment, the relative blood flow of the exercise training group was significantly higher than that of the myocardial infarction group (P < 0.01). In all the three groups, bradykinin level was significantly correlated with the relative blood flow in the myocardium. These findings indicate exercises training can improve bradykinin expression apparently and increase blood flow in the myocardium, which illustrates that the kallikrein-kinin system plays an important role in exercise induced angiogenesis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Correlation of bone metabolic index with osteoarthritis and postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Zhao Xi, Zhao Wen, Sun Jing, Peng Hai-zhou, Li Yi, Zhao Tai-mao, Xiong Zhong-wei
    2014, 18 (2):  245-250.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.014
    Abstract ( 481 )   PDF (713KB) ( 786 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly studies report that the normal balance of bone metabolism may be destroyed in the case of postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. The concrete metabolic process of bone turnover could be revealed sensitively by measuring the bone turnover markers in the serum or urine.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the bone density and bone metabolic index of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), and to discuss the characteristics of bone density and bone metabolic index in KOA and PMO.
    METHODS: A total of 248 postmenopausal women were detected for bone mineral density and knee X-ray. Finally   180 patients were included in this study and were divided into three groups: KOA group, PMO group, and control group. The levels of bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, bone gla protein, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) in serum from the participants were measured. The correlation between bone turnover markers and the disease progression was analyzed by Logistic regression analysis. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bone mineral density in the KOA group was higher than the control group but collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide was lower. The levels of bone gla protein, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b in serum from PMO group were higher than the control group. The decrease of collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide was associated with the incidence of KOA, and the increases of bone gla protein, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were associated with the incidence of PMO. The lower bone absorption can be seen in postmenopausal women with KOA. PMO patients showed a higher bone turnover rate. The difference of bone metabolism between patients with KOA and PMO led to negative relationship of bone mineral density. The serum levels of bone gla protein, collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b can assist clinical diagnose and therapeutic effect detection of both KOA and PMO.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 2 in keratocytes
    Yu Jian-xiong, Yuan Jing, Zhou Lian-hong
    2014, 18 (2):  251-258.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.015
    Abstract ( 296 )   PDF (374KB) ( 368 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The degradation of extracellular matrix, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases, plays a crucial role in the corneal neovascularization. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2, a new type serine proteinase inhibitor, can effectively inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases.
    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases in keratocytes in vitro.
    METHODS: Rabbit keratocytes were primarily cultured and subcultured in vitro. Plasmid vector pBos-Cite-neo/TFPI-2 was transfected into keratocytes with Lipofectamine 2000. The positive cells were selected using G418.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and gelatinase zymography analysis showed that, expression of mRNA and protein of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 was upregulated in the transfected keratocytes (P < 0.05), while activity of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 2 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Experimental findings indicate that that tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 strongly inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 2 in keratocytes.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    The association between angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and Alzheimer’s disease in Jiamusi region
    Zhang Shu-ping, Xuan Zhao-bo1, Huang Zuo-yi, Liu Ying-qin, Liu Qing, Wang Xiang-yu, Wu Cheng-ji, Yang Li-min, Zeeshan Abbas
    2014, 18 (2):  259-264.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.016
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (829KB) ( 850 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme as a key enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system, through the degradation effects of substance P mechanism, is involved in the occurrence and development of Alzheimer’s disease.
    OBJECTIVE: To research the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and Alzheimer’s disease in Jiamusi region, as well as the effect of gender and hypertension on the relationship.
    METHODS: This case-control study included 96 Alzheimer’s disease patients. Another 102 subjects served as controls coming from the same area and in the same environmental condition. DNA segments were amplified using PCR in 20 g/L agarose gel electrophoresis and observed under ultraviolet lamp. II, ID, DD genotypes and genotype frequencies were calculated for statistical analysis. On this basis, according to clinical data collected, we investigated association of Alzheimer’s disease with hypertension and gender.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was significant difference between Alzheimer’s disease patients and controls in angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes and allele frequency. There was statistically significant difference between Alzheimer’s patients with hypertension and controls in angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes and allele frequency. There was no statistical difference between Alzheimer’s disease patients with different genders and controls in angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes and allele frequency. These findings indicate that there are some relationships between angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism and Alzheimer’s disease. II genotype is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, angiotensin-converting enzyme II genotype is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease with hypertension.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Construction of a lentivirus vector for Trail gene in rats
    Zhang Hai, Jiang Zheng-fang, Liu Yang, Zhang Bo, Wu Gui-qiang, Zeng Ling-yong
    2014, 18 (2):  265-270.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.017
    Abstract ( 328 )   PDF (1138KB) ( 574 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Adenovirus, expressing within a limited period, can limit the expression time and amount of target genes that is not conducive to ongoing experiments. Here, we select adenovirus as vectors for genetic recombination with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Trail) gene fragment.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the construction of recombinant lentiviral vector carrying Trail in rats
    METHODS: The Trail gene was obtained: according to GenBank in rat Trail gene sequence (NM_145681.1), we designed the gene specific primers of Trail-Age I-F and Trail-AgeI-R, and used AgeI as enzyme cutting site. PCR was applied to amplify Trail gene from rat cDNA Library and construct recombinant plasmids after cutting Trail gene to be cloned into expression vector GV218 by AgeI. Recombinant plasmids were transfected into 293T cells by Lipofeetamine2000 encapsulated recombinant plasmid and auxiliary packaging carrier. The Trail protein of lentiviral plasmids was expressed. Following virus collection, we identified virus titer and extracted protein from cells to detect Trail expression by western blot assay. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Screened positive Escherichia coli DH5a competent cells were sequenced with 861 bp, which was consistent with Trail nucleotide sequence in GenBank. After transfection 2 days, virus liquid was collected and confirmed as recombinant plasmid including Trail gene by PCR and Trail proteins expressed in 293T cells by western blot assay. Hole dilution method and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR determination showed that the virus titer was 2×109 TU/mL. In this study, recombinant lentiviral vector carrying Trail is successfully constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Three-dimensional bioprinting technology in tissue engineering
    Shi Jing, Zhong Yu-min
    2014, 18 (2):  271-276.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.018
    Abstract ( 1053 )   PDF (676KB) ( 1848 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional bioprinting technology is the emerging technology in recent years, which is one of the branches of tissue engineering. The three-dimensional bioprinting technology has been used in the reproduction process of in vitro tissues and organs, which has achieved surprising outcomes.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the three-dimensional bioprinting technology in terms of its principles, operating steps, relationships with tissue engineering, advantages and challenges, as well as clinical applications.
    METHODS: The first author did a computer-aided retrieval of the PubMed database, CNKI database, and CQVIP database for articles relevant to three-dimensional bioprinting technology used in tissue engineering published between January 2000 and October 2000. The key words were “three-dimensional bioprinting, tissue engineering, rapid prototyping technology, scaffold materials, selective laser sintering, fuseddeposition modeling, stereolithography” in English and Chinese. Repetitive studies were excluded, and 52 of 79 related literatures were adopted in result analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional bioprinting technology is one of the branches of tissue engineering, which can build a virtual three-dimensional structure layer by layer under the computer-aided design technology, with the help of imaging data information (including CT and MRI). This technology has the advantages of high precision, high building speed, fabrication on demand, and also has the challenges in engineering mechanics and biological activities. In a word, it is a meaningful and promising technology in clinical application.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Seed cells for tissue-engineered heart valves: source and application
    Pu Lei, Li Ya-xiong, Jiang Li-hong
    2014, 18 (2):  277-282.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.019
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (585KB) ( 605 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Application of mechanical valve and bioprosthetic valve replacement is an effective means for the treatment of end-stage valve disease. However, their clinical application is constrained by multiple factors. Tissue-engineered heart valves with biological activity hold the potential to overcome the defect of the mechanical valves and bioprosthetic valves. Choosing appropriate cells for cell seeding is a significant aspect for the research of tissue-engineered heart valves. A growing number of somatic cells and stem cells have been used for construction of tissue-engineered heart valves, however, not yet achieve the desired result.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the studies on seed cells for tissue-engineered heart valves and the cell seeding methods in vitro on the basis of the cellular components of heart valves.
    METHODS: First author searched PubMed and Wanfang database with computer for related articles published from January 2000 to December 2012. The keywords were “tissue engineering, heart valves, cell”. Preferred articles concerned seed cells of tissue-engineered heart valves with the relevance and authority. A total of 39 articles published in the prestigious journals were reviewed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Endothelial cells and interstitial cells were mainly valvular cellular components. In the early stage, endothelial cells and fibroblasts were used to construct tissue-engineered heart valves. With deep stem cell research, the application of pulsatile bioreactor cultivation mesenchymal stem cells holds a great potential to produce tissue-engineered heart valves.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Adipose-derived stem cells for repair of urinary system injury: current situation and problems in application
    Guo Ting-ting, Li Li-xi, Tian Hong
    2014, 18 (2):  283-288.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.020
    Abstract ( 326 )   PDF (656KB) ( 546 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Although there is no report of adipose-derived stem cells in ureteral repair, but with the deepening of the research of adipose stem cells, the differentiation conditions of adipose-derived stem cells to the vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and urothelial cells are more mature, and the experimental research of adipose-derived stem cells in the repair and reconstruction of kidney and bladder is also increasing.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the adipose-derived stem cells research and its application in damage and repair of urinary system in recent years.
    METHODS: The first author retrieved PubMed database and CNKI databases for articles relevant to adipose-derived stem cells in the repair of urinary system published between January 2001 to September 2013 using the keywords of “adipose tissue-derived stem cell/adipose tissue-derived stromal cells/ADSCs; tissue engineering; kidney; ureter; ureathra; bladder; urology” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally, 52 articles were included for further analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adipose-derived stem cells which can be found easily and have the unique advantages of multi-directional differentiation ability have been used for repairing and constructing the urinary system. Adipose-derived stem cells provide a new model of treatment for the urinary tract, which solves the traditional problems, including immune rejection, source of organs and ethical issues, and become an ideal cell source in repair of urinary system. Accumulated data related to adipose-derived stem cells and its experiment and clinical application in repair of urinary system injuries have been reported. But before the cells are widely used in clinic, the following problems need to be solved: its specific surface marker identification, specific conditions and control of cell differentiation, mechanisms of action.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Tissue engineering and other technologies in the treatment of periodontitis
    Xu Xiao-man, Zhang Rui-min
    2014, 18 (2):  289-294.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.021
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (673KB) ( 463 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As one of common oral diseases, periodontitis is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress on periodontitis treatment.
    METHODS:A computer-based search was performed on the PubMed database and CNKI database for articles addressing periodontitis treatment. The key words were “periodontitis, treatment, tissue engineering, gene engineering” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally, a total of 57 articles were included to review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Currently, the majority of scholars are still focus to improve periodontal tissue, promote the regeneration and repair of periodonttal tissue. With the development of tissue engineering and gene technology in recent years, periodontitis has been treated from multiple perspectives and multiple aspects, to solve the problems of patients with periodontitis. However, some treatment methods are still in their early stage and need in-depth research.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Proteomics and its application in orthopedic diseases
    Feng Wen-cheng, Liang Wei-guo
    2014, 18 (2):  295-300.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.022
    Abstract ( 334 )   PDF (666KB) ( 474 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Proteomics is a new field of research in the post-genomic era. The research subjects of proteomics include the structure and function of entire proteins in tissues or cells. It analyses the vital changes of pathological and physiological process of diseases by examining proteins.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application of proteomics in orthopedic diseases and its prospect.
    METHODS: Articles about the application of proteomics in orthopedic diseases and its prospect were retrieved from the Digital Library Alliance of Zhujiang River Delta and PubMed with the key words of “proteomics, orthopedics, review, osteoblasts metabolism, osteoclasts metabolism, intervertebral disc degeneration, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, serum related orthopedic diseases” in both Chinese and English from January 2001 to September 2013. Reproductive research and atypical reports were excluded.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Proteomics has been applied in the osteoblasts metabolism, osteoclasts metabolism, intervertebral disc degeneration, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and serum related orthopedic diseases that are the most common illnesses in all types of people. These basic and clinical studies undoubtedly bring great benefit for human health, and proteomics technology will get a bigger breakthrough in basic medicine and clinical medicine, and it shows us a broad prospect.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Different concentrations of icariin for bone defect repair: disputes and exploration
    Zhu Hong-fei, Zheng Jun, Xu Xiao-yan, Tang Wei-zhong, Nian Hua, Zhou En-yuan
    2014, 18 (2):  301-306.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.023
    Abstract ( 476 )   PDF (726KB) ( 450 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As one of the main active ingredients in epimedium, icariin plays an important role in bone defect repair. Sustained and effective concentration of icariin in vivo is essential for bone damage repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To recommend the research progress of epimedium glycoside for bone repair and to explore the pharmaco-active concentration of icariin.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search of CNKI database (http://www.cnki.net/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed) from January 2000 to October 2013 was performed for related articles of the effect of icariin for bone defect repair and bone damage repair. The key words were “icariin, concentration, bone” in Chinese and English. After repeated articles were excluded, 76 related articles were screened out and 44 of them met the inclusive criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The icariin-released scaffold materials can induce the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, promote the viability of osteoblasts and inhibit the resorption of  
    osteoclasts, thus repairing bone tissue. It is certain that icariin promotes cellular differentiation, however whether it can promote cellular proliferation remains unclear. The pharmaco-active concentration of icariin ranges from10-8 to 10-5 mol/L, but clinical trial has not yet been carried out, and specific drug concentration is uncertain, which needs further exploration.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Synovial mesenchymal stem cells-based therapy for cartilage repair
    An issue concerning clinical transformation
    Chen Kang, Zeng Yi-rong, Fan Yue-guang, Zeng Jian-chun, Li Jie, Li Fei-long, Fan Shuai
    2014, 18 (2):  307-313.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.024
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (294KB) ( 577 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cartilage injury is still one of the clinical problems difficult to be treated completely so far. Recently, the discovery of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) has brought about the new hope to cartilage repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the process concerning SMSCs-based therapy for cartilage repair in the past few years, such as the characteristics of SMSCs, culture conditions, preclinical and clinical studies, and then to summarize the literatures published in recent years.
    METHODS: A computed-based online search of PubMed and SpringerLink databases was performed using the key words of “synovial mesenchymal stem cells, cartilage repair” for literatures published from January 1993 to May 2013.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Finally, 37 articles were included. SMSCs have a greater proliferative capability, colony-forming potential and chondrogenic potential than other mesenchymal stem cells. The diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis can influence the characteristics of SMSCs. Numerous articles have aimed at the studies of cell culture in vitro and cell transplantation in vivo. However, the process of SMSCs therapy is mostly at its preliminary stage. Reports on its unique characteristics, optimal culture conditions and the high-quality clinical studies are still largely lacking. In a word, though further studies are needed, SMSCs appear to be a promising cell source for cartilage repair in the future.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Distribution, function and regulation mechanism of aquaporin in the brain
    Liu Jian-feng, Ding Yan-ping, Wang Jian-lin, Shao Bao-ping
    2014, 18 (2):  314-321.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.025
    Abstract ( 528 )   PDF (632KB) ( 1131 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The aquaporin (AQP), mainly AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9, are expressed in mammalian brain, while the others are sporadically expressed. There is no evidence concerning the distribution, function and regulation mechanism of AQP in the brain.
    OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze the research progress of the distribution, function and regulation mechanism of AQP in maintaining normal physiological function of the brain.
    METHODS: An online retrieval of PubMed database and CNKI database between January 1980 and July 2013 was performed for articles on the distribution, function and regulation mechanism of AQP, with the key words of “AQP1, AQP4, AQP9, function, brain, adjusting mechanism” in English and Chinese. A total of 163 papers were screened out and 85 of them met the inclusive criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The existing studies about the expression, function and regulating mechanism of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9 in the brain can be summarized as the following three aspects: (1) AQP1 is expressed in the choroid plexus and participates in forming cerebrospinal fluid; in other types of cells, gas micromolecules CO2, NO, NH3 and O2 also cross through AQP1. (2) AQP4 is mainly expressed in the astrocytes, ependymal foot process and gelatin membranes, which can help the water in and out of the brain tissue, accelerate glial cell migration and change neural activity. (3) AQP9 is mainly distributed in astrocytes and catecholamine neurons, the main function is involved in energy metabolism in the brain. Therefore, AQP is the key for water transport in the brain. Understanding the distribution, function and regulation mechanism of AQP will play an important role in the treatment of brain diseases. The regulatory mechanism on the expression of AQPs in normal pathology and related disease remains unclear and related molecular signal pathway needs further exploration.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Outcomes of negative pressure wound therapy versus conventional dressing change in repair of wound on the body surface
    Bai Ming, Zhao Ru, Wang Zhi, Long Xiao, Zeng Ang, Zhang Hai-lin, Wang Xiao-jun
    2014, 18 (2):  322-328.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.02.026
    Abstract ( 400 )   PDF (1059KB) ( 563 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Negative pressure wound therapy has been extensively used, but most people only knew the superiority of negative pressure wound therapy based on clinical experiences or subjective judgment.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of negative pressure wound therapy on the wound on the body surface, and to compare with contemporaneous conventional method.
    METHODS: A total of 45 patients with wound on the body surface treated in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study, including 25 patients undergoing negative pressure wound therapy and 20 patients undergoing conventional change dressing method. All clinical data were recorded.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Negative pressure wound therapy was better than conventional method (P < 0.05), on terms of preoperative preparation period, wound granulation, bacterial scavenging, labor intensity of working staff and incidence of postoperative complications. However, no significant difference in therapy cost was detectable (P > 0.05). These results suggested that compared with conventional method, negative pressure wound therapy positively contributed to the healing, obviously shortened preoperative preparation, accelerated the diminution of wound, decreased the incidence of complications of reconstruction, lessened patient’s distress, reduced their economic cost, and diminished labor intensity of working staff. Negative pressure wound therapy has been proven an excellent tool of to promote wound healing.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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