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    12 February 2014, Volume 18 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow adherent cells
    Chen Jing, Ma Ji, Sun Fen-yong
    2014, 18 (7):  985-990.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.001
    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (1894KB) ( 870 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Generally considered bone marrow cells obtained by adherent method are mesenchymal stem cells, and they can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the differentiation capacity of bone marrow adherent cells into osteoclasts.
    METHODS: Primary mouse mesenchymal stem cells were obtained using adherent method, and bone marrow cells were obtained through adherence 1-5 days. Both of them were cultured with normal medium and inducing medium containing m-csf and RANKL. After 9 days, cells were stained by alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. The passage 2 mesenchymal stem cells were divided into four groups, which were induced by mock, m-csf, RANKL and m-csf+RANKL, respectively. After 9 days of culture, the cells were stained by alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Primary culture of adhered cells was uniform. Alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of primary and passaged bone marrow adherent cells induced with m-csf+RANKL were positive. This result showed that there were cells that could be induced into osteoclasts in the primary and passaged bone marrow adherent cells. Alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase  staining showed differences of adherent cells at different times after the induction, indicating that adherent cells at different times had different differentiation capacity.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Large vascularized tissue-engineered bone for repair of bone defects
    Li Yao-hua
    2014, 18 (7):  991-996.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.002
    Abstract ( 368 )   PDF (1693KB) ( 618 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there are many problems existing in the construction of large tissue-engineered bone, and the most important is ischemic necrosis. Vascularization is critical for the biological function of large tissue-engineered bone.
    OBJECTIVE: To prepare large pieces of vascularized tissue-engineered bone for orthotopic transplantation in repairing large femoral defects of rabbits, and to explore tissue regeneration methods and characteristics.
    METHODS: Rabbit femoral structure was firstly imitated to construct a vascularized prefabricated model, based on which, we constructed large pieces of vascularized tissue-engineered bone. A total of 18 New Zealand white rabbit 18, aged 8 weeks, were divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group was subject to orthotopic transplantation of large vascularized tissue-engineered bone, while the control group was treated with orthotopic transplantation of large tissue-engineered bone without vascularization processing. After  2, 4, 8 weeks, gross observation, X-ray films, and tissue section were compared between the two groups.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Gross observation and imaging observation showed that the osteogenesis in the experimental group at 2, 4, 8 weeks were better than that in the control group. The ratio of new bone tissue to total area of bone graft was significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group at 2, 4, 8 weeks postoperatively (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that large vascularized tissue-engineered bone is preferred to the repair of large bone defects.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effects of warming the yang and benefiting the marrow on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in articular cartilage of rabbits with knee osteoarthritis
    Shan Peng-cheng, He Ming-jiang, Zhang Hong-mei, Jing Lin, Zhang Chun, Zhang Ren-zhuo, Yan Qi, Sha Yi-hui
    2014, 18 (7):  997-1002.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.003
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (799KB) ( 568 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There are few reports concerning effects of warming the yang and benefiting the marrow for the knee osteoarthritis on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of warming the yang and benefiting the marrow on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in rabbit models of knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Of 96 healthy adult New Zealand rabbits, 72 rabbits were randomly selected for making rabbit models of knee osteoarthritis using plaster external fixation. After success model establishment, the rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups. Model group was left intact. Chinese medicine group received daily intragastric administration of drug extract 24 mL/kg. Drug control group was daily intragastrically administered Puli Capsule (glucosamine hydrochloride) 24 mg/kg, once a day, until the eighth week of success model induction. An additional 24 New Zealand rabbits served as blank controls.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Using quantitative PCR, matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression was significantly higher in the model group than that in the other three groups. Matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression was significantly lower in the Chinese medicine group and drug control group than that in the model group. These results indicated that warming the yang and benefiting the marrow for knee osteoarthritis in rabbits could effectively inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinase in rabbits.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    COX-2 mRNA expression at different stages of osteoarthritis synoviocytes
    Zeng Ming-zhu, Duan Kan, Yuan Chang-shen, Mei Qi-jie, Qin Kai
    2014, 18 (7):  1003-1008.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.004
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (893KB) ( 779 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: COX-2 gene actually exists in the joint fibroblast-like synoviocytes, it affects osteoarthritis occurrence and development. Understanding the differences of COX-2 gene expression levels at different stages of osteoarthritis synoviocytes has important theoretical significance for the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis, as well as the role of synoviocytes in this process.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difference of COX-2 mRNA at different stages of osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.
    METHODS: Synovial membrane from 44 osteoarthritis patients and 12 normal cases were selected. Primary cells were cultured to passage 4 fibroblast-like synoviocytes for the use in the experiment. COX-2 mRNA expression in osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes and normal fibroblast-like synoviocytes was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The relative quantitative analysis was performed using 2-ΔΔCt method.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Expression of COX-2 mRNA in osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes was significantly higher than that in normal fibroblast-like synoviocytes (P < 0.05). The expression levels reached a peak at early osteoarthritis group, with significant differences compared with middle and late osteoarthritis groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between middle and later osteoarthritis groups (P > 0.05). COX-2 mRNA might be important biological marker for the inflammation in osteoarthritis, and mainly plays a role in early osteoarthritis stage.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium on bioactivity of scar fibroblasts
    Wu Yan, Zhang Chun-lei, Liu Yang, Li Hong-zhi, Yu Jing, Bao Hai-hua, Guo Ran, Yuan Xiao-huan
    2014, 18 (7):  1009-1014.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.005
    Abstract ( 420 )   PDF (733KB) ( 660 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promoted skin repair in trauma via various regulatory mechanisms and inhibited scar formation. At present, many scholars believed that bioactive factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells played an important role.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.
    METHODS: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were isolated and cultured, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium was prepared. Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were cultured in vitro with 12, 24, and 48 hour-collected conditioned medium for 24 hours, which was compared with blank control group. The proliferation of cells was determined by CCK-8. Type I and type III collagen expression in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was detected using real-time PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the blank control group, 24 and 48 hour-collected conditioned medium significantly inhibited the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.01), and also suppressed collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.01). Results suggested that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by secreting anti-fibrotic bioactive factors, which may provide new theoretical supports for cell therapy to reduce cutaneous scarring.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effects of undermining damage of enamelo-dentinal junction on stress distribution of sclerous tissues of dental cervix 
    Yang Wen-li, Lin Xue-feng, Liu Yao-peng
    2014, 18 (7):  1015-1020.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.006
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (804KB) ( 870 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Finite element contact analysis was performed in premolars of lower mandible with enamelo-dentinal junction defects, which provided biomechanical evidence for the prevention of wedge-shaped defect and occlusion treatment.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of undermining damage of the enamelo-dentinal junction on the stress distribution of sclerous tissues of dental cervix.
    METHODS: Triangle defects were established and models of wedge-shaped defect were designed in mandibular premolar along the enamelo-dentinal junction. The stresses during tightly biting and masticatory movement were simulated. Nonlinear contact analysis was conducted in sclerous tissues of mandibular premolar in the buccal cervical region.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: By simulating the stresses during tightly biting and masticatory movement, the stresses were concentrated in the defected regions of mandibular premolar at the enamelo-dentinal junction. With the defect length increased in size, the stress value and the magnitude of the stress field both increased. These indicated that the destruction of enamelo-dentinal junction altered stress distribution in the buccal cervical region. In the clinic, wedge-shaped defect should be filled promptly. 



    中国组织工程研究
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    A short-term assessment of angulated abutments for the implant denture restorations in posterior teeth
    Feng Wei, Geng Jin-you, Sun Yuan-yuan, Geng Hai-xia
    2014, 18 (7):  1021-1026.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.007
    Abstract ( 458 )   PDF (706KB) ( 749 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As the rapid development of oral implantation and restoration techniques, as well as the increasing enlargement of indications, angulated abutments have been widely used. Posterior teeth region, as the weight-loading region of occlusion, can bear great force from the implants, the assessment of angulated abutments in posterior teeth region has clinical value.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term clinical efficacy of angulated abutments on the implant denture in posterior teeth region.
    METHODS: From January 2008 to January 2013, 114 patients with 175 ITI implants in the posterior teeth region were included in this study and they all underwent single-crown restoration. The involved patients were divided into angulated abutment group and straight abutment group. Periodontal probing depth, modified plaque index, modified sulcus bleeding index and peri-implant crestal bone loss in two groups were recorded at 6 months and   2 years after restoration. Cumulative survival rate of the implant denture was calculated by life-table analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in periodontal probing depth, modified plaque index, and modified sulcus bleeding index between two groups (P > 0.05). The annual crestal bone loss showed no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, the 5-year cumulative survival rate with 15° and 20° abutments was 95.6%, and that with straight abutment was 96.4%. The angle of abutments has no correlation with peri-implant soft tissue and peri-implant crestal bone loss, implant restorations with 15° and 20° angulated abutments may be successfully used in the posterior region, whereas the long-term effects need further research.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Comparison of isokinetic knee muscle strength under different angular velocity and temporal-distance gait parameter
    Ji Zhi-guang, Zhuang Jie, Huang Liang
    2014, 18 (7):  1027-1032.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.008
    Abstract ( 716 )   PDF (693KB) ( 750 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The current studies concerning the effect of obesity on children are limited to metabolic physiology, and there is little evidence available on skeletal muscle and motor ability.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare isokinetic knee muscle strength between obese children and normal children, and analyze the causes of physical performance decline in obese children.
    METHODS: A total of 56 children were recruited in this study, including 28 obese children and 28 normal children. The isokinetic muscle strength was tested by CON-TREX. The gaits were tested by VICON. The statistical analysis of all the differences between obese children and normal children were measured using SPSS 19.0 software.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At the same gait speed, obese children had higher absolute peak torque and average power than normal children (P < 0.05), but relative peak torque and relative average power showed no significant difference compared with normal children (P > 0.05) except extensor group at 60(°)/s was significantly lower than normal children. At the same gait speed, the torque and power of extensor group were significantly higher than that of flexor group in the two groups (P < 0.05); he obese children showed significant differences in the absolute peak torque and absolute average power compared with relative peak torque and relative average power of flexor group at 120(°)/s (P < 0.05). In the two groups, the extensor exhibited higher torque in high speed, while the high flexor torque was found in low speed. Normal children had faster cadence and walking speed, significantly smaller step width and shorter stride time than obese children (P < 0.05). Obese children have smaller relative strength and higher absolute strength than normal children; in addition, the low cadence and walking speed are found in obese children. These factors contribute to weak limb strength and insufficient motor ability.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    A research on the shear stress for “myocardial bridge-coronary artery” analog device
    Ding Hao, Lan Hai-lian, Shang Kun
    2014, 18 (7):  1033-1038.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.009
    Abstract ( 386 )   PDF (822KB) ( 491 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: It is difficult to make an exact conclusion about the correlation between atherosclerosis and hemodynamic wall shear stress because of the complexity of the hemodynamic environment in the field of atherosclerosis research.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between characteristics of mural coronary artery hemodynamics parameters and atherosclerosis through myocardial bridge-coronary artery analog device.
    METHODS: Myocardial bridge-coronary artery analog device was used to simulate experiments in vitro. In the condition of keeping any related parameters unchanged, such as system temperature, the average flow rate and heart rate, we observed and recorded the changes of proximal and distal mean value and oscillatory value of shear stress of mural coronary artery by regulating the oppression level of myocardial bridge to mural coronary artery.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under 0% oppression, there was no significant difference in distal and proximal mean value and oscillatory value of shear stress of mural coronary artery. Under 50% oppression, the proximal oscillatory value of shear stress was significantly larger than that in the distal end. Under 80% oppression, mean shear stress in the distal end was larger than that in the proximal end. Oscillatory value of shear stress in the proximal end was larger than that in the distal end. With increased oppression, the mean shear stress in the distal end was higher than that in the proximal end, but oscillatory value in the proximal end was higher than that in the distal end. These results indicated that the increase of the oscillatory value of the proximal shear stress of mural coronary artery is an important factor for the occurrence of atherosclerosis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Extracelluar matrix stimulates neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons differently depending on whether extracted from degenerated or normal intervertebral disk
    Zhang Hui, Liu Lin, Xue Wen
    2014, 18 (7):  1039-1044.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.010
    Abstract ( 295 )   PDF (843KB) ( 728 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Compared with the normal intervertebral disk, the density of nerve fibers and number of nerve endings and neuropeptides appear to be more in the degenerated intervertebral disk. However, this phenomenon does not occur in the normally aged disk.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the axonal growth and induction of a painful neuropeptide and substance P using rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and degenerated human disc cells in vitro.
    METHODS: The human intervertebral discs were harvested from patients with discogenic low back pain and normal people. And extracelluar matrix extracted from human degenerative intervertebral discs was cultured with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. The promotion of axonal growth and induction of substance P of dorsal root ganglion neurons in extracted medium were evaluated through morphology observation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the normal group, the content of nerve growth factor in the degenerative group was significantly higher and the average length of neuritis was significantly longer in the experimental group (P < 0.05). After intervention with anti-nerve growth factor β, the average length of neuritis became remarkably shorter. The percentage of substance P-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher in the degenerative group compared with the normal group (P < 0.001). Nerve growth factors that highly express in the  extracellular matrix from the degenerative intervertebral dick can promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons and induce release of neuropeptides related to pain transmission.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Recombinant human epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor promote the proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells
    Peng Yan-yang, Wu Wei, Zeng Li-na, Chen Xiao-hong, Lu Xiao-he
    2014, 18 (7):  1045-1050.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.011
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (2059KB) ( 606 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The preparation of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been clinically used in the repair of ocular surface trauma. However, the concentration of these growth factors that achieve the maximal healing effect and the comparison of two kinds of growth factors on promoting wound healing are still controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rhEGF and bFGF on the cloning of human corneal epithelial cells.
    METHODS: The human corneal epithelial cells cultured in vitro were interfered with rhEGF and bFGF under different concentrations. The proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells was detected using MTT assay after 3, 5, 7 days of growth factors treatment. Plate clone formation assay was applied to observe the morphology of cell clone and analyze clone formation rate of human corneal epithelial cells.
    RESULTS and CONCLUSION: MTT value shows that 10 μg/L rhEGF and 10 μg/L bFGF on day 5 were the most powerful concentration. The clone formation rate of human corneal epithelial cells after treated with 10 μg/L rhEGF was higher than that with 10 μg/L bFGF (P = 0.02). The results confirmed that both rhEGF and bFGF could promote the proliferation and increase clone formation ability of human corneal epithelial cells. 10 μg/L rhEGF for 5 days achieves the best effect on promoting clone formation of human corneal epithelium cells.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Correlation between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in collagen-induced arthritis rats
    Yang Bo, Liang Qing-hua, Wu Dan, Xiong Xin-gui
    2014, 18 (7):  1051-1056.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.012
    Abstract ( 327 )   PDF (2251KB) ( 595 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor is found the strongest to promote angiogenesis, which show strong expression in synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in rheumatoid arthritis.
    METHODS: Collagen II and complete Freund’s adjuvant were used to induce experimental arthritis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Synovium expression of vascular endothelium growth factor and microvessel density were assayed at different time points using immunohistochemistry method, and changes in new vessels, vascular endothelial growth factor expression and arthritis index were observed along the time course. The correlations between vascular endothelial growth factor expression and number of new blood vessels as well as between arthritis index and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were studied with linear correlation analysis and rank correlation analysis, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the time lasting, new blood vessels in the synovium proliferated, the synovium was thickened, and the arthritis index rose gradually as well as vascular endothelial growth factor expression and number of new microvessels were on the rise. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was 
    positively correlated with arthritis index (r=0.535, P < 0.05) and significantly positively correlated with number of new microvessels (r=0.860, P < 0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor is involved in the course of synovium pannus response, and vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Construction of targeting short hairpin RNA plasmid vector expressing TERT gene
    Song Yang, Xu Tao, Yang Ming-kun, Sheng Wei-bin
    2014, 18 (7):  1057-1062.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.013
    Abstract ( 370 )   PDF (2104KB) ( 476 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays an important role in telomerase activation.
    OBJECTIVE: To construct the targeting short hairpin RNA plasmid vector expressing TERT gene from astrocytes by using pLentilox3.7.U6.
    METHODS: By using two sequences from TERT gene, we synthetized sense and antisense strand template sequences of RNA interference molecular in vitro, and then obtained the complementary strands through annealing procedure. We connected the strands with pLentilox3.7.U6 that was sequenced and transfected into the Escherichia coli. In the end, we tested its effect of reducing the TERT gene expressing by using cultured astrocytes from rat spinal cord in vitro through western blot and immunofluorescence technique.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Western blot and immunofluorescence assay showed that, compared with the control group, the interference groups had a lower TERT expression in astrocytes. The targeting short hairpin RNA plasmid vector expressing TERT gene is useful to reduce the TERT gene expression. The targeting short hairpin RNA plasmid vector expressing TERT gene is valid for us to do the further test learning the mechanism of astrocytes in spinal cord injury.  



    中国组织工程研究
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    Establishment of diabetic cystopathy guinea pig model and its urodynamic evaluation
    Luo Guang-cheng, He Zhi-hua, Luo Jian-zhen, Xu Yi-ming, Ma Hong
    2014, 18 (7):  1063-1068.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.014
    Abstract ( 459 )   PDF (2061KB) ( 652 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic cystopathy is one of the most common chronic diabetic complications. The establishment of animal models of diabetic cystopathy will provide experimental animal platform for relevant research.
    OBJECTIVE: To establish a guinea pig model of diabetic cystopathy and to evaluate its urodynamic characteristics.
    METHODS: Fifty short-hair Britain female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups, 42 as the experiment group and the other 8 as the control group. The experiment group was intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The control group received injection of blank citric acid buffered solution. Diabetic guinea pigs were detected by urinary dynamics test at 9 and 12 weeks. Diabetic guinea pigs were further assigned into diabetic cystopathy subgroup and compensated subgroup. The urodynamic parameters of three groups were compared.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Twenty of 42 guinea pigs were successfully induced diabetes by the injection of  streptozotocin. At 9 weeks after the injection, bladder function compensation was present in six diabetic guinea pigs while bladder function was decompensated in another three diabetic guinea pigs. At 12 weeks, bladder function compensation was present in one diabetic guinea pig, while another eight guinea pigs were confirmed with diabetic cystopathy (88.89%). In the diabetic cystopathy subgroup, the residual urine volume was increased (0.72±0.08) mL, maximal detrusor pressure was decreased (0.63±0.05) kPa, maximum bladder capacity was increased (2.01±0.05) mL, and bladder compliance was increased (0.34±0.04) mL/kPa. There were significant differences compared with the compensated subgroup and the control group (P < 0.001). Diabetic cystopathy occurs at 12 weeks after diabetic models are successfully established in guinea pigs, and urodynamic changes are mainly the increase of residual urine volume.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Relationship between learning and memory capacities and levodopa in rat models of Parkinson’s disease 
    Xing Hong-xia, Yuan Yan, Liu Sheng, Yin Chuang, Han Jin-hong, Zhou Hui-cong, Su Zhou, Guo Shuang-xi, Wang Yu-mei
    2014, 18 (7):  1069-1075.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.015
    Abstract ( 537 )   PDF (2461KB) ( 635 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Classical drug for Parkinson’s disease is levodopa, but long-term application of levodopa can induce complications such as dyskinesias.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of levodopa on learning and memory capacities of Parkinson’s disease rats and to study its mechanisms.
    METHODS: The rat models of Parkinson’s disease were established using 6-hydroxydopamine. The 228 model rats were randomly divided into control group and experimental group. Rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally injected with 10, 20 and 30 mg/(kg•d) levodopa for 28 consecutive days. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and   28 days after intraperitoneal injection, we observed the rats’ learning and memory capacities and tested plasma concentration of homocysteine and folic acid. Acetylcholinesterase activities in the rat hippocampus were measured. Hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles were observed using Bielschowsky staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Increased dose of levodopa and prolonged application time obviously decreased learning and memory capacities in rats (P < 0.001), increased plasma homocysteine levels, reduced folic acid levels (P < 0.001), diminished acetylcholine esterase activities in the rat hippocampus (P < 0.001), and increased neurofibrillary tangles in the rat hippocampus (P=0.000). Results suggested that a large dose of levodopa could significantly decrease the learning and memory capacities, and disease acetylcholine esterase activities, and increase neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampus. Its mechanism possibly associated with the increased plasma concentration of homocysteine.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Influence of different blood serum concentration and growth time on olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa of adult rats
    Zhang Zhi-qiang, Li Yi-nan, Zhou Ying, Yang Jian-dong, Feng Xin-min
    2014, 18 (7):  1076-1081.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.016
    Abstract ( 336 )   PDF (857KB) ( 455 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary experiments have reported the influence of serum and nerve growth factor on olfactory ensheathing cells proliferation in vitro, but there are less studies concerning choice of serum concentration and growth time for in vitro culture of olfactory ensheathing cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To find out the influence of different blood serum concentration and growth time on olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa of adult rats based on the growth curve of olfactory ensheathing cells.
    METHODS: The olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory mucosa of adult rats were separated, culture and identified in vitro. Sulforhodamine B and microplate reader were employed to measure absorbance values and plot growth curve of olfactory ensheathing cells.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When cultured for the same time in blood serum of different concentrations, absorbance values, especially in the groups 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, tended to increase with time except the 0% group. When cultured in the same serum for different time, absorbance values increased within the first 9 days, then promoted rapidly in the groups 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% at 13 days, entered the plateau phase at 19 days,   and decreased at 23 days; meanwhile, in the other groups (50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%) the absorbance values peaked at the 13th day and then decreased gradually. These findings indicate that different serum concentrations and different growth time in vitro affect cell growth and survival of olfactory ensheathing cells significantly, which should be fully considered when cells are cultured in an in vitro condition.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and factors affecting platelet recovery
    Shan Hong, Wang Jiao-jie, Bie Li-li, Liu Min, Qi Zheng, Duan Yan-li
    2014, 18 (7):  1082-1087.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.017
    Abstract ( 606 )   PDF (848KB) ( 705 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and plasma-rich platelet concentrates have a high incidence of invalid infusion and adverse reactions.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and to analyze the influential factors relevant to platelet recovery.
    METHODS: 400 mL of blood sample extracted from 126 cases were randomly divided into improved buffy-coat group, buffer-coat group and platelet-rich plasma after 4-6 hours. The 3-step centrifugal method was used for improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates: step 1, centrifugation at 2 300 r/min for       12 minutes at (22±2)℃ with a deceleration of 5; step 2, centrifugation at 910 r/min for 10 minutes at (22±2)℃; step 3, centrifugation at 2 800 r/min for 12 minutes at (22±2)℃. After centrifugation, the upper layer containing few platelets was removed, and the rest 30 mL platelet suspension was platelet concentrates. Factors affecting platelet recovery were analyzed through literature retrieval.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no difference in platelet number among the three groups before preparation of platelet concentrates (P  > 0.05). A higher rate of platelet recovery was found in the platelet-rich plasma group and improved buffy-coat group compared with the buffy-coat group (P  < 0.05), but there was no difference between the former two groups (P > 0.05). There were less residual red blood cells and white blood cells in the two buffy-coat groups than the platelet-rich plasma group (P  < 0.05), but there was no difference between the two buffy-coat groups (P  > 0.05). The recovery rate of prepared platelet concentrates was affected by the whole blood amount, centrifugal speed, centrifugation time and methods. Improved buffy-coat method for preparation of platelet concentrates can be generalized in blood centers or blood stations, because it can reduce residual red blood cells and white blood cells and increase rate of platelet recovery.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Mesenchymal stem cells-stents complex in repair of meniscus injury in knee joint
    Liu Yi-jun, Zhang Qiu-xia, Tian Jing
    2014, 18 (7):  1088-1093.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.018
    Abstract ( 508 )   PDF (614KB) ( 599 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Meniscus injury is a common disease, whose curative effect is not obvious. The clinical application of tissue engineering technology is gradually rising, and mesenchymal stem cells-stents complex is expected to be used for the treatment of meniscus injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the application process of mesenchymal stem cells-stents complex in meniscus injury, in order to provide reference for further study and clinical practice.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed database, VIP database, Wanfang database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure between 1980 and 2013 was performed to search related articles on mesenchymal stem cells-stents complex in meniscus injury. The key words were “mesenchymal stem cell, meniscus injury, tissue engineering, scaffold, stent” in English and “mesenchymal stem cell, meniscus injury, tissue engineering” in Chinese. For the articles in the same field, we preferred the ones published recently or in authorize journals. Meta-analysis and repetitive studies were excluded. 282 articles were included, and finally
    59 articles were included according to inclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Nowadays, numerous experiments showed that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into chondrocytes both in vivo or vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells-stents complex could be effective to meniscus injury. Although this technique is still in exploratory stage, it has promising application prospects in treatment of meniscus injury, because it is characterized by convenience to collect samples, vitality and no antigenicity.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Tissue engineering of articular cartilage: integration and remodeling of normal cartilages surrounding grafts and new cartilages
    Jiang Hui, Liu Xiao-zhou, Wang Rui
    2014, 18 (7):  1094-1100.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.019
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (595KB) ( 401 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Because the tissue regeneration capacity of articular cartilage is very low, the cartilage defects induced by joint injuries or degenerative diseases are hard to do their own repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To comprehend the current status of tissue engineering of articular cartilage by analyzing data.
    METHODS: The PubMed database and CNKI database from 2000 to 2013 were retrieved using computer with the key words of “articular cartilage, tissue engineering, signaling molecules, scaffolds” in English and “articular cartilage, tissue engineering, cell source, signaling molecules, scaffolds” in Chinese. A total of 202 literatures were screened out, and the repetitive and irrelevant researches were eliminated. Finally, 70 literatures were included for review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The most investigated cell sources for their potential in cartilage tissue engineering are chondrocytes and stem cells. Several cytokines, hormones and growth factors are known to influence the synthesis, anabolic and catabolic processes by chondrocytes. New biomaterial scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering provide a comfortable niche for cells, where cells were stimulated to synthesize cartilage matrix, and to temporarily replace the function of the native matrix until new cartilage had formed. With the deepening of the researches, tissue engineering articular cartilage will exhibit good prospects.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Biomechanical progress of fatigue effect on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury
    Liu Hai-rui, Wu Xie, Wu Ying
    2014, 18 (7):  1101-1108.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.020
    Abstract ( 357 )   PDF (596KB) ( 689 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament injury can trigger knee instability, knee osteoarthritis which decreases human beings’ life quality. Exploration on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism can prevent the occurrence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of fatigue effect on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury and to introduce the progression of fatigue effect on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in jump-landing activities.
    METHODS: The author retrieved the PubMed database from 1988 to 2013 by computer. The key words were set as: ACL, landing, and fatigue. A total of 42 articles were included which related to biomechanics research on anterior cruciate ligament injury, fatigue landing and low-limb injury.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In jump-landing activities, knee valgus, moment, knee joint rotation and smaller knee flexion are main biomechanics underlying non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. In addition, fatigue effect is another critical factor for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, the cause-effect between fatigue effect and anterior cruciate ligament injury is not clearly investigated and summarized, especially on fatigue level, fatigue induction and movement control. Introduction of fatigue induction is crucial for better understanding how fatigue effect results in anterior cruciate ligament injury. Thus, the quantification of fatigue level, fatigue models and landing ways will provide new ideas for exploring biomechanical mechanism underlying anterior cruciate ligament injury in fatigue state, as well as provide more information on intervention design and injury rehabilitation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Cytoskeleton and mechanical signal transduction
    Yao Yi-cun, Liang Wei-guo, Ye Dong-ping
    2014, 18 (7):  1109-1114.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.021
    Abstract ( 881 )   PDF (594KB) ( 1087 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cells under mechanical stimulation can achieve their biological functions by converting mechanical signals into chemical signals through certain signal transduction mechanism. As the fibrous framework throughout a cell, cytoskeleton is one of the critical components in this process.
    OBJECTIVE: Through systemically analyzing the role of the cytoskeleton in mechanical signal transduction, to provide a potential therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of cytoskeleton related diseases.
    METHODS: In order to search relevant articles about the mechanics mechanism of signal transduction of cytoskeleton from PubMed and CNKI databases (from 1990 to 2012), a computer-based search was performed, using the key words of “cytoskeleton, microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, mechanical stimulation, signal transduction” in English and Chinese, respectively. After eliminating literatures which were irrelevant to research purpose or containing a similar content, 48 articles were chosen for further analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mechanical stimulation plays an important role in cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. With the gradual understanding of the biological function of cytoskeleton, people have found that cytoskeleton is one of the critical components in the process of the mechanical signal transduction. After getting mechanical stimulation, cytoskeleton can be reorganized through Rho, protein kinase C, integrin and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, then converting the mechanical stimulation to chemical signals and finishing its biological functions finally.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Tissue-engineered tooth regeneration: hotspots and clinical application
    Liu Peng-peng, Shen Hui-juan, Wang Zi-yi, Wu Yin-fang, Jin Guang-yong, Qi Qian-xian, Zeng Xian-zhi
    2014, 18 (7):  1115-1120.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.022
    Abstract ( 591 )   PDF (674KB) ( 1488 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. With the development of biological and biomaterial sciences, recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention.
    OBJECTIVE: To reflect advances and problems of tissue engineering technologies for promotion of tooth regeneration.
    METHODS: Using the keywords of “tissue engineering, tooth regeneration” in English and Chinese, PubMed and CNKI databases from 2007 to 2013 were retrieved. A total of 65 literatures addressing tooth regeneration and 
    tissue engineering were collected, including 25 Chinese articles and 40 English articles. Published early, repetitive, and similar researches were excluded. Finally, 48 articles were included.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The combination of stem cells and suitable scaffolds is widely used in tooth regeneration today, and growth factors or bone marrow which can produce promote tooth regeneration are added as well, which has achieved partial or whole tooth regeneration. But there are apparent deficiencies in studies which focus on mechanisms behind tooth regeneration.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Association of elite athlete performance and gene polymorphisms
    Yang Ruo-yu, Wang Yu-bin, Shen Xun-zhang, Cai Guang
    2014, 18 (7):  1121-1128.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.023
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (588KB) ( 1856 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Human has a high level heritability in physical performance. With the development of technology and test method in molecular biology, the researchers of sport science are concerned with the influence of gene variation on the elite athlete performance. They begin to know the important value of gene on predicting the physical performance.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research results in the field of gene polymorphisms and elite athlete performance and to expatiate the problems in these researches, thereby offering some proposals.
    METHODS: A computer-based online research of PubMed and CNKI databases was performed to collect articles published from 1998 to 2013 with the key words “elite athlete performance, gene polymorphisms, endurance, power, training response” in Chinese and English. There were 150 articles after the initial survey. A total of 80 articles were included according inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The researches of this field are mainly focused on the three aspects: elite endurance performance, elite power performance, and training response, which are associated with gene polymorphisms. The main genes related to elite endurance performance are ACE, mtDNA, PPAR, ADR, GNB3, NRF2, etc. The main genes related to elite power performance are ACTN3, ACE, GDF-8, IL-6, HIF-1, etc. The main genes related to training response are HBB, TFAM, NRF2, AR, FECH, etc. Several gaps in the current researches have been identified including small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds. The numerous research findings can be applied to the gene selection of athletes by creating some kinds of algorithms and models.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Meta-analysis on the prevalence rate of osteoporosis in the middle-aged and elderly in China
    Han Ya-jun, Tie Xiao-jia, Yilihamu•Tuoheti
    2014, 18 (7):  1129-1134.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.024
    Abstract ( 1042 )   PDF (608KB) ( 1921 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Investigation regarding epidemiologic features of osteoporosis in many areas of China has been much reported. However, studies regarding large samples and multicenter in China have been rarely reported. It is said that published papers cannot give a good description about the epidemiologic features of osteoporosis at present.
    OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemiologic features of osteoporosis by evaluating the data on the epidemiology of osteoporosis in the middle-aged and elderly in China.
    METHODS: Meta-analysis was used to evaluate the data extracted from 2000-2013 published papers on the epidemiology of prevalence rates of osteoporosis in the middle-aged and elderly in China. The prevalence rates of osteoporosis were extracted from middle-aged and elderly populations aged above 40 years, with 10 years for a group. The studies were collected and analyzed using Stata 12.0.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Thirty two articles were included with a total of 58 254 people (26 844 males and 31 410 females). The total prevalence rate of osteoporosis at the age above 40 years in China was 13.2%. The prevalence rate of males was 11.8% and that of females was 14.2%, and there was a significant difference between males and females (P < 0.05). With aging, the prevalence rate of osteoporosis is increasing both in males and females, which increases gradually in males but significantly elevates in females over 50 years old. In China, the detection rate of lumbar osteoporosis is higher in the northern region than the southern region,  probably because of more heavy physical activities in the northern region; whereas, the detection rate of Ward’s osteoporosis is higher in the southern region than the northern region. In the recent 5 years, the prevalence rate of osteoporosis is significant increased in males and reduced in females compared with 5 years ago. These findings suggest that osteoporosis in Chinese is common and extensively distributed, and it is important to propagate knowledge of osteoporosis and prevent osteoporosis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Physique properties of 520 aged people in Jiangsu Province of China
    Zhang Pan-cheng, Zhang Jian-guo, Yang Guo-wei
    2014, 18 (7):  1135-1142.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.025
    Abstract ( 472 )   PDF (857KB) ( 692 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: It is important for the aged population to improve the locomotor activity, maintain a high-level quality of life, and delay the loss of self-care ability.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the physique properties and influencing factors of the aged population in some areas of Jiangsu province, and to investigate the rule of physiological aging process.
    METHODS: In nine test sites of three cities (Nanjing, Yanhceng and Changzhou) of Jiangsu Province, 520 effective samples were collected and composed of 42.9% males and 57.1% females. We tested the reliability and validity of inspected questionnaire on the aged physique and sports, and then adopted the questionnaire to get general demographic information about their gender, age, education, used occupation, income and physical exercise. At the same time, physical tests were performed (including nine projects such as body shape, physical function, body quality).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ① More than half of the surveyed aged have reached overweight level according to their body mass index, while only a few have normal body mass index, especially the females. ② Most of the surveyed aged have abnormal blood pressure, and a large number of the aged are in moderate to severe hypertension. ③ There is a gradually reduction in upper and lower limbs muscle strength, balance ability and walking ability along the aging, a substantial drop is found after 75 years old. There is no obvious difference between male group and female group expect grip strength. ④ Physical exercise can delay the degenerative change in muscle strength and balance ability of the aged. Education has great influence on the physical quality and used occupation influences blood pressure. Having a retired wage also has significant effects on physical quality index and blood pressure, but no influence is found in body shape.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Virtual reality-enhanced body weight-supported treadmill training improved lower limb motor function in patients with cerebral infarction
    Xiao Xiang, Mao Yu-rong, Zhao Jiang-li, Li Le, Xu Guang-qing, Huang Dong-feng
    2014, 18 (7):  1143-1148.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.07.026
    Abstract ( 666 )   PDF (751KB) ( 1114 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Most stroke patients affected walking dysfunction. Virtual reality-enhanced body weight-supported treadmill training has been proposed as a strategy for gait training of cerebral infarction subjects.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality-enhanced body weight-supported treadmill training on lower limb motor function in subacute cerebral infarction patients.
    METHODS: Twenty cerebral infarction patients (within 3 months of onset) were randomly divided into experiment group (virtual reality-enhanced body weight-supported treadmill training) and control group (conventional physiotherapy). Three-dimensional gait analysis in lower limb motor function was carried out before and after 3-week gait training. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons in the following parameters were done before and after training: walking speed, cadence, step time, single limb support time (%), double limb support time (%), nonparetic swing (%), step length, pace, range of motion in the lower limb, functional ambulation category, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the lower limbs and Brunel Balance Assessment.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No significant differences in patient’s gender, age, course of disease, affected.  side, walking speed, functional ambulation category, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the lower limbs and Brunel Balance Assessment were detected between the two groups before training (P > 0.05). Fugl-Meyer Assessment and functional ambulation category were improved in patients of the two groups after training (P < 0.05). The improvement in walking speed, cadence, step time in affected side, step time in healthy side, single limb support time in affected side (%), nonparetic swing (%), pace, step lengths in affected and healthy sides were better in the experimental group than those in the control group.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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