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    14 May 2014, Volume 18 Issue 20 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Expression of transient receptor potential M8 in human knee joint cartilage
    Yu Bin, Nie Bo-yuan, Yang Zhao-hui
    2014, 18 (20):  3117-3121.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.001
    Abstract ( 257 )   PDF (706KB) ( 409 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential protein channel is distributed in many kinds of tissue and cells in human body, and takes part in many physiologic functions and pathological changes of human body. However, up to now, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) has not been reported in human cartilage.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of TRPM8, a subfamily member of transient receptor potential gene, in human knee joint cartilage.
    METHODS: Fifteen samples were selected from patients after amputatioin due to severe trauma. Total protein was extracted from 300 mg cartilage tissue of every patient. To detect the distribution of TRPM8 in human cartilage, cartilage sections were collected in the same region. The expression and distribution of TRPM8 in human cartilage was detected by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Western blot analysis showed that specific TRPM8 band was visible at molecular weight of 130 000, and as the age increased, TRPM8 expression in human cartilage was gradually decreased. Immunofluorescence staining results showed that TRPM8 was evenly located in the cell membrane of chondrocytes. TRPM8 is expressed in the human knee cartilage, specifically in member of chondrocytes.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Impaired fracture healing and change of advanced glycation end products in vivo
    in type 2 diabetes rats
    Liu Zhen-dong, Liu Ya-jiang, Gao Min-wei, Huang Zu-fa, Liao Xiao-jun, Shi Lei
    2014, 18 (20):  3122-3126.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.002
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (853KB) ( 527 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Increasing attention has been paid on the role of advanced glycation end products in bone tissue. Glucose metabolic disorder is one of the main reasons for the increase of advanced glycation end products.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the change of advanced glycation end products expressed in type 2 diabetes rats, and to investigate the relationship between impaired fracture healing and change of advanced glycation end products expression in vivo.
    METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equally divided into two groups: control group (normal feeding) and experimental group (high fat and sucrosum diet feeding to establish type 2 diabetes model). After diabetes models were established, the model of distraction osteogenesis in the left tibiae of all the rats was produced. Distraction was given 0.3 mm per day and continued for 14 days.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After the traction was complete, callus formation in distraction gap was obviously reduced in experimental group compared with control group by X-ray examination. The array of microcolumn formation was disordered and the area of primary matrix front was catachromasis by histology examination. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that, the level of advanced glycation end products was obviously elevated (P < 0.01) while osteocalcin was obviously reduced (P < 0.01) in experimental group in comparison with control group. The formation of distraction callus was impaired in the process of fracture healing and blood of type 2 diabetes rats. The increase of advanced glycation end products may be one of the reasons that cause impaired fracture healing in diabetic rats.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Construction of tissue engineering adult cardiac myocytes
    Bai Chen-guang, Liu Xiao-hong
    2014, 18 (20):  3127-3132.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.003
    Abstract ( 291 )   PDF (2087KB) ( 566 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Construction of tissue engineering adult cardiac myocytes has been a new research hotspot in cardiovascular fields.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore a simple, fast method for the separation of adult rat cardiomyocytes, and preliminarily explore the construction methods of tissue engineering adult cardiac myocytes.
    METHODS: Segmented enzymatic digestion method was used to isolate cardiac myocytes from adult rats. Subsequently, cardiac myocytes were transfected with adenovirus and liposome-mediated red fluorescent protein gene. Construction efficiency of tissue engineering cells was qualified using inverted fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Finally, cardiac myocytes were transfected with adenovirus-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1a, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a was examined by western blot analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A lot of cardiac myocytes were collected using the segmented enzyme digestion method. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the survival of adult cardiomyocytes was (87.03±0.70)%. Compared with liposomal transfection (transfection efficiency was 0), adenovirus infection efficiency was (70.31± 1.39)%, and the cells expressed red fluorescence under fluorescence microscope. After 4 days of adenovirus infection, transfected cells expressed hypoxia-inducible factor-1a protein. These results showed that segmented enzyme digestion is a fast way to isolate adult cardiac myocytes, and recombinant adenovirus vector is a good vector to transfect cardiac myocytes.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Survival of engineered myocardium constructed by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro
    Tian Mao, Piao Hai-nan, Chen Yu, Zhao Qi, Pan Xin
    2014, 18 (20):  3133-3138.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.004
    Abstract ( 423 )   PDF (1957KB) ( 445 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: So far, engineered myocardium is still facing many problems. Research has demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into myocardial cells. Polyglycolide and polycaprolactone are commonly used artificial polymers, which have good biocompatibility.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the growth of the poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer patch in vitro in normal myocardium and infarcted myocardium.
    METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in Sprague-Dawley rats were separated using adherent separation and selection method, cultured in vitro. The third passage was labeled with DAPI. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspensions (2×106/cm2) were produced and planted on poly(glycolic acid)/ poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer scaffolds to form poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer patch. After culturing for 48 hours, the specimens were observed under electron microscope, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then observed under light microscope. Rat models of myocardial infarction were established by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery. Poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer patch was implanted into the normal and infarcted myocardium for 5 weeks. The survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was determined by the detection of pathology.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results of light microscope and electron microscope demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew three-dimensionally on poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer patch. Cells and patch were adhesive well. Under laser confocal microscopy, compared with the first week, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were marked by DAPI in the myocardium at the fifth week. There were bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells marked by DAPI in the infracted area. Results of hematoxylin-eosin staining exhibited that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were detected in the infarct area. These results suggested that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells adhered to the poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer stent well. The complexes of poly(glycolic acid)/poly(e-caprolactone) copolymer and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be used for reparation of myocardium.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Constructing autologous composite skin around the expander for the repair of skin defects
    Ai Jian-xiong, He Li-xia, Yang Ren-huan, Ya Zu-meng
    2014, 18 (20):  3139-3143.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.005
    Abstract ( 349 )   PDF (1832KB) ( 348 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The construction of tissue engineered skin needs a long time and high price, and the repair effects are poor. Moreover, the problems such as antigen elimination and disease propagation are not thoroughly solved. How to solve the tough problem of wound surface repair in patients lacking of autologous skin using current mature technology before the occurrence of ideal tissue engineered skin.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of autologous composite skin constructed around expanders on the repair of the wound surface.
    METHODS: A total of 10 rabbits were selected. Two globular silica gel expanders were embedded subcutaneously in the symmetrical sites on the back of rabbits. After the expanders were covered by fiber kystis, cell suspension of primary cultured skin epithelial cells (experimental group) or physiological saline (control group) were infused into lacuna between the expander. Four weeks later, the expanders were obtained. Experimental group presented epithelization, i.e., autologous composite skin. The skin and some fiber members on the top of the expanders were resected around the encystations. The fiber kystis on the bottom and surrounding the expanders was left to form the wound surface covered by autologous composite skin. However, the wound surface was covered by non-epithelization fiber kystis in the control group. The healing of wound surface was observed until recovered.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the experimental group, the wound surface was ruddy and pure, with less secretion; the average healing time was (14.0±0.4) days; the microscopic appearance indicated that epithelial layer was thick and regular. In the control group, there was more secretion on wound surface; the average healing time was (27.0±0.7) days; the microscopic appearance indicated that epithelial layer was thin and irregular. These results suggested that the construction of autologous composite skin around the expanders could noticeably promote the healing of wound surface.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Cyclic stress promotes the proliferation of rabbit condyle chondrocytes
    Liu Wen, Wang Yan, Song Ling, Zhang Chun-yan, Zhang Yue, Yuan Xiao
    2014, 18 (20):  3144-3148.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.006
    Abstract ( 415 )   PDF (1854KB) ( 403 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The condyle is one of important areas of lower mandible growth, and has growth remodeling capacity lifetime. The in vivo functional research fails to obtain satisfactory outcome due to the complexity of physiological environment, nondirectiveness of stimulating factor transduction, and difficulty to control experimental conditions. Further studies will explore the effect of stress on condyle chondrocytes in vitro.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of cyclic stress on the proliferation of rabbit condyle chondrocytes cultured  in vitro.
    METHODS: Rabbit condyle chondrocytes were separated and cultured in vitro. Passage 3 chondrocytes were subject to cyclic tensile stress (10% surface elongation, 6 cycles/min) for 1, 6, 12, 24 hours. While those cells without stress served as the control group. The cell cycle changes were detected with flow cytometry analysis, and the cell proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The flow cytometry analysis showed that S-phase promoting factor exhibited significant differences at 6 and 12 hours compared with control group, and got the maximum value at 24 hours  (P < 0.01). MTT assay results showed that the cells proliferation at 6 and 12 hours exhibited significant differences compared with the control group, and got the maximum value at 24 hours (P < 0.01). The cyclic stress can obviously promote the proliferation of condyle chondrocytes, and the stimulative effect can be sustained 24 hours.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Influence of geniposide on collagen II synthesis of cultured chondrocytes in vitro
    Tan Yu-lin1, Bao Tong-zhu, Liu Qin, Han Yu, Wang Yan-lin, Liu Yang, Zhou Na-xin, Yan Fei,Zhao Long-tao
    2014, 18 (20):  3149-3152.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.007
    Abstract ( 291 )   PDF (1462KB) ( 478 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Chinese herb Cape Jasmine Fruit can activate the chondrocytes and geniposide is an important component in this herb.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of geniposide on collagen II synthesis in rat chondrocytes cultured in vitro.
    METHODS: Rat chondrocytes were separated and cultured in vitro. The chondrocytes were then interfered with 25, 50 and 100 mmol/L geniposide. Normal control group was also set. Collagen II mRNA and protein expression was detected with semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: RT-PCR and western blot analysis results showed that, geniposide at 25, 50 and 100 mmol/L increased the collagen II mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Geniposide can promote the synthesis of collagen II in rat chondrocytes cultured in vitro.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of limb ischemic preconditioning on immature myocardial cells apoptosis and endopasmic reticulum stress
    Sun Zhong-dong, Song Yu-e, Liu Guo-dong, Zhang Jie, Zheng Jian-wei
    2014, 18 (20):  3153-3157.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.008
    Abstract ( 313 )   PDF (1667KB) ( 320 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, endoplasmic reticulum stress-caused apoptosis plays a crucial role in ischemia impairment and has become the hotspot of studies addressing myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The lower limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP) has the obvious protective effect on the immature myocardium, but until now, no study reports whether LIP effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress apoptosis in immature myocardial cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of LIP on endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis.
    METHODS: Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts were used in this study. Twenty-four immature rabbits were randomized into three groups. Control group: Isolated rabbit heart was only perfused with Krebs-Henseleit for 180 minutes. I/R group: Isolated rabbit heart was perfused 20 minutes, and then ischemia for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion 100 minutes. LIP group: Limbs were repeatedly obstructed 5 minutes and relaxed 5 minutes for three times, to establish Langendorff models, and then repeated the method of ischemia/reperfusion in I/R group. The myocardial apoptosis was assayed with TUNEL method. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, Bcl-2, Bax and Fas was detected with western blot analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with I/R group, apoptosis rate was significantly lower, the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, and the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, Bax and Fas was significantly lower in LIP group. This study demonstrated that LIP regulates myocardial cell apoptosis through 
    reducing the expression of endopasmic reticulum stress GRP78, Bax and Fas and increasing the expression of Bcl-2.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and endothelial progenitor cells improve neovascularization
    Wu Yuan-bing, Wang Yu-qi, Fu Wei-guo, Zhu Yun-feng, Ge Hong-wei
    2014, 18 (20):  3158-3164.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.009
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (2374KB) ( 610 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The endothelial dysfunction is the pathogenesis of arteriosclerotic disease, the quantity and function of endothelial progenitor cells are decreased within the cycle, leading to a poor capacity of neovascularizatio, the efficacy of stem cell transplantation alone is unclear, the combination of cytokines and gene-modified stem cells is the hotspot.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of stromal cell-derived factor-1 on the neovascularization after endothelial progenitor cells transplantation.
    METHODS: Unilateral hindlimb ischemia model was established in 20 athymic nude mice, and the mice were randomly divided into four groups: combined group (intravenous endothelial progenitor cells+intramuscular stromal cell-derived factor-1), endothelial progenitor cells group (intravenous injection of endothelial progenitor cells), stromal cell-derived factor-1 group (intramuscular injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1), and blank control group (intramuscular M199). The skin temperature of ischemic hindlimbs and survival of animals after transplantation were observed. The ratio of capillary/skeletal muscle fiber was counted. The expression of CD31 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were detected. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The fluorescence-labeled endothelial cells were embedded in ischemic hindlimb muscles after cell transplantation. Of the 20 nude mice, two mice died. The rate of ischemic hindlimb reserving was respectively 80%, 75%, 20% and 0 in combined group, endothelial progenitor cells group, stromal cell-derived factor-1 group, and blank control group. The capillary/muscle fiber ratio in combined group and endothelial progenitor cells group was higher than that of blank control group (P < 0.01). The combined group was greater than endothelial progenitor cells group, and endothelial progenitor cells group was greater than stromal cell-derived factor-1 group (P < 0.05). The capillary density in combined group and endothelial progenitor cells group were higher than that in blank control group  (P < 0.01), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 group was also more than blank control group (P < 0.05). The combined group was greater than endothelial progenitor cells group, and endothelial progenitor cells group was greater than stromal cell-derived factor-1 group (P < 0.05). The positive rate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was 73.33% and 53.33% in combined group and endothelial progenitor cells group respectively (P > 0.05). Endothelial progenitor cells can migrate to ischemic tissues, endothelial progenitor cells transplantation can promote neovascularization, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 augments the neovascularization after cell transplantation, in which endothelial nitric oxide synthase is involved.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Histology research on repairing of rabbit articular cartilage defects with naringin and tissue engineering cartilage
    Li Chun-gen, Qu Yi, Ye Chao, Chen Jing, Wang Feng-xian, Li Peng-yang, Li Su-hua, Ren Jing-pei, Qi Jian
    2014, 18 (20):  3165-3171.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.010
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (3196KB) ( 447 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are many methods to treat cartilage defects, but none radically repairs the articular cartilage defects.
    OBJECTIVE: To histologically verify the effect of naringin combined with tissue engineering cartilage on the repair of rabbit articular cartilage defects.
    METHODS: Rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells following in vitro proliferation were compounded onto acellular dermal matrix, which was then implanted into rabbit knee cartilage defects. Naringin was also given by lavage. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson trichrome staining, toluidine blue dyeing, type II collagen staining and type X collagen staining were performed in the repaired tissue.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 8 weeks post-surgery, the defects repaired with the naringin and stem cells composite were turned into milky-white and transparent smooth tissue. The defective tissue which was repaired, was very similar to normal cartilage tissue, with smooth surface. After the histology research, we found that the defect tissue was filled with new cartilage tissue. Results indicated that naringin combined with tissue engineering cartilage can promote the repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Smoking promotes the resorption of periodontal alveolar bone
    Zhu Jian-hua, Wang Ying, Zhao Zhong-nan, Liu Ji-guang
    2014, 18 (20):  3172-3177.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.011
    Abstract ( 555 )   PDF (2193KB) ( 362 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Various studies confirm that smoking can contribute to the resorption of periodontal alveolar bone.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of smoking in alveolar bone resorption of periodontitis rat models.
    METHODS: A total of 24 rats were randomly divided into three groups. Normal group: rats were normally fed without any other pre-treatment; Control group: experimental periodontitis model was established using wire ligation method in rats; Experimental group: rat models were given passive smoking during experimental modeling period. All rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks of modeling, periodontal tissue were removed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for examining pathological changes in periodontal tissue, and immunohistochemical analysis was done for observing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegrin expression.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 8 weeks of modeling, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand factor was significantly higher in alveolar bone of rats from experimental group in comparison to control group (P < 0.05), whereas expression of osteoprotegerin in alveolar bone was significantly greater in rats from control group when compared to experimental group (P < 0.05). This finding suggests that smoking can increase the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand protein and reduce osteoprotegrin expression in periodontal rats, thus increasing the resorption of periodontal alveolar bone.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Correlation of canal flare index of the proximal femur with bone mineral density of the femoral neck
    Li Yi-zhong, Zhuang Hua-feng, Cai Si-qing, Lin Jin-kuang, Yao Xue-dong, Pan Yuan-cheng,
    2014, 18 (20):  3178-3183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.012
    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (662KB) ( 631 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of osteoporosis is high in the patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Osteoporosis is associated with the survival of prostheses. Both canal flare index and bone mineral density are aged-related.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the cxorrelation between canal flare index of the proximal femur and bone mineral density of femoral neck, and to pay more attention to osteoporosis.
    METHODS: A retrospective study of the correlation between canal flare index of the proximal femur on pelvic radiograph and bone mineral density of femoral neck was made in 57 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The canal flare index were ranged 1.8-4.8 (3.1±0.7) in 57 patients. There were 23 patients in canal flare index < 3 (chimney-type medullary cavity), 33 in canal flare index between 3 and 4.7 (normal-type medullary cavity), and one in canal flare index > 4.7 (funnel-type medullary cavity). The age had an impact on the type of medullary cavity. The prevalence of chimney-type medullary cavity were significantly higher in > 60 years old group than ≤ 60 years old group, and bone mineral density of femoral neck in the group of canal flare index ≥ 3 was significantly higher than the group of canal flare index < 3. The bone mineral density of femoral neck was gradually reduced with age, and were significantly higher in ≤ 60 years old group than in > 60 years old group [(0.751±0.235) g/cm2, (0.590±0.092) g/cm2, P=0.000]. As bone mineral density reduced, canal flare index was also decreased. Experimental findings indicate that, the bone mineral density of femoral neck is significantly correlated with canal flare index.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on human periodontal ligament cells cultured in vitro
    Lin Yang-dong, Zhao Bo, Yin Kai
    2014, 18 (20):  3184-3189.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.013
    Abstract ( 324 )   PDF (800KB) ( 426 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Basic fibroblast growth factor is a pluripotent cytokine that can promote the proliferation of mesodermal and neuroectodermal cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor in human periodontal ligament cells cultured in vitro.
    METHODS: Human periodontal ligament cells at passage 5 were inoculated into the 96-well plates at the density of 1×108/L, and were randomly divided into four groups. The cells were cultured in α-MEM containing 15% fetal bovine serum and 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor, respectively. At 1, 3, 5, 7 days of the culture, the cell proliferation was determined, and the activity of alkaline phosphates was detected at 1 and 7 days.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells among the four groups (F=6.586, P=0.024). As the increase of the basic fibroblast growth factor concentrations, the absorbance value was gradually increased and reached the peak in 100 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor group (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase activity in basic fibroblast growth factor groups was lower than that of the control group (P=0.000), the higher the concentration was, the lower activity was (P < 0.05). Results show that basic fibroblast growth factor can promote the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells and inhibit the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and the effect is concentration-dependent.

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    Discriminant analysis of multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy signal data in the prefrontal lobe
    Liu Jian-zhe, Quan Wen-xiang, Lv Bin, Xie Yi, Dong Wen-tian
    2014, 18 (20):  3190-3195.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.014
    Abstract ( 334 )   PDF (1949KB) ( 584 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are largely diagnosed on symptomatology. Recently pattern recognition approaches to the analysis of neuroimaging data such as the classification of patients and healthy controls have attracted people’s interest.
    OBJECTIVE: To apply pattern recognition approaches to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects with multi-channel prefrontal near-infrared spectroscopy signals, and to verify its feasibility.
    METHODS: The near-infrared spectroscopy data were measured in the bilateral prefrontal areas of schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects during the Verbal Fluency Test task. After preprocessing, we calculated their mean values for each channel, and ranked the channel features based on the area under curve of the Receiver Operator Characteristic. Then, we trained support vector machine on the combinative features and applied Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation method to verify the classification ability.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the combination of the top eight rank channel features could reach the classification accuracy up to 95.24%, and all these channels are located at the right lateral prefrontal cortex. It is inferred that, right lateral prefrontal cortex is the main dominant brain areas in 
    schizophrenia patients; the near-infrared spectroscopy of right lateral prefrontal cortex is a potential means for assistant diagnosis of schizophrenia patients.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of Breviscapine on the survival and growth of rat cortical neurons cultured in vitro
    Li Jun-yan, Wang Dong-yan, Yang Jin-wei, Zhao Nan, Li Li-yan, Cheng Jing-ru, Ru Jin, Guo Jian-hui, Liu Jun
    2014, 18 (20):  3198-3201.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.015
    Abstract ( 366 )   PDF (2635KB) ( 413 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor plays an irreplaceable role on the survival, differentiation and maintenance of the central nervous system cells, also promote the growth and development of these cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore effect of Breviscapine on the growth of in vitro cultured neurons in cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats, and preliminarily investigate the action mechanism.
    METHODS: The cerebral cortex of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat embryos was collected, the neurons were primary cultured and randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (no treatment), control group (neurons were cultured with normal saline), Breviscapine group (neurons were cultured with 10 g/L Breviscapine). Furthermore each group was assigned into 24-hour and 48-hour subgroups. Images were captured from the 24-well plates at each time points. RT-PCR was applied to examine the expression of nerve growth factor and TrkA mRNA. MTT was used to detect the neuronal growth at each time point.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no difference between normal control group and control group in the cell counts, cell body area, neurite length and viability (P > 0.05), as the time prolonged, all data were raised in the 
    two groups (P < 0.05). Breviscapine group showed a higher cell count, cell body area, neurite length and viability than normal control group and control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of nerve growth factor and TrkA mRNA between normal control group and control group (P > 0.05). At each time point, these data in Breviscapine group were increased compared with normal control group and control group (P < 0.05). Breviscapine can promote the survival and growth of brain-derived neurons in Sprague-Dawley rats, and the mechanism might depend on the up-regulating expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor TrkA.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of rabbit nucleus pulposus tissue after anterior column disc removal on interbody fusion
    Xie Hong-ru, Wang Huan, Wang Xiao-wei, Jiang Hui, Pei Zheng
    2014, 18 (20):  3202-3206.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.016
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (2259KB) ( 426 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In treatment of lumbar diseases, lumbar fusion therapy fails in 20% of cases and may lead to a series of complications such as pain, intervertebral space collapse, and delayed kyphosis deformity.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of nucleus pulposus on interbody fusion after removing the anterior column disc of rabbit lumbar vertebra.
    METHODS: A total of 36 healthy Japanese white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups, with 12 rabbits in each group. (1) Group of anterior longitudinal ligament+bone grafting: The L3 intercalated disc were well exposed and anterior longitudinal ligament was stripped, obtaining a space to L3 intercalated disc, then the iliac bone was implanted. (2) Group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+bone grafting: After the anterior 1/3 disc tissue was excised, the iliac bone was implanted and sutured as Group of anterior longitudinal ligament+bone grafting. (3) Group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+fixation: After the anterior 1/3 disc tissue was excised, the iliac bone was implanted and the anterior column fixation was performed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Biomechanical testing showed that, at 12 weeks, the verticality tensile force in the group of anterior longitudinal ligament+bone grafting was obviously higher than other two groups, and have better fusion rate and could bear stronger force. Lateral position lumbar radiography showed that, the bone graft was absorbed and no new bone grew into the intervertebral space in the group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+bone grafting at 12 weeks; the formation of osseous bridge was found in the group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+fixation; complete bony fusion was found in the group of anterior longitudinal ligament+bone grafting. Histological examinations showed that, at 12 weeks, no bone tissue formed in the group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+bone grafting; a small amount of bone trabecula and osteocytes were observed in the group of excising anterior 1/3 disc+fixation; a great quantity of newborn bone trabecula and osteocytes, remodeling lamellar bone and canalis haversi structure were observed in the group of anterior longitudinal ligament+bone grafting. The stability of anterior column has notable effect on interbody fusion, after the anterior column disc is destroyed, the free nucleus pulposus may affect spinal fusion, so restoring the stability of the anterior column may promote interbody fusion, but still cannot get solid spinal fusion.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Clinical significance of spiral CT three-dimensional reconstruction for measurement of Chinese calcaneal data
    Meng Zhen, Wu Liang, Sun Xiao-liang, Gong Zong-ming, Zhang Lei, Chen Hai-ou
    2014, 18 (20):  3207-3211.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.017
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (689KB) ( 364 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Calcaneus is a kind of irregular bone, with complicated three-dimensional structure. Calcaneus is often measured with X-ray plain film, while spiral CT three-dimensional imaging is a potent technology for anatomic measurement and has good application prospect. However, little is known about it.
    OBJECTIVE: To measure calcaneal anatomic data in Chinese peoples with spiral CT three-dimensional reconstruction and to explore its clinical significance.
    METHODS: Calcaneal spiral CT three-dimensional reconstruction in 100 Chinese adults (including 50 males and 50 females) were performed. The length, width, height of calcaneus, and Bohler’s and Gissane’s angles were measured after reconstruction, and compared with the data of westerners.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The mean length, width and height of the Chinese calcaneus were respectively (74.60±5.06) mm, (29.71±2.93) mm and (45.23±4.46) mm in male group, and (71.48±5.36) mm, (26.65±3.01) mm and (42.23±4.49) mm in female group. There were no significant differences between male group and female group in all the above parameters (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the Gissane’s angle between the two groups (123.3±8.5° versus 122.7±8.9°; P > 0.05). The Bohler’s angle in male group (35.98±4.34)° was significantly lower than that in female group (38.81±4.43)° (P < 0.05). The length, width and height of Chinese calcaneus were significantly lower than those of westerners (P < 0.05). The Bohler’s angle and Gissane’s angle in Chinese adults showed no statistical significance compared with the westerners (P > 0.05). Experimental findings indicate that, the length, width and height of Chinese calcaneus in female were lower than that in male, but Bohler’s angle is significantly higher than that in male, there was no significant difference in Gissane’s angle between males and females. Compared with the data of westerners, the length, width and height of Chinese adult calcaneus are significantly decreased, and no difference is found in Bohler’s angle and Gissane’s angle.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Biomechanical and histological analysis of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in a canine model
    Zhou Miao, Che Yue-juan, Guo Ming-yan, Huang Dai-ying, Piao Zheng-guo, Yu Xiao-wei, Chen Song-ling
    2014, 18 (20):  3212-3217.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.018
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (703KB) ( 439 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Alveolar distraction osteogenesis is an important method for treating alveolar bone atrophy, the osteogenesis process and biomechanics play a crucial role in the following implantation and repair. At present, no related experimental studies are found.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the biomechanical and histological characteristics of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in a canine model.
    METHODS: Twelve adult mongrel canines received premolars extraction and alveoloplasty in mandible to establish an atrophy alveolar model. After 3 months, a segmental alveolar osteotomy was performed in the randomly selected unilateral atrophy alveolar and two intra-osseous distractors were placed. After a 7-days latency period, the alveolar ridge was augmented at a rate of 1.0 mm/d for 5 days. After a consolidation of 1, 2, 
    and 3 months, the canines were sacrificed and the specimens of the distracted alveolar bone were harvested for clinical, radiographic, histological and biomechanical analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The alveolar distractors obtained good healing with surrounding tissue. The atrophy alveolar bones were augmented for (4.80±0.50) mm and (5.12±0.47) mm by clinical and radiographic findings immediately after distraction, respectively. The bone trabeculae in the distracted chamber matured from 1 to 3 months of consolidation by histological analysis. The shearing force of alveolar distraction chamber increased from 1 to 3 months. After 3 months’ consolidation, the shearing force of distracted chamber was comparable to host bone. The histological and biomechanical property of distracted alveolar chamber is comparable to host bone after 3 months’ consolidation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of different concentrations of human amniotic homogenate supernatant on the proliferation of rat Schwann cells
    Liu Liang, Wang Lei, Tong Ya-lin, Mo Yong-liang, Lv Lu, Chen Yun-peng, Yang Wen-xian, Lv Li-fang, Zhan Qiu, Zhu Fu-jun, Xin Hai-ming, Gong Zhen-yu
    2014, 18 (20):  3218-3222.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.019
    Abstract ( 386 )   PDF (810KB) ( 472 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cells are important cell lines in the process of repairing peripheral nerve injury, and human amniotic homogenate supernatant is shown to secrete a variety of cytokines, which could promote the proliferation of Schwann cells.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different concentrations of human amniotic homogenate supernatant on the proliferation of rat Schwann cell 96.
    METHODS: Schwann cell 96 was cultured with high-glucose DMEM containing 20% fetal bovine serum, and the second generation of Schwann cell 96 was applied for experiments. The cultured cells were divided into five groups according to different volume fractions of human amniotic homogenate supernatant (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) in the medium. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The total protein concentration of human amniotic homogenate supernatant was
    675 μg/mL, in which the concentration of epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor were respectively (470.625±2.546), (4.121±0.026) and (0.172±0.002) ng/L. At 1-7 days, the cell proliferation rate of the 10% and 15% concentration groups was greater than that in 20% and 25% concentration groups (P < 0.05); 10% and 15% concentrations promoted cell proliferation, while 20% and 25% concentrations inhibited cell proliferation. There were no significant difference in the viability of Schwann cell 96 between the control group and the experimental group (P > 0.05). Low concentrations (10%, 15%) of human amniotic homogenate supernatant promote the proliferation of Schwann cell 96, while high concentrations (20%, 25%) of human amniotic homogenate supernatant inhibit cell proliferation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Role of long non-coding RNA in osteoblast differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2
    Cheng Chen, Gao Yan, Li Jing, Pan Qiu-hui
    2014, 18 (20):  3223-3229.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.020
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (1858KB) ( 623 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have became the hot topic in current studies and play an important role in the tumorigenesis. However, lncRNAs involved in the osteoblast differentiation remain poorly reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of human LncRNAs in osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and explore action mechanism.
    METHODS: The induction of bone morphogenetic protein-2 was validated by alkaline phosphatase staining and the expression of corresponding genes was detected. The lncRNA expression profile was analyzed using the Arraystar lncRNA array in C3H10T1/2 MSCs undergoing early osteoblast differentiation. The expression with or without bone morphogenetic protein-2 induction was compared with high-flux sequencing, and the down-regulated genes were screened. The effect of lncRNA overexpression on osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 was observed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced C3H10T1/2 cells led to increased alkaline phosphatase activity. After 72 hours of bone morphogenetic protein-2 induction, alkaline phosphatase,
    Id1,osteocalcin, Runx2, sp7 expression were increased (P < 0.05). There were 24 down-regulated lncRNAs identified between bone morphogenetic protein-2 treated and untreated groups, the decrease of expression was 1.5 folds, and among them, only AK035085 contained intron. Compared with control group with no AK03508 expression, over-expression lncRNA AK035085 decreased the expression of alkaline phosphatase, Id1, osteocalcin, Runx2, sp7   (P < 0.05). Experimental findings indicate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells and AK035085 inhibits the osteogenic differentiation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Heparanase expression in necrotic bone and peripheral blood after osteonecrosis of the femoral head
    Tian Kai-xuan, Han Yong-tai
    2014, 18 (20):  3230-3235.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.021
    Abstract ( 368 )   PDF (2129KB) ( 400 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence shows that, low molecular heparin can prevent and treat early osteonecrosis of femoral head, but the mechanism remains unclear. The heparin exhibits a dynamic balance with heparanase in vivo, and inhibits heparanase expression.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of heparanase and tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression level in plasma and femoral head of patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head, and investigate the pathophysiological role of heparanase in the progression of idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head.
    METHODS: A total of 36 patients with idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head were randomly divided into four groups according to ARCO I-IV period, with nine patients in each group. Patients with fresh femoral neck fracture for hip arthroplasty were included in the control group. Heparanase and tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels in preoperative venous plasma were measured by ELISA, and in subchondral necrosis bone of ARCO II-IV groups were observed for western blot analysis and hematoxylin-eosin staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In plasma, heparanase and tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels were significantly increased along with the development of idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head compared with control group, the highest levels were found in ARCO III period, and then slightly decreased in ARCO IV period, showing significant differences. The protein levels of heparanase and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in necrosis bone were increased significantly compared with control group, the highest levels occurred in ARCO III period, no obvious difference was found between ARCO II and IV periods. Heparanase and tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels are gradually increased along with the development of the necrosis, and heparanase plays an important role in idiopathic osteonecrosis of femoral head.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation and autophagy
    Gao Yan, Cheng Chen, Li Jing, Zhang Yue, Xiao Wei-fan, Pan Qiu-hui
    2014, 18 (20):  3236-3241.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.022
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (1638KB) ( 549 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: A series of studies indicate that autophagy is closely linked with differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is the classical pathway for C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation, and the ideal model to study osteogenic differentiation process.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between autophagy and BMP-2-induced cell lines C2C12, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation.
    METHODS: Real-Time PCR was applied to detect osteogenic differentiation and autophagy related index after C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 were induced with BMP-2 (100 μg/L) for 72 hours. The osteogenic index alkaline phosphatase in BMP-2-induced MC3T3-E1 and C2C12 cultured with different concentrations of 3-methyladenine (0, 1, 5, 10 mmol/L) was determined with alkaline phosphatase staining. Western blot analysis was applied to detect LC3-I/II expression levels in C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 induced with BMP-2 for different time points (0, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours).
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The autophagy-related mRNA and protein expression showed an increasing tendency and autophagy-related protein LC3 levels was increased, which was associated with the time, during the BMP-2-induced cell lines C2C12, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation. Meanwhile, alkaline phosphatase expression levels were inhibited by autophagy in the process of osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, there is a close relationship between autophagy and the BMP-2-induced cell lines C2C12, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of cyclic stretch on the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts
    Wang Hong-ling, Liu Dong-xu, Yuan Xiao
    2014, 18 (20):  3242-3245.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.023
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (633KB) ( 326 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical stimulation triggers a muscle tissue remodeling, during which, myoblast process is a multi-stage development process. Many signals in extracellular matrix are involved in myoblast process, and mechanical signals are considered as important external factors for muscle formation and regeneration. Numerous studies concerning cyclic tensile stress effects on myoblast proliferation and apoptosis have been reported, but the specific mechanism underlying the mechanical stimulation in muscle formation is still unclear. 
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of cyclic stretch on proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and its mechanism.
    METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in vitro under 10% cyclic stretch for 6, 12 and 24 hours.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that with the time of cyclic stretch, the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts and the rate of S-phase fraction were gradually increased and peaked at 12 hours (P < 0.05), and then decreased. Western blot assay showed that the expression of nuclear transcription factor κB protein was decreased with time, which was inversely correlated to the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts, but increased at 24 hours under the cyclic stretch. These findings indicate that the cyclic stretch can induce C2C12 myoblasts proliferation and alter the cell cycle. Nuclear transcription factor κB may be involved in this process.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Vacuum sealing drainage plus skin transplantation repair skin soft tissue defects in tibia and fibula complicated fractures
    Zhao Ji-hong, Fang Xin
    2014, 18 (20):  3246-3251.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.024
    Abstract ( 214 )   PDF (738KB) ( 444 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Traditional treatment of tibia and fibula fractures complicated with skin soft tissue defect is mainly external fixation, wound debridement and dressing plus skin graft or skin flap transplantation after the infection is controlled and granulation grow. This method is disadvantageous due to high cost, great pain, long hospitalization stay, infection and necrosis, even the possibility of amputation.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) and external fixator in the treatment of tibia and fibula open fractmes complicated with skin defects.
    METHODS: A total of 38 patients with severe open fractures of tibia and fibula complicated with skin defects were selected from Benxi Central Hospital between January 2009 and September 2013. The size of skin defects was more than 5 cm2. After external fixation, the patients underwent complete debridement and dressing, followed by VSD treatment for 5-7 days. After granulation tissue grew and the wound became fresh, the patients received intermedite thickness skin graft. And 15 cases treated without VSD were retrospectively selected, serving as control group. The infection control rate and wound healing time in the two groups were compared.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 5-7 days of VSD treatment, VSD dressings were removed, wound infection was controlled, local wound granulation tissue was fresh. Both the wound and fractures were healed well, no osteomyelitis or amputation occurred. Among the involved 38 patients, 23 cases were cured, 12 cases were effective, and three cases were ineffective. The total effective rate showed significant differences compared with the control group (92% vs. 53%; P < 0.05). VSD can completely remove the wound secretions and necrotic tissue, improve local microcirculation, eliminate the infection, VSD plus external fixator and skin grating is a simple and effective method in treatment of tibia and fibula open fractures with soft tissue defects.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Linear measurement accuracy using cone-beam computed tomography for human skull
    Sun Xiao-lin, Wang Xue-jin, Chen Zhi-guo, Jin Lei
    2014, 18 (20):  3252-3256.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.025
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (557KB) ( 555 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cone-beam computed tomography has been widely applied in the dentistry due to irreplaceable advantages. Among those advantages, linear measurement is one of the important ones. Further studies are suggest to explore the accuracy and repeatability of linear measurement for the whole skull, as well as the effect of different resolution and scanning thickness on the linear measurement results.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of linear measurement using cone-beam computed tomography (Newtom VG) on the human skull, with two different voxel sizes.
    METHODS: In this study, 22 anatomic landmarks in four dry human skulls were marked and 11 linear measurements were obtained. These were considered to be the gold standard (real measurement). The skulls were scanned by cone-beam computed tomography (Newtom VG) at two voxel sizes: 0.3 mm and 0.15 mm. Linear measurement was performed in axial and coronal planes. SPSS software version 17 was used for data analysis between radiographic measurement and real measurement.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The mean differences of real and radiographic measurements were -0.27 to 0.14 in four different sections, and statistical analysis showed no significant difference between linear measurements and gold standard (P > 0.05). There was no significant between two different voxel sizes       (P > 0.05). Cone-beam computed tomography (Newtom VG) is highly accurate and reproducible in linear 
    measurements in the axial and coronal planes. A cone-beam computed tomography scan with a larger voxel size (0.3 mm) is recommended, resulting in lower radiation dose and faster scan time.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Molecular mechanism of osteoclast, bone resorption and fracture healing by V-ATPase a3 transport system
    Song Min, Dong Wan-tao, Chen Bing-hu, Chai Ju-tang, Li Yan-long, Wei Hong, Chen Bing-xiong
    2014, 18 (20):  3257-3262.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.026
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (689KB) ( 481 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The V-ATPase a3 transport system plays a crucial role on bone resorption mechanism of the osteoclasts.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of V-ATPase a3 transport system in fracture repair and the effect of V-ATPase a3 transport system inhibitor on fracture healing.
    METHODS: We retrieved related literatures in the periodicals database with the key words, and screen them according to the inclusion criteria. The literatures were included in this study after the evaluation of quality.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: V-ATPase a3 transport system widely exists in the cytoplasm membrane and organelle membrane of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase a3 has two structural domains: V0 and V1. V0 structural domain is the proton transport channel, V1 structural domain is mainly the hydrolysis of ATP. V-ATPase a3 transport system focuses on the frilled edge of osteoclasts, H+ is transported to form a high concentration, dissolves inorganic minerals and provides the acidic environment for hydrolytic enzymes, thus being involved  in bone resorption. So V-ATPase a3 transport system is selected as the research target in the fracture repair and reshape.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Diabetes mellitus and bone metabolic disorders: valuable prevention and treatment
    Kang Chen, Zhang Bin, Sun Yao
    2014, 18 (20):  3263-3266.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.027
    Abstract ( 491 )   PDF (582KB) ( 571 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus can give rise to bone metabolic disorders in patients, resulting in the occurrence of osteoporosis and low traumatic fractures. However, the pathogenesis mechanism remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the current research progress in the bone metabolic disorders resulting from diabetes mellitus, and to provide theoretical basis of the prevention and treatment of diabetic osteopathy.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search was conducted in Pubmed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) from January 2000 to December 2013. Articles focusing on diabetes mellitus regulating bone metabolism were collected using the key words of “diabetes mellitus; bone” in English. High-quality relevant studies were included, while repetitions and unidirectional studies were excluded.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 6 979 articles were obtained initially, and after screening procedures  58 literatures were selectively included in this review. Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus exert different effects on the bone mineral density, they ultimately result in osteoporosis and low traumatic fractures. It is widely believed that the pathogenesis may be that high glucose breaks the balance between bone formation and bone absorption, so that bone absorption is greater than bone formation. The number of the osteoclasts is increased, while the cytokines of promoting osteogenesis are restrained. As a consequence, those result in low bone mineral density, brittle bone and high incidence of fracture.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Measurement of patella height and advance of patella alta
    Guo Rui-peng, Xu Bin
    2014, 18 (20):  3269-3274.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.028
    Abstract ( 1081 )   PDF (650KB) ( 752 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: With the development of sports medicine and research of patellofemoral disorder, patella alta has been paid increasing attention as the exact pathogenesis of patellofemoral disorder. There are many radiographic measurement indexes of patella alta. A large number of clinicians and radiography physicians are trying to diagnose and treat this disease as early as possible.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the radiographic measurement and research progress of patella alta, find out the advantages and disadvantages of different indexes, and look into the future development prospects.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search of Pubmed and CNKI databases between 1989 and 2013 was performed for articles addressing radiographic diagnose and measurement patella alta. The key words were “patella alta, patella height, measurement, diagnosis” in English and “patella alta, patella height, patella position, diagnosis, measurement” in Chinese.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Now there are many measurement indexes of patella alta and they are divided into two groups: indirect index and direct index. The indirect index measures the relative location of patella and tibia, such as Insall-Salvat index, Blackburne-Peel index, and Caton-Deschamps index. The direct index measures the relative location of patella and femur, such as patellotrochlear index, and patellophyseal index. The latest study indicates that the biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is the key to understand the pathogenesis of patellofemoral disorder. As the MRI technique develops, direct index for the location of articular cartilage of patellofemoral joint, such as patellotrochlear index, seems to be the best measurement to patella alta. However we still have many problems in the study of patellotrochlear index.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect and mechanism of hydrogen sulfide in regulating cellular functions
    Wang Shi-jun, Li Yu-ting, Sun Hao-lin, Li Chun-de, Wang Tian-long
    2014, 18 (20):  3275-3280.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.20.029
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (647KB) ( 1007 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of studies addressing hydrogen sulfide as the third gaseous signal molecule, to regulate cellular function, but some contradictions emerge.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide regulating cell function based on the current researches.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search of the PubMed database (from 1990 to 2013) was performed, with the key words of “hydrogen sulfide, gasotransmitter” in English. Finally 54 related articles were included in the result analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Accumulating evidence has highlighted the contribution of hydrogen sulfide on regulating cell function, and the underlying mechanism is very complex. Traditional signal molecule (such as estrogen and neuromediators) may amplify the signals for signal transduction through a series of cascade reaction, but the gaseous signal molecule promotes cell metabolism through the post-transcriptional modification of intracellular target protein. The majority of studies indicate that hydrogen sulfide plays an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in the physiological concentration, but there are some contradictions in terms of inflammation and apoptosis research. Therefore, further study on the mechanism of hydrogen sulfide should be implemented.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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