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    09 April 2014, Volume 18 Issue 15 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 and long non-coding RNA AK007000
    Gao Yan, Cheng Chen, Li Jing, Zhang Yue, Xiao Wei-fan, Pan Qiu-hui
    2014, 18 (15):  2297-2302.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.001
    Abstract ( 352 )   PDF (523KB) ( 786 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) regulates a series of physiological processes and it is considered to play important roles in the gene regulation of development, differentiation and metabolism. MC3T3-E1, C2C12 and C3H10T1/2 cells are able to differentiate into different cell lineages, such as bone cells and muscle cells, and they can be used in the study of musculoskeletal diseases.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the role of lncRNA in osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2. 
    METHODS: Osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1, C2C12 and C3H10T1/2 cells was induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2, and microarray expression profiling of lncRNA was undertaken in osteogenic differentiation. LncRNA simultaneous changes in three cells were found out. The siRNA interference of the lncRNA was used to study its effects on the osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2. Real-time PCR and alkaline phosphatase staining were applied to detect osteogenesis related indicators.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the process of osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteogenic differentiation indicators were increased, while myogenic differentiation indicator myogenin was reduced. LncRNA AK007000 was screened out to play a role in osteogenic differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2. Knockdown of lncRNA AK007000 decreased the expression of osteogenic differentiation indicators, while increased the expression of myogenin. Therefore, AK007000 may play a role in promoting osteogenic differentiation and inhibiting myogenic differentiation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Regulatory effects of simvastatin on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and connexin 43 expression
    Wang Guo-liang, Cai Xiang-bo, Li Wen-zhuang, Luo Sheng-ming, Chen Ze-yan, Chen Ge-sheng
    2014, 18 (15):  2303-2308.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.002
    Abstract ( 270 )   PDF (326KB) ( 307 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The effects and molecular mechanism of simvastatin on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts remain unclear. Especially, we do not know much about the effects of connexin 43.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of simvastatin on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and the regulatory effect of simvastatin on the expression of osteogenic genes and connexin 43.
    METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen and the cranium digestion method was used to culture osteoblasts. The different concentrations of simvastatin (0.062 5, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 μmol/L) were used to deal with osteoblasts. The proliferative effect of simvastatin on osteoblasts was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The effect of simvastatin on osteoblast differentiation was measured with alkaline phosphatase activities. The mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic genes and connexin 43 were measured by real time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in absorbance values of simvastatin groups at 3 days (P > 0.05). However, at 4 and 5 days, absorbance values were lower in the simvastatin groups  than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, alkaline phosphatase activities of osteoblasts were greater in the simvastatin groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the effects of 0.25 μmol/L simvastatin on alkaline phosphatase activities of osteoblasts were most significant. Osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activities, type I collagen and connexin 43 mRNA and protein expressions were increased after treatment with 0.25 μmol/L simvastatin  (P < 0.05). These results indicated that simvastatin may inhibit the proliferation and improve the differentiation of osteoblasts by upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic genes and connexin 43. These data may provide the new intervention target for osteoporosis treated with statins.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Inhibitory effects of LY267108 on nuclear factor kappa B during osteoclast activation 
    Yu Jian, Zhao Jian-ning
    2014, 18 (15):  2309-2313.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.003
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (344KB) ( 300 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: No ideal drugs can be used in the prevention and treatment of aseptic loosening of artificial joints. Some researchs showed that erythromycin has strong inhibitory effects on periprosthetic osteolysis. Its antibacterial activity, however, limits its application in artificial joint loosening prevention. LY267108 is a new type of erythromycin derivatives, eliminates the antibacterial activities, and retains the anti-inflammatory activity.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inhibitory effect of LY267108 on nuclear factor kappa B during osteoclast activation.
    METHODS: RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were added to RAW264.7 cell line of a mouse model induced by osteoclasts. Simultaneously, different concentrations of alendronate sodium, erythromycin and LY267108 were cocultured for 48 hours. The activity of nuclear factor kappa B and content of intracytoplasmic inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor kappa B alpha were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: LY267108 has a strong inhibitory effect on nuclear factor kappa B. 10 mg/L LY267108, 25 mg/L erythromycin and 10 mg/L alendronate sodium had similar inhibitory effects on nuclear factor kappa B, which was obviously stronger than 10 mg/L erythromycin. However, 25 mg/L LY267108 had strongest inhibitory effects. No significant difference in intracytoplasmic inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor kappa B alpha levels was detected among 10 mg/L LY267108, 25 mg/L erythromycin and 10 mg/L alendronate sodium groups, but was still apparently higher than 10 mg/L erythromycin group. Levels of intracytoplasmic inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor kappa B alpha were highest in the 25 mg/L LY267108 group. Results indicated that LY267108 in the process of osteoclast activation had stronger inhibitory effects on nuclear factor kappa B compared with erythromycin, and its safety was higher than alendronate sodium. Simultaneously, LY267108 did not have antimicrobial activity, and became a potential ideal drug for prevention and treatment of aseptic loosening of artificial joints. However, the inhibitory effects of LY267108 on the degradation of inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor kappa B alpha would be a mechanism of inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor kappa B.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Dexamethasone and Lugua peptide in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation: inhibitive or promotive effects? 
    Duan Feng, Wen Ke-han, Wang Xin-yu, Zhang Guo-liang, Dai Xin-peng, Guo Huan-huan
    2014, 18 (15):  2314-2319.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.004
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (365KB) ( 402 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of osteoporosis caused by long-term use of dexamethasone injection is increasing, but there is no exact treatment. Lugua peptide injection is a common drug to promote fracture healing and increase bone density.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Lugua peptide injection plus high-concentration dexamethasone on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.
    METHODS: The rat osteoblasts were randomly divided into three groups. Lugua peptide plus dexamethasone group was injected with 1×10-7 mol/L dexamethasone, 8 mg/L Lugua peptide and dimethyl sulfoxide (final concentration 1 g/L). Dexamethasone group was injected with 1×10-7 mol/L dexamethasone and dimethyl sulfoxide (final concentration 1 g/L). Control group was injected with dimethyl sulfoxide (final concentration 1 g/L). After 96 hours, the expression of osteocalcin was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis; at 21 days, the expression of calcium nodules was observed by alizarin red staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The osteocalcin mRNA expression and calcium nodule expression in Lugua peptide plus dexamethasone group and control group were higher than that in dexamethasone group (P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference between Lugua peptide plus dexamethasone group and control group (P > 0.05). Lugua peptide injection can prevent the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of dexamethasone on the osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Bony ingrowth induced by treadmill exercise in rats with femoral shaft bone defects
    Zhang Jie, Zhang Wen, Chen Xi, Luo Zong-ping, Yang Hui-lin
    2014, 18 (15):  2320-2325.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.005
    Abstract ( 297 )   PDF (350KB) ( 482 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: It is well-known that mechanical stimulation could promote fracture healing. However, what kind of mechanical stimulation induced by treadmill exercise can increase the bone conductibility of bone material and promote the healing of bone defect is still unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of indirect mechanical stimulation produced by treadmill exercise on bone defect healing and osteogenesis of bone materials.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats at 12 weeks old were used in this study to establish a bone defect of 3 mm in diameter and height at the left distal femur. Afterwards, calcium sulphate scaffolds were implanted into the defects. The rats were divided into treadmill exercise group and control group. Treadmill exercise was began at 1 week postoperatively, 10 m/min, 45 minutes per day, 5 days per week, for 3 weeks. Control group did not receive any exercise. Micro-computed tomography was used to determine bone formation in the bone defects at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery. The sections of left distal femur were subject to hematoxylin-eosin staining, the new bone formation and degradation of bone materials in the bone defects were observed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Micro-CT analysis showed that, a small amount of new bone formed in both treadmill exercise group and control group at 1 week after surgery. In treadmill exercise group, new bone formation was significantly higher than the control group at 2, 3, 4 weeks (P < 0.05). At 4 weeks, histological 
    results also confirmed the difference of new bone formation in bone defect between treadmill exercise group and control group. In addition, bone mineral density of treadmill exercise group was higher than that of control group at 2, 3, 4 weeks, but no significant difference was found (P > 0.05). The results suggest that moderate treadmill exercise could promote bone defect healing and enhance osteoconductivity of bone substitute.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effect of low concentration of nicotine on soft tissue defect repair of rat hard palate
    Zhang Ya-jun, Yang Cong-chong, Liu Lai-kui, Zhang Meng-jie, Sun Ying-ming
    2014, 18 (15):  2326-2331.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.006
    Abstract ( 313 )   PDF (476KB) ( 590 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Low concentration of nicotine promotes the angiogenesis and facilitates the healing of skin wounds. However, the role of low concentration of nicotine on the repair of maxillofacial soft tissue trauma especially oral mucosa still remains unclear
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of low concentration of nicotine on mucosa defect repair of rat hard palate.
    METHODS: A circular soft tissue defect at 3 mm diameter was produced in the centre of hard palate of 65 Wistar rats. After the operation, animals were randomly divided into low concentration of nicotine with gel group, gel group and control group. Rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days post-surgery. The wound healing was detected with hematoxylin-eosin staining and the difference of wound healing in different groups was compared with gross observation and image measurement.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the wound healing in different groups on day 3 post-surgery. On days 7 and 10, the group of low concentrations of nicotine with gel was faster than gel group and control group (P < 0.05); the wounds were completely healed on day 14, with no significant difference among the groups. Low concentrations of nicotine may promote the mucosa defects repair of rat hard palate.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Orthodontic tooth movement at different stages of adolescent female menstrual cycle
    Wang Bin, Yang Xi, Zhou Jian-ping, Feng Gang, Dai Hong-wei, Huang Lan
    2014, 18 (15):  2332-2337.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.007
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (453KB) ( 642 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen has an effect on orthodontic tooth movement. Currently, only animal experiments show that the lower estrogen levels, the greater the amount of orthodontic tooth movement; the higher
    estrogen levels are, the smaller the amount of orthodontic tooth movement is.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of orthodontic force applied on orthodontic tooth movement at different stages of menstrual cycle among young female patients.
    METHODS: Twelve young female patients were included in this study, aged 14-18 years old. They already have regular menstrual cycle, and need to extract the first premolar in the maxilla. By using self-control method, these female patients with their maxillary canine at both sides were randomly divided into two groups: orthodontic force at ovulatory period and orthodontic force at menstrual period. Micro-implant anchorage was implanted to the distally moving canine. Orthodontic force was given to the group of ovulatory period 2 weeks after the force was given at menstrual period. Dentition models were taken at day 0 and 28 after force, to prepare a superhard plaster model using silastic impression materials. Between these two groups, the distances of the canine distal movement were measured and statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism5 software.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The distances of the canine distal movement in the group of orthodontic force at menstrual period were greater than that in the other group (P < 0.05). The orthodontic teeth with the application of orthodontic force at menstrual period move faster than that with the application of orthodontic force at ovulatory period, thus effectively shortening orthodontic treatment.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Chondrogenic differentiation of rat synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells
    Shao Bo, Gong Zhong-cheng, Liu Hui, Ling Bin, Keremu Abass, Yin Xiao-peng, Hu Lu-lu, Wang Bing, Ning Xiao-ting, Yang Meng, Lin Zhao-quan
    2014, 18 (15):  2338-2344.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.008
    Abstract ( 365 )   PDF (512KB) ( 501 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Compared with other sources of mesenchymal stem cells, synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells have significant characteristics of chondrogenesis and cloning. Therefore, synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most promising seed cells in cartilage tissue engineering.
    OBJECTIVE: To isolate and culture synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells of Sprague-Dawley rats, identify the multipotential differentiation and the potential ability of chondrogenic differentiation in three-dimensional culture condition.
    METHODS: The synovium tissue was harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats. The synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated with type Ⅰ collagen enzyme digestion method and cultured in vitro. The passage 3 cells were detected with giemsa staining, the cell cycle, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation were determined. The passage 3 cells were centrifuged as pellets and cultured in the chondriogenic medium for 21 days. And the pellets were examined by toluidine blue staining, type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the synovium tissue of rats have the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, and exhibit fibroblast-like morphology after cultured in vitro. The multilineage differentiation potentials were also revealed. After the cell were cultured in chondrogenic medium for 21 days, chondroid tissue was found, type II collagen and aggrecan could be detected positively by toluidine blue staining, type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemical staining, and expressed by RT-PCR examination. Therefore, synovial mesenchymal stem cells have a chondrogenic differentiation potential.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Dynamic expression of Runx2 gene profile during osteogenesis in stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth
    Wang Li-yuan, Liu Da-yong, Jia Zhi
    2014, 18 (15):  2345-2350.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.009
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (605KB) ( 881 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Runx2 is considered to the main regulatory factor of osteogenic gene expression and be necessary for osteoblast differentiation, it plays an extremely important role in the osteoblast development, differentiation, regulation, bone calcification formation and bone repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, explore the osteogenic differentiation potential of deciduous teeth stem cells, and observe the dynamic expression of Runx2 gene at varying time points.
    METHODS: The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth were isolated and cultured in vitro. The cell surface antigen was detected with flow cytometry. The third passage cells were cultured in the adipogenic medium for 4 weeks, and oil red O staining was conducted to test lipid droplets formation. The third passage cells were cultured in the osteogenic medium for 21 days, and mineralized nodules were detected by alizarin red staining. Runx2 mRNA dynamic expression was detected with semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different time points.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth were obtained by enzyme digestion and limited dilution methods. Flow cytometry results showed that, CD146 and STRO-1 were 
    expressed to varying degrees. Oil red O staining revealed salmon pink positive particles. Alizarin red staining showed positive expression. RT-PCR results showed that, Runx2 expression was found at day 0, up-regulated from day 0 to  day 6, and subsequently dropped with an expression bottom at day 12, after that a second expression peak occurred   at day 18, followed by a stably regulation. The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth can be isolated and cultured in vitro, express surface antigen of mesenchymal stem cells, and have the potentials of differentiating into adipocytes and ostetoblasts. Runx2 gene profiles are dynamically expressed during osteoblastic differentiation. Runx2 express throughout every stage of osteoblastic differentiation. The expression is up-regulated during early and later stages, and down-regulated in metaphase.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Transfection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with lentivirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein
    Ding Qiang, Yang Bo, Wang Le, Yin Biao, Tang Long, Zhang Bo
    2014, 18 (15):  2351-2356.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.010
    Abstract ( 443 )   PDF (450KB) ( 415 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with lentivirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein can be easily traced. The optimal multiplicity of infection and time for producing strong fluorescence intensity can lay the foundation of tracing human umbilical vein endothelial cells in animal models.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe expression of lentivirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and thereby to find a stable method to label human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
    METHODS: Using 0.1% collagenase perfusion digestion, we isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which then were placed into a culture medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum and endothelial cell growth factor and observed under an inverted microscope. Following digestion, centrifugation and suspension, the cells were counted and divided into four groups, 5.0×105 cells in each group. After cells were seededonto 24-well plates, 10 μL serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium was added into the blank group, and lentiviruses containing enhanced green fluorescent protein were added into another three groups for cell transfection respectively at multiplicities of infection of 2, 3, 4. There were three dishes in each group.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After cultured for 5-7 days, isolated cells grew into a single layer and exhibited a cobblestone-like arrangement under a light microscope. In addition, factor VIII related antigen test was positive. A green fluorescence was visible at 24 hours of transfection, and peaked at 72 hours. Transfection efficiency was in a linear growth with the multiplicity of infection. Up to the 21st day of transfection, the green fluorescence was still visible. After 0, 7, 14, 21 days of transfection, the number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed no difference between the transfection group with the multiplicity of infection=3 and blank group, suggesting the proliferative ability of cells has no changes after transfection with lentivirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein. These findings indicate that the lentivirus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein can highly transfect human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and green fluorescent protein can sustainably express for 21 days but cannot impact the cell proliferation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Pathological changes of vascular tissue after rabbit limb replantation with different methods of cryopreservation 
    Li Bo, He Jian-ping, Zhang Shu-ming, Zhu Ze-xing, Qiao Lin, Qiao Ya-nan
    2014, 18 (15):  2357-2362.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.011
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (389KB) ( 665 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The cryopreservation of single tissue has achieved great advancement and is gradually applied in clinics. However, the cryopreservation of complex tissue is rarely reported.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological change in rabbit limb tissue after replantation through different rewarming methods, find the best rewarming methods of compound textured blood vessels, and provide theoretical basis for the feasibility of limb replantation after long-term cryopreservation.
    METHODS: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, slow freezing-slow thawing group, and slow freezing-rapid thawing group. The right posterior limbs of all the rabbits were cut off 1 cm above the knee joint. Except control group, the latter two groups were given limb replantation after thawing, and then the right posterior limb was again cut off after the replanted limbs were survived for 6 hours. For all groups, the histological changes and gross observation in aorta tissue were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope, and the results were analyzed with statistical methods.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the slow freezing-slow thawing, slow freezing-rapid thawing groups, the pathological changes (gross specimen, light microscope, electron microscope) of rabbit limbs 6 hours after replantation were worse than those in control group. Compared with slow freezing-rapid thawing group, better integrity of endothelial cells and less damage of the organelles were found in slow freezing-slow thawing group. Through deep cryogenic freezing-thawing process, rabbit limb blood vessels can maintain the structural integrity  after replantation and survived at 6 hours. Slow freezing-slow thawing is better than slow freezing-rapid thawing for the preservation of severed limbs, providing evidences for the long-term survival following a deep cry ogenic treatment after the severed limb replantation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Morphology of normal and degenerative nucleus pulposus cells and quantitative analysis of collagen type II protein
    Wang Qi, Ren Long-tao, Wei Cheng-gang, He Jun-ren
    2014, 18 (15):  2363-2368.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.012
    Abstract ( 375 )   PDF (501KB) ( 637 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The narrowing of intervertebral space induced by the intervertebral disc degeneration is mainly characterized by the expression of proteoglycan in nucleus pulposus cells and the reduction of collagen type II.
    OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively observe collagen type II protein in adult normal and degenerative intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells by immunofluorescence staining and safranin O staining.
    METHODS: The nucleus pulposus specimens were collected from adult scoliosis patients and patients with intervertebral disc protrusion, who were all volunteers. After culture, 26 cells in each patient were measured. There were 78 cells in both normal group and degeneration group. The normal and degenerative intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells were subjected to safranin “O” staining, and gray values were determined; intracellular collagen type II was detected by immunofluorescence staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Immunofluorescence staining revealed that, degenerative intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells were only mildly stained, with the fuzzy staining, the shape was round, spindle, fusiform and irregular. There were a very small amount of fluorescent particles within cells. The expression of collagen type II was decreased significantly compared with normal cells (P < 0.05). Safranin O staining showed that, degenerative nucleus pulposus cells began to swell, the nuclei swelled and were stained slightly, cell processes were prolonged, cytoplasmic dyeing was uneven accompanying with vacuole, cell disruption, scattered and chaotic distribution were visible, patches of necrosis were observed. The image gray value showed no significant difference compared with normal nucleus pulposus cells (P > 0.05). The degenerative intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells have a small quantity and partially become apoptotic, the content of collegen type II protein is decreased significantly compared with normal nucleus pulposus cells.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Construction and identification of bicistronic eukaryotic expression vector of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophine-3
    Li Bing-nan, Li Wei-dong, Lin Jun-tang, Feng Hui-gen
    2014, 18 (15):  2369-2376.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.013
    Abstract ( 280 )   PDF (378KB) ( 462 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophine-3 (NT-3) are essential genes for cell differentiation. Viral vector has been used numerously in clinical practice, but the security is the most important problem. Eukaryotic expressing vector is a way to solve this question.
    OBJECTIVE: To construct and identify pIRES2-BDNF-NT-3 bicistronic eukaryotic expression vector.
    METHODS: BDNF and NT-3 genes were obtained from the genomic DNA of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR. The BDNF cDNA fragment was inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pIRES2-EGFP, to generate the bicistronic eukaryotic expression plasmid pIRES2-BDNF-EGFP. Then NT-3 cDNA fragment was cloned into the pIRES2-BDNF-EGFP, instead of EGFP, to create plasmid pIRES2-BDNF-NT-3. Subsequently pIRES2-BDNF-NT-3 was used to transfect HEK293 cells, and RT-PCR and western blot analysis were applied to test the co-expression of double genes.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The DNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that the BDNF and NT-3 were exactly consistent with the sequence recorded in the GenBank. Enzyme digestion analysis indicated that, in the constructed bicistronic eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-BDNF-NT-3, BDNF band was obtained by Eco RI /Bam HI digestion, IRES-NT-3 fragment was obtained by Bam HI /Not I digestion, and BDNF-IRES-NT-3 was obtained by Eco RI /Not I digestion. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that, after the HEK293 cells were transfected with pIRES2-BDNF-NT-3, double gene was expressed at the mRNA and protein level. Experimental findings suggest that, bicistronic eukaryotic expression vector of BDNF and NT-3 genes can be successfully constructed using IRES sequence.



    中国组织工程研究
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    Expression of hepatocyte growth factor in the inflammatory periodontal tissue of rats during orthodontic tooth movement
    Liu Hong, Mi Cong-bo, Zhu Jun
    2014, 18 (15):  2377-2382.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.014
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (453KB) ( 385 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The cytokine has an effect of immunoregulation and immediate induction in the reconstruction of periodontal tissue. At present, the role and mechanism of hepatocyte growth factor involving the reconstruction of periodontal tissue under orthodontic force are still unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism underlying hepatocyte growth factor in the tooth movement and periodontal tissues remodeling under the inflammation periodontal tissue condition.
    METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8 weeks, were used to establish periodontitis model. The obtained model was randomly divided into two groups: inflammatory control group and inflammatory force group. In the force group, rats were treated with the fixed orthodontic appliance by 50 g forces in the maxillary first molars. After 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of tooth movement, five rats were sacrificed respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry methods were used to analyze the expression and distribution of hepatocyte growth factor in the periodontium for rats at different tooth movement stages.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that, remodeling of periodontal  tissues existed in all groups. The immunohistochemical results showed that hepatocyte growth factor had positive expression in periodontal tissue, and the distribution was even in the control group. In the force group, hepatocyte growth factor expression was increased and reached the peak on day 5, then began to decline. Osteoblast, fibroblast and osteoclast were strongly expressed. The findings indicate that, hepatocyte growth factor is involved in the periodontal tissues remodeling under orthodontic force, and inflammation can increase the expression of hepatocyte growth factor in periodontal tissue.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Caspase-9 in myoblasts is involved in mechanical signal transdunction under cyclic stretch
    Wang Shuang-yu, Wang Hong-ling, Xia Chen-lei, Ding Xian, Sun Xian-rui, Zhang Qiang, Li Jian-ping, Yan Xiao, Liu Wen, Zhang Yue, Yao Ru-yong, Yuan Xiao
    2014, 18 (15):  2383-2389.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.015
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (458KB) ( 352 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The adaptive reconstruction of maxillofacial muscles would happen when functional orthopedic treatment is done to cure micromaxillary deformity. The myoblast is the main responder in the process of adaptive reconstruction, and cyclic stretch can induce apoptosis of myoblasts. Caspase-9 is an important factor in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of Caspase-9 in different cyclic stretch.
    METHODS: Based on myoblasts cultured in vitro-mechanical stimulation model, the rat L6 myoblasts were loaded stretch for 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours through multi-channel cell stress loading system, while the control group received no stretch. The morphological change and growth of myoblasts were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope; the expression of the mRNA and protein of Caspase-9 were detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under inverted phase contrast microscope, the rat L6 myoblasts at cyclic stretch maintained a good growth state and biological characteristics; there was no cell degeneration; and the loss rate was extremely low, which could demonstrate that myoblast in vitro-mechanical stimulation model was established successfully. The results of RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that, the expression of Caspase-9 mRNA and Cleaved Caspase-9 protein was significantly increased as the loading time prolonged, and the expression of Procaspase-9 protein was significantly decreased as the time. We can conclude that Caspase-9 is involved in the mechanical signal transduction of cyclic stretch.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Primary structure of nuclease-like proteins from Eisenia foetida
    Yu Bao-feng, Liu Zhi-zhen, Zhang Yue-hong, Xie Jun, Cheng Niu-liang, Wang Jian-hua, Niu Bo
    2014, 18 (15):  2390-2396.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.016
    Abstract ( 321 )   PDF (1065KB) ( 430 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: A group of nuclease-like proteins were previously purified from Eisenia foetida tissues, exploring primary structures of these proteins will help to uncover basic structure characteristics of them and provide foundations for the study addressing the relationship of their structures and functions.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore primary structures of nuclease-like proteins EWD1 and EWD2.
    METHODS: Edman degradation method was used to sequence the N-terminal amino acids of EWD1 and EWD2, acid hydrolisis method was used to analyze amino acid compositions of EWD1 and EWD2, LC-MS/MS was used to analyze some peptide sequences within the proteins, and MALDI-TOF-MS was used to calculate the number of the disulfide bonds and the contents of polysaccharides. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Among the amino acid compositions in EWD1 and EWD2, the sum contents of aspartate and asparagines were the highest (all nearly 10%), the contents of hydrophobic amino acids were also high, and the contents of cysteine was low. The EWD1 and EWD2 had similar amino acid compositions with other nucleases. Edman degradation results showed that, the N-terminal sequences of the large subunit of EWD1 were in turn as follows: D, E, W, V, Y, P; the N-terminal sequences of EWD2 were as follows: L, L, G, P, Y, K, P, K, C. The results of LC-MS/MS indicated the two proteins were novel proteins; MALDI-TOF-MS results showed that 8 cysteine residues formed 4 disulfide bonds in EWD1, 6 cysteine residues formed 3 disulfide bonds in EWD2. EWD1 and EWD2 were all glycoproteins, the content of polysaccharides was 17.3% in EWD1 and 15.6% in EWD2.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on interleukin-1beta and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis 
    Hou Xiao-dong, Liu Hong-bo, Liu Ke-min
    2014, 18 (15):  2397-2402.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.017
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (470KB) ( 660 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-13 can promote the metabolism of chondrocytes, inhibit the capacity of synthesizing and repairing, induce the degradation of extracellular matrix, and play a crucial role in the occurrence of osteoarthritis.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in rabbits with experimental knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into treatment group, model group and control group, with 10 rabbits in each group. Model of knee osteoarthritis was established in both the treatment group and model group, using modified plaster cast in extension position for 6 weeks. Then the rabbits of treatment group were treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy, each 1 000 impulse, at the energy flux density of 0.1 mJ/mm2. There were no treatments in the control group. The rabbits in each group were sacrificed at 4 weeks after treatment, the knee synovial fluid and articular cartilage were collected from the rabbits. The pathological changes of knee joint were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining and toluidine blue staining. The interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the synovia was detected using ELISA and immunohistochemical staining respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The interleukin-1β concentration in the synovial fluid was significantly higher in the treatment group and model group than the control group (P < 0.01), and the treatment group after treatment showed a lower concentration than the model group (P < 0.05). Mankin scores in treatment group and model group were significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.01), and the treatment group after treatment showed a lower score than the model group (P < 0.05). The interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-13 positive expression rates in the treatment group and model group were significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.01), and the treatment group after treatment showed a lower rate than the model group (P < 0.05). The extracorporeal shock wave therapy can downregulate the expression of interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-13, promote the synthesis of new collagen Ⅱ and proteoglycan, therefore effectively improve the osteoarthritis.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Rapid prototyped titanium plate combined with autologous cancellous bone graft repairs canine mandibular defects
    Zhou Li-bin, Wu Wei, Wang Pei-lin, Ding Rui-ying, Han Hao-lun, Li Bao-wei, Wang Gang, Wang Hong-nan, Zhao Jin-long, Liu Yan-pu
    2014, 18 (15):  2403-2408.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.018
    Abstract ( 397 )   PDF (635KB) ( 412 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Rapid prototyping technique has been recently applied in the medical reconstruction and allows the production of individual implant for patients with tissue defects, achieving an accurate repair.
    OBJECTIVE: To repair discontinuous mandibular defects in dogs using rapid prototyped titanium plate in combination with autologous cancellous bone graft.
    METHODS: Nine hybrid canines were used, and the skull was scanned using spiral CT. Then CT data were used to construct three-dimensional digital model, in which virtual partial mandibulectomy was performed, and an individualized bone-grafting plate was designed. A titanium plate was manufactured using rapid prototyping and titanium casting. Animal experiment was then performed. A 40-mm discontinuous defect in the right mandibular body was created in the involved dogs. The defect was restored immediately using the customized plate in combination with autologous cancellous iliac blocks. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging, biomechanical testing, three-dimensional microcomputed tomographic scanning, radiology and histological examination were used to evaluate the turnover of the grafts.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A symmetric mandible was reconstructed using the rapid prototyped grafting plate. The grafted bone survived and got corticalized, while a fibrous intermedium was found between the bone graft and the plate. In the reconstruction of mandibular defects, optimal functional and aesthetic outcomes could be achieved using the rapid prototyped grafting plates. 



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Construction and expression of adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human nucleus pulposus cells
    Sun Jie, Pan Zhi-qiang, Zhu Yue-liang, Zhou Tian-hua
    2014, 18 (15):  2409-2414.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.019
    Abstract ( 270 )   PDF (457KB) ( 429 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In animal experiments, transplantation of autologous nucleus pulposus cellscan effectively repair the intervertebral disk degeneration. However, nucleus pulposus cells have a poor ability of proliferation in vitro, which limits its application as seed cells in treatment of intervertebral disk disease.
    OBJECTIVE: To construct recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase and observe the human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA expression in human nucleus pulposus cells in vitro.
    METHODS: After the plasmid pSNAV2.0-pRSV-hTERT was constructed and identified, recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase were constructed, amplified and purified by AAVMaxTM package and purification system. The optimal multiplicity of infection for human nucleus pulposus cells was detected by recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein. According the optimal multiplicity of infection (5 × 104 v•g/cell), three different multiplicity of infection (1×104, 5×104, 1×105  v•g/cell) of recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase were determined to transfect the first passage human nucleus pulposus cells in vitro. In control group, the cells were transfected with adeno-associated virus type-2 vector without human telomerase reverse transcriptase. At 1, 2, 4 weeks after transfection, mRNA expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human nucleus pulposus cells were semi-quantitatively detected by RT-PCR. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase was successfully constructed, and the titer of the obtained vector was more than 2×1011 v•g/mL. The optimal multiplicity of infection was 5×104 v•g/cell. The mRNA expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human nucleus pulposus cells could be detected in different multiplicity of infection (1×104, 5×104, 1×105 v•g/cell). At 2 weeks post-transfection, mRNA expression of human nucleus pulposus cells was the highest (P < 0.05), as detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, the stable and high mRNA expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase could be detected at 4 weeks post-transfection. In control group, no human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA expression was found. The recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 vector carrying human telomerase reverse transcriptase can be successfully constructed, and can mediate a stable mRNA expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human nucleus pulposus cells. Our findings provide a novel strategy of enhancing the properties of nucleus pulposus cells.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Sodium aescinate reduces glial fibriallary acidic protein expression after spinal cord injury
    Ding Yong, Wu Yu-jie, Fu Zhi-yi, Jin Wen-jie, Hu Xiao-peng, Liu Xing-zhen
    2014, 18 (15):  2415-2420.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.020
    Abstract ( 250 )   PDF (618KB) ( 326 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The methylprednisolone pulse therapy in early period of spinal cord injury can attenuate the pathological degree of spinal cord injury, however no breakthrough was found within recent 20 years.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the protection effects of sodium aescinate on the nerve cell apoptosis and expression of glial fibriallary acidic protein (GFAP) in the early spinal cord injured rats.
    METHODS: Spinal cord injury models were established with the modified Allen’s method in 180 Sprague-Dawley rats, and were randomly divided into three groups, with 60 rats in each group. Immediately after injury, the rats in three groups were intraperitoneally injected with sodium aescinate (5 mg/kg), methylprednisolone (100 mg/kg) and equal saline, respectively, once per day. At 8 hours, 24 hours, 96 hours and 7 days, 14 days after injury, rats were sacrificed and the injured segments were resected for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining, the nerve cell apoptosis and GFAP expression were detected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The apoptotic nerve cells were seen at 8 hours after injury and the number of apoptotic cells reached the peak at 7 days, the edema was attenuated at 14 days without less nerve cell apoptosis in all groups, significantly fewer apoptotic nerve cells can be seen in sodium aescinate and methylprednisolone groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05) at each time. The expression of GFAP   was increased in the time dependant manner in all groups, the increase was slow in methylprednisolone group but sharp in sodium aescinate group and control group within 96 hours. There was no difference between control group and sodium aescinate group within 24 hours (P > 0.05), which was lower than methylprednisolone group (P < 0.05); after 96 hours, methylprednisolone group and sodium aescinate group were both significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the decreasing expression was observed in all groups after 7 days. Sodium ascinate has obvious protection effects on nerve cells in spinal cord injured rats and promotes neurological function through decreasing GFAP expression after injury. The efficacy of sodium ascinate is equal to that of methylprednisolone within 2 hours.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    null
    Xiao Xiang, Li Le, Lv Yan-chun, Lin Qiang, Huang Dong-feng
    2014, 18 (15):  2421-2426.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.021
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (273KB) ( 454 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The interaction of neural network and motor function in post-stroke brain tissue remains unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe neural network impairment following subacute stroke by using diffusion tensor imaging, and to investigate the relationship with neurological defects and motor dysfunction.
    METHODS: A total of 19 patients after subactue stroke and 20 healthy adults were examined with diffusion tensor imaging. The following parameters were compared: fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, asymmetry indices of fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient. The neurological defect and motor function were evaluated with the corresponding scales. The 10-meter walking speed was measured. The correlation of diffusion tensor imaging parameters with the scale scores and 10-meter walking speed was analyzed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The stroke group exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy value asymmetry and fractional anisotropy value in bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule. Apparent diffusion coefficient value asymmetry and apparent diffusion coefficient value in the posterior limb of the internal capsule were lower than control unaffected side (P < 0.05). Apparent diffusion coefficient value and apparent diffusion coefficient value asymmetry in posterior limb of the internal capsule showed a strong negative correlation with Fugl-Meyer  assessment scores of the lower extremities (P < 0.05). Diffusion tensor imaging parameters is closely linked with motor dysfunction of the lower extremities in subacute stroke patients. Local stroke lesion-caused neurological defect is the leading cause of motor dysfunction of the lower extremities.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Vascularization for tissue engineering organs: research progress and application prospect
    Zheng Xing-long, Xiang Jun-xi, Li Jian-hui, Lv Yi
    2014, 18 (15):  2427-2433.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.022
    Abstract ( 369 )   PDF (536KB) ( 598 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: An efficient blood vessel system has a decisive effect on the survival and function expression of cells in three-dimensional tissues. Therefore it has been a hot research field in tissue engineering to find an appropriate vascularization strategy.
    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and discuss the theory and research progress in vascularization strategies.
    METHODS: Literature search was performed in PubMed database for English literatures published from 2003 to 2013. The key words are “tissue engineering, vascularization, endothelial cell, scaffold” in English. Then, the papers were further analyzed and reviewed in line with the theme.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 124 papers were searched. At last, 41 papers were selected according to the titles and objectives. Vascularization is the focus and pressing issue in tissue engineering field. There are many vascularization strategies, such as growth factor delivery, cell co-culture, dynamic-culture by bioreactor, scaffolds or decellularized scaffolds. But none of them is recognized as an effective strategy to achieve functional anastomosis with the host and sustain grafts survival for a long time in vivo. It will be a big breakthrough in the future to co-culture pluripotent stem cells with other stem cells, combine with growth factors and optimize culture conditions for the differentiation in vivo.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Role of stem cells, endothelial cells and cytokines in the development and regression of infantile hemangioma
    Miao Xiao-teng, Song Wei-ming
    2014, 18 (15):  2434-2441.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.023
    Abstract ( 303 )   PDF (427KB) ( 387 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: At present, there are few efficient therapies for infantile hemangioma, and the pathogenesis mechanisms remain unclear.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the literatures available on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma, to understand the research progress on the pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma, and to provide a reference for developing new drug therapies.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search was performed in the PubMed database for literatures related to the pathogenesis, physiopathological features and epidemiology data of infantile hemangioma published from January 2009 to February 2014. The subject headings are “hemangioma, capillary, classification, epidemiology, etiology, embryology, cytology, physiopathology, pathology, immunology, genetics, drug therapy, therapy”.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Accumulating evidence has investigated the occurrence, development and regression of infantile hemangioma. However, no large-scale, multi-central epidemiology data are reported, and there is no theory explaining the pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma completely. Moreover, the relationship between all those theories about the pathogenesis remains unclear. The most important obstacle constraining the research is the lack of ideal animal model of infantile hemangioma. Due to the restrictions of nude mice models, it is imminent to develop new animal models for infantile hemangioma research.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Parathyroid hormone related peptides affect diabetic osteoporotic fracture
    Liu An-long, Qiu Yong, Wang Yin-he
    2014, 18 (15):  2442-2449.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.024
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (415KB) ( 430 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone related peptides are accompanied by the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. As a potential therapeutic drug of promoting the healing of bone fracture, parathyroid hormone related peptides have significant clinical application value.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the regulating effects of parathyroid hormone related peptides in diabetic osteoporotic fracture
    METHODS: A computer-based online research of CNKI and PubMed databases was performed to collect articles published between 1990 and 2013, with the key words “parathyroid hormone related peptides, diabetes, osteoporotic fracture” in Chinese and English. There were 1 279 articles after the initial survey. A total of       43 articles were included according inclusion and exclusion criteria.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Animal and clinical experiments demonstrated that parathyroid hormone related peptides notably accelerate bone fracture healing, and improve the repair process of islet cell function defects  that are related with diabetes. Meanwhile, as an analogue, parathyroid hormone has been identified as clinical medication in the treatment of fracture. But the appropriate dose, and method of application at the different stages of bone fracture healing and the problem of drug combination need further investigation.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    Role and mechanism of retinoic acid in axonal regeneration 
    Wu Shi-xing, Yu Zhen-hai, Liu Fang, Lin Hai-yan, Zhang Zhi-ying, Zhang Chuan-sen
    2014, 18 (15):  2450-2454.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.025
    Abstract ( 308 )   PDF (330KB) ( 580 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid signaling pathways is very important in the formation pf nervous system, specialization of neurons and outgrowth of axons. The recent studies show that, retinoic acid plays an important role in the process of axonal regeneration, but few research reports its exact molecular mechanism.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize the mechanism underlying retinoic acid signaling pathways in the process of axonal regeneration. 
    METHODS: A computer-based online research was conducted among the VIP, CNKI, PubMed, BioMed Centeral, Springer, The Free Medical Journals, EBSCO and Foreign Journals Integration System between January 2000 and December 2013, with the key words of “retinoic acid, the central nervous system, nerve damage, axon regeneration, and mechanism” in Chinese and English. A total of 43 studies addressing the molecular mechanism of retinoic acid in axonal regeneration were screened. According to the supplementary documents, another five references were added. Repetitive research and atypical reports were excluded.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Following acute central nervous system injury, axonal regeneration and functional recovery are extremely limited. For proper functionality following injury, axons must regrow, reinnervate their targets, and remyelinate their axons. When the central nervous system injuries occur, retinoic acid signaling pathways express transcription factor retinoic acid receptor β2 to induce axonal regeneration following injury; in dorsal root ganglion neurons, cAMP levels are greatly increased by lentiviral retinoic acid receptor β2 expression and contribute to neurite outgrowth. More recently, retinoic acid-retinoic acid receptor β2 pathways directly transcriptionally repress a member of the inhibitory Nogo receptor complex, Lingo-1, under an axonal growth inhibitory environment in vitro as well as following spinal cord injury in vivo. Through these molecular mechanisms, retinoic acid signaling pathways play its important role in the process of axonal regeneration.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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    A meta-analysis of mud therapy on knee osteoarthritis pain
    Deng Zhen-han, Yang Tuo, Li Hui, Zhang Yi, Li Yu-sheng, Lei Guang-hua
    2014, 18 (15):  2455-2460.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.15.026
    Abstract ( 452 )   PDF (425KB) ( 579 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As a therapy means of osteoarthritis, mud therapy has attracted great attention from the researchers, but its effectiveness still remains controversial in the previous studies.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of mud therapy for relieving knee osteoarthritis pain.
    METHODS: An online search through Pubmed/Medline database was performed, and the relevant literatures were manually retrieved. The retrieval deadline was set on March 9, 2013. Randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials addressing mud therapy of knee osteoarthritis were collected.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of seven studies of meta-analysis involving 410 cases were included. There was a significant difference between treatment group and control group in the visual analogue scale pain score (standardized mean difference: -0.74) and WOMAC pain score (standardized standard deviation: -0.30). Mud therapy can attenuate knee osteoarthritis pain. But this conclusion needs to be confirmed by more high-quality randomized controlled trials.



    中国组织工程研究
    杂志出版内容重点:组织构建;骨细胞;软骨细胞;细胞培养;成纤维细胞;血管内皮细胞;骨质疏松组织工程


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