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    18 May 2020, Volume 24 Issue 14 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Ratcheting behavior of adult and juvenile cartilage under rolling load
    Li Kai, Du Yuxue, Gao Lilan, Zhang Chunqiu, Sun Dongdong
    2020, 24 (14):  2133-2139.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2246
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (25022KB) ( 27 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Domestic and foreign scholars have done a lot of researches on the stress of articular cartilage under different mechanical environments and cyclic compressive loads, but they mainly studied the effect of cartilage under the cyclic compressive load. Studies on the effects of age factor on the mechanical properties of cartilage and studies regarding the properties of cartilage in complex stress environments are not exhaustive.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different rolling load conditions on the ratcheting behavior of adult and juvenile articular cartilage.

    METHODS: Adult cartilage and juvenile cartilage were used as experimental objects, and the load was applied by a rolling load device under different experimental conditions (compression: 10%, 20%, 30%; rolling rate: 1.66, 3.44, 6.68 mm/s; defect width: 1, 2, 4 mm). At the same time, non-contact digital technology was used to collect the sample during the loading process, and the cyclical pressure was studied by analyzing and processing the image. The ratcheting behavior of adult and juvenile articular cartilage was studied under rolling load. 

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under rolling load, the ratcheting strain of adult cartilage and juvenile cartilage showed a rapid increase followed by a slow increase tendency with the rolling load. With the increase of compression, the ratcheting strain of adult cartilage and juvenile cartilage increased. At the same amount of compression, the ratcheting strain of juvenile cartilage was greater than that of adult cartilage, and their ratcheting strain gradually decreased from the surface layer to the deep layer along the depth of cartilage. As the rolling rate increased, the ratcheting strain of adult cartilage and juvenile cartilage decreased. The ratcheting strain values and trends of 1 mm microdefect articular cartilage were similar to those of intact articular cartilage. Under the condition of 2, 4 mm defect, the ratcheting strain value of the defected cartilage was higher than that of the intact cartilage.

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    Effect of different femoral tunnel locations on patellofemoral joint during single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
    Lin Yuan, Xu Bin, Tu Jun, Xu Honggang, Guo Ruipeng
    2020, 24 (14):  2140-2146.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2492
    Abstract ( 419 )   PDF (30785KB) ( 35 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that arthroscopic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can restore the forward stability of the knee joint, but the rotational stability of the knee joint and the matching degree with the patellofemoral joint are affected by the central position of the femoral and tibial tunnels.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the location of different femoral tunnel centers and patellofemoral articulation and cartilage conditions in young and middle-aged patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and to carry out the correlation analysis of patient study factors to further explore the location of the femoral tunnel with the least influence on the patellofemoral joint.

    METHODS: Seventy patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture were diagnosed by preoperative MRI, physical examination and intraoperative arthroscopy. All patients were divided into quasi-isometric group and quasi-anatomical group according to the parity of random numbers. In the quasi-isometric group, a Kirschner needle was inserted 7 mm distal to the apex of the lateral wall of the intervertebral fossa using a femoral locator. In the quasi-anatomical group, the Kirschner needle was inserted at the lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa and at the foot print center of the original anterior cruciate ligament. The central coordinates of the femoral tunnel were evaluated on the near-far-front-rear plane based on a standardized grid system, while the central coordinates of the tibial tunnel was evaluated on the anterior-posterior-inner-outer plane, labeled as quadrant Y% and quadrant X%. By comparing the baseline data of patients in the two groups, the difference of lateral patellofemoral angle (LPFA), the difference of cartilage quantitative T2 value, and the correlation between various research factors, the surgical operators were further guided to carry out clinical practice. The implementation of the study protocol complied with the relevant ethical requirements of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, and all patients signed an informed consent form prior to the participation in the trial.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in baseline data between the two groups, but a significant difference in LPFA existed between the two groups, (0.57±0.33)° in the quasi-anatomical group vs. (1.55±0.36)° in the quasi-isometric group (P < 0.001). The T2 values of medial patella, lateral patella and trochlear cartilage in the quasi-anatomical group were all smaller than the corresponding values of the quasi-isometric group. Quadrant X% had a significant negative correlation with LPFA difference (R=-0.664, P < 0.01). Quadrant Y% was positively correlated with LPFA difference (R=0.804, P < 0.01). The difference of LPFA was significantly positively correlated with T2 values of trochlear and patellar outer cartilage (R=0.651, 0.655, P < 0.01). T2 values of trochlea and lateral patella cartilage were negatively correlated with postoperative Lysholm score (R=-0.505, -0.529, P < 0.01). Quadrant Y% was highly correlated with T2 value of lateral patella (R=0.825, P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with T2 value of trochlear cartilage (R=0.798, P < 0.01). Quadrant X% was negatively correlated with T2 values of lateral patella and pulley cartilage (R=-0.639, -0.657, P < 0.01). By exploring the change of the patellofemoral joint at early stage after single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, we found that the quasi-anatomical reconstruction relative to the quasi-isometric reconstruction requires less patellofemoral articular cartilage degeneration and smaller patellar tilt angle. Therefore, the surgeon is required to local the center point of the femoral tunnel as far as possible at the quasi-anatomical position, thereby minimizing the degeneration of the patellofemoral joint.

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    Local injection of halofuginone into the subchondral bone relieves canine osteoarthritis by inhibiting transforming growth factor beta 1 signaling pathway
    Ren Jiangdong, Shalitanati • Wuermanbieke, Nuerailijiang • Yushan, Wuhuzi • Wulamu, Cao Li
    2020, 24 (14):  2147-2152.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2539
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (22735KB) ( 29 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that the increase of bone resorption in osteoclasts over-activates transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and uncouples bone resorption and bone formation, ultimately leading to a hardened phenotype of the subchondral bone in an animal model of osteoarthritis. Progression of osteoarthritis can be attenuated by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling pathway.

    OBJECTIVE: To detect whether osteoarthritis progression can be delayed by the local injection of halofuginone in Beagle models of osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: Eighteen male Beagle dogs were randomized into a sham (control) group, a model (osteoarthritis) group, or a treatment (halofuginone) group. Animal models of osteoarthritis were made by anterior cruciate ligament transection in the latter two groups. Animals in the treatment group were given local injection of halofuginone (37.8 ng) into the subchondral bone. Serum levels of type II collagen C-terminal peptide (CTX-II) and type X collagen α1 chain (COL10A1) were measured at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after modeling. The Beagle dogs were sacrificed at the 16th week after surgery, and the alterations of microarchitecture of the subchondral bone were detected by micro-CT. Articular cartilage degeneration was graded using safranin O and fast green staining combined with the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI)-modified Manking criteria. Immunostaining analyses were conducted to detect the expression levels of TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, with the approval No. IACUC20160304-07.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The COL10A1 level in the model group was higher than that in the control group and the treatment group at 8 and 12 weeks after modeling (P < 0.01). The levels of CTX-II in the model group were higher than that in the control group and the treatment group at 8, 12, and 16 weeks after modeling (P < 0.05). Micro-CT examination showed that compared with the control and treatment groups, the bone volume fraction of the subchondral bone was increased in the model group, while the subchondral bone trabecular separation and the trabecular model factor were decreased significantly (all P < 0.05). The OARSI-modified Manking score was significantly higher in the model group than in the control group and the treatment group (both P < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and TGF-β1 in the model group were significantly higher than those in the control group and the treatment group (all P < 0.01). No significant differences in the above-mentioned indexes were found between the control group and the treatment group (all P > 0.05). Overall, local injection of halofuginon attenuates anterior cruciate ligament transection-induced osteoarthritis by inhibiting abnormally elevated TGF-β1 in the subchondral bone and blocking abnormal bone remodeling. Therefore, local injection of halofuginon may be a new therapeutic alternative for osteoarthritis. 

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    Effect of intermittent hydrostatic pressure on early cartilage differentiation of ATDC5 cells 
    Chen Hongyu, Han Hao, Chen Wei, Zhang Qiang
    2020, 24 (14):  2153-2157.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2043
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (20249KB) ( 60 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue repair is an important field of tissue engineering. How to use engineering technology to effectively differentiate seed cells into chondrocytes is a focus and difficulty in the field of tissue engineering. At present, it is difficult to make seed cells differentiate into mature and stable chondrocytes by simple orientation-inducing culture. Thereafter, the authors preliminarily studied the induced directional differentiation using intermittent hydrostatic pressure stimulation based on the characteristics of ATDC5 chondrocytes, in addition to the use of effective culture solution.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure on the early-term chondrocyte differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    METHODS: ATDC5 cell lines were cultured in multilayer. Cells adhered well with multiple-layer formation after 3 days, and were then sealed to maintain sterility. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure was applied to the cultures (10 MPa, 1 Hz, 4 h/d). Cells cultured with no intermittent hydrostatic pressure served as control group. Morphological changes of the cells were observed under microscope at 4, 7, 11, 14, and 17 days. Expression levels of Aggrecan, COL-2 and SOX-9 mRNA were detected by real-time PCR.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After application of intermittent hydrostatic pressure, ATDC5 cells aggregated and appeared with obvious patchy changes. The mRNA expression levels of Aggrecan and COL-2 were significantly increased. SOX-9 mRNA expression level showed no significant difference compared with the control group, but presented with fall-rise pattern. Intermittent hydrostatic pressure influences the mRNA expression related to chondrocyte differentiation and promotes the secretion of chondrogenic matrix. This method is contributive to the mature cartilage differentiation. 

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    Long-term intensive family rehabilitation training for postoperative functional recovery in elderly hip fracture patients
    Wang Kexin , Fan Jiang, Li Xue, Yang Shan, Ren Dong, He Chengqi
    2020, 24 (14):  2158-2163.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2595
    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (23340KB) ( 70 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hip fracture can result in a high functional disability rate in elderly patients. Traditional rehabilitation pays more attentions to rehabilitation training during hospitalization, instead of family rehabilitation training out of hospital. Intensive family rehabilitation training for 6 months has been proven to be an effective method, but its longer-term effect still needs further study.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of long-term intensive family rehabilitation training on postoperative functional recovery in elderly hip fracture patients.

    METHODS: Eighty-nine elderly hip fracture patients who were treated with surgery were prospectively enrolled, and randomized into an experimental group (n=42) and a control group (n=47). The control group patients were treated with traditional rehabilitation training, and the patients in the experimental group were treated with long-term intensive family rehabilitation training. Functional exercises in the experimental group were guided, and the rehabilitation scheme was adjusted in time using network tools. All the patients were followed up for 12 months, and their functional recovery was assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by the activity of daily living score, 6-minute walking test, the hip Harris score, the functional independent measure score and the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score. The study protocol was implemented in line with the ethic requirements of the Sixth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, and each patient was fully informed of the study procedures.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Patients’ function gradually recovered in both group postoperatively. The activity of daily living score, functional independent measure score, 6-minute walking test, Hip Harris score, and SF-36 score of the experimental group were significantly better than those in the control group at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). To conclude, long-term intensive family rehabilitation training for elderly hip fractures can improve patients’ daily life ability and quality of life; however, the rehabilitation program and its efficacy still require further research.

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    Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid versus platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis
    Sun Renyi, Jia Tanghong
    2020, 24 (14):  2164-2169.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2617
    Abstract ( 545 )   PDF (25314KB) ( 121 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma contains a variety of growth factors that can promote tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, it has been gradually used in the clinical treatment of osteoarthritis. Sodium hyaluronate can improve inflammatory responses in synovial tissue, protect the articular cartilage, promote the healing and regeneration of articular cartilage, and relieve pain.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the improvement of pain and function in knee osteoarthritis patients after treatment with platelet-rich plasma and sodium hyaluronate.

    METHODS: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a platelet-rich plasma treatment group and a sodium hyaluronate treatment group. Patients in the platelet-rich plasma group received three injections of platelet-rich plasma via arthrocentesis within 21 days, and those in the sodium hyaluronate group received five injections of sodium hyaluronate via arthrocentesis within 35 days. Pain relief and functional improvement were assessed before and 2, 4, 6 months after injection using the Visual Analogue Scale, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome System, and the Hospital for Special Surgery scores.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the follow-up visit, 35 patients in the platelet-rich plasma group and 36 patients in the sodium hyaluronate group were enrolled in the result analysis. At the end of 6-month follow-up, pain and functional symptoms were certainly relieved in both two groups. For grade II knee osteoarthritis, platelet-rich plasma injection showed better outcomes than sodium hyaluronate injection. After first injection, the Visual Analogue Scale scores in the platelet-rich plasma group were lowered by 50% from the initial values. No significant differences in the Hospital for Special Surgery score were observed between the two groups at 2, 4, and 6 months after treatment (P > 0.05). Therefore, platelet-rich plasma therapy is appropriate for low-grade knee osteoarthritis

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    Therapeutic effects of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty on osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture
    Ma Yanhuai, Zhang Shuncong, Yuan Kai, Zhou Tengpeng, Luo Peijie, Mo Guoye, Guo Huizhi, Tang Yongchao, Guo Danqing, Wen Guangwei, Xu Yuerong
    2020, 24 (14):  2170-2176.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2233
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (29471KB) ( 45 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebral body stenting system (VBS) can alleviate patient's pain, recover the height of vertebral body, and correct local kyphosis, but there is no definite clinical study to show that it has obvious advantages over percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP).

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term effect of VBS versus PKP in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture.

    METHODS: Forty patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture who received VBS or PKP between January 2017 and December 2018 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were included in this study. They were divided into a VBS group (n=15) and a PKP group (n=25) according to surgery method. According to whether fluoroscopic operation was performed in retroextension position, two subgroups were designated: VBS retroextension group (n=7) and PKP retroextension group (n=14).

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the PKP group, the amount of bone cement injected into the vertebra was greater in the VBS group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and leakage rate of cement between PKP and VBS groups (P > 0.05). Compared with preoperative situations, Visual Analogue Scale score was significantly decreased after surgery in both VBS and PKP groups, and further decreased at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). The height of anterior edge of the injured vertebra, the height of middle part of the injured vertebra and the ratio of the height of the anterior edge of injured vertebra to adjacent vertebra were significantly increased after surgery in both VBS and PKP groups (P < 0.05). In both VBS and PKP groups, the Cobb angle of vertebral compression was significantly decreased after surgery compared with before surgery (P < 0.05). After surgery, the Cobb angle of vertebral compression in the VBS group was smaller than that in the PKP group (P < 0.05). In the VBS group, local Cobb angle after surgery was significantly decreased compared with that before surgery (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in operation time, intraoperative blood loss, amount of bone cement, bone cement leakage, clinical efficacy (VAS score), imaging evaluation (height of anterior edge of injured vertebra, height of middle part of injured vertebra, height ratio of anterior edge of injured vertebra to adjacent vertebra, Cobb angle of vertebral compression and local Cobb angle between VBS retroextension and PKP retroextension groups (P > 0.05). These results suggest that VBS and PKP are effective in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. VBS can better correct compression kyphosis deformity when more bone cement is injected. The difference of therapeutic efficacy between two surgical approaches can be reduced with proper surgical position, keeping the surgical segment in the retroextension position. 

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    Relationship between lactic acid concentration and osteoclast differentiation of mouse monocytes
    Qu Renfei, Mai Yuying, Chen Xiaowei, Hu Huanying, Chen Guozhi, Li Dongdong, Liao Hongbing
    2020, 24 (14):  2177-2183.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2229
    Abstract ( 320 )   PDF (30078KB) ( 33 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary study found that polylactic acid composite material could accelerate the bone construction rate, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied further.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lactic acid at different concentrations on osteoclast differentiation of mononuclear cells in mice.

    METHODS: Mouse RAW264.7 cells were cultured in DMEM with 0 (control group), 5, 10 and 20 mmol/L lactic acid, respectively, under the induction of 50 μg/L RANKL for 5 days. The effect of lactic acid concentration on the cell proliferation rate was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 assay. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive polykaryotic cells were stained and counted with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining kit. mRNA expression levels of acid phosphatase 5, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 and RANK were detected by RT-PCR. Protein expression levels of cathepsin K and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 were detected by western blot assay.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) 5 mmol/L lactic acid produced the highest proliferation rate of raw264.7 cells, whereas the 20 mmol/L lactic acid produced lowest cell proliferation rate. Compared with the control group, the proliferation rate of raw264.7 cells by 10 mmol/L lactic acid was insignificant. (2) Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining showed the highest positive rate and mRNA expression levels of acid phosphatase 5, nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 and RANK under the condition of 10 mmol/L lactic acid. (3) With the increase of lactic acid concentration, the expression level of cathepsin K increased, while the expression level of nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 was on a decline. (4) Under the current experimental conditions, with the increase of lactic acid concentration, the ability of lactic acid to promote the osteoclast differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 cells is firstly increased and then decreased, and 10 mmol/L lactic acid was the optimal concentration to promote the osteoclast differentiation of mouse RAW264.7 cells. Lactic acid can affect the osteoclastic differentiation of mouse raw264.7 cells by nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 in nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.

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    Resveratrol repairs skeletal muscle injury by up-regulating basic fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 
    Liu Xing, Wei Xiaohan, Deng Jie, Li Zhongming
    2020, 24 (14):  2184-2191.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2533
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (31211KB) ( 54 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, resveratrol has been studied a lot on the inhibition of tissue fibrosis, but the effect of resveratrol on the rehabilitation of muscle injury has been rarely reported.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein in the repair of acute blunt trauma of the skeletal muscle, and to explore the mechanism by which resveratrol promotes the structural and functional recovery of damaged skeletal muscle.

    METHODS: Thirty-three New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: normal group (n=3), natural recovery group (n=15) and resveratrol group (n=15). The skeletal muscle contusion model was established by blunt violence except for the normal group. The natural recovery group was not treated and the resveratrol group was intragastrically given resveratrol after injury. The animals were euthanized at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and formation of collagen fibers were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining. The expression of bFGF and IGF-1 protein in the skeletal muscle was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Hematoxylin-eosin staining results: In the normal group, the muscle fibers were presented with polygons, regular shape, tight arrangement, muscle nucleus evenly distributed under the sarcolemma, no hyperplasia and pyknosis, and sarcolemma intact. In the injury groups, blood cells were exuded at 1 day, and inflammatory cells infiltrated at 3 days, which reached the maximum at 7 days. The morphology of muscle fibers returned to normal at 21 days after injury. The resveratrol group was better than the natural recovery group in terms of inflammatory cell infiltration and repair time. (2) Masson staining results: There were few collagen fibers in normal muscle cells. After injury, the number of collagen fibers increased with the formation of scar tissue, and reached a peak at 14 days. The content of collagen fibers in the resveratrol group was lower than that in the natural recovery group. (3) Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting results: The expression of bFGF and IGF-1 protein first increased and then decreased after injury. In both groups, the expression of bFGF and IGF-1 protein reached the peak at 7 days and was still at a high level at 21 days. The resveratrol group had significantly higher bFGF and IGF-1 levels than the natural recovery group (P < 0.05). Overall, resveratrol can effectively accelerate the histological healing process and improve the healing quality of rabbit skeletal muscle after blunt trauma. Resveratrol significantly promotes the repair of damaged skeletal muscle by up-regulating bFGF and IGF-1 expression, but not altering the overall change of protein expression during skeletal muscle injury repair.

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    Application of digital prosthesis in the repair of palatal fistula in rabbits
    Sun Libo, Lan Yuyan, Zhou Hangyu, Hu Yun
    2020, 24 (14):  2192-2196.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2228
    Abstract ( 259 )   PDF (22940KB) ( 63 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Digital impression technology has been widely used in the oral field. Compared with traditional impression technology, it is more convenient and accurate.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the application of digital prosthesis for repairing palatal fistula in rabbits.

    METHODS: The rabbit models of palatal fistula were established by surgery. One month later, 10 rabbit models of palatal fistula were scanned by digital intraoral scanning system. The medical silicone rubber prosthesis for palatal fistula was manufactured by digital impression technology and digital design. After wearing the prosthesis, the accuracy, retention and sealing properties of the prosthesis were examined. The study was approved by the Laboratory Animal Ethical Committee of Hospital of Stomatology, Southwest Medical University.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After digital prosthesis repaired palatal fistula, the accuracy, retention and sealing properties of the prosthesis were good. To conclude, the digital prosthesis for palatal fistula repair by digital impression technology achieves accurate repair, and has certain clinical values.

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    Establishment and application of paravertebral muscle endurance and left-right symmetry measurement indexes and methods in teenagers
    Qiu Dan, He Hui, Xiong Kaiyu, Li Hongjuan
    2020, 24 (14):  2197-2204.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2582
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (30067KB) ( 33 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Surface electromyography has indicated that non-specific chronic low back pain patients have inconsistent changes in the motion of erector spinae muscles on both sides of the lumbar spine. Existing physical fitness evaluation focuses on the evaluation of the overall strength of the waist, whereas there is no report on the evaluation methods and indicators of paravertebral muscle in teenagers.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish methods and indicators for assessing teenagers’ paravertebral muscle endurance and left-right symmetry, and to preliminarily formulate evaluation criteria.

    METHODS: Two hundred students, aged 13-18 years, were randomly selected in a middle school of Beijing, half male and half female. There were 100 junior high school students and 100 high school students. All the subjects did Biering-Sorensen (B-S) exercise to maintain isometric contraction of paravertebral muscles, and surface electromyography was then used to record the electromyography of bilateral erector spine muscles (ES) of L3-L4 and multifidus muscles (MF) of L5-S1. Measurement was terminated when the upper body could not maintain the horizontal posture or was still below the horizontal position after three reminders. The indexes were screened and the evaluation indexes were established. The evaluation criteria of paravertebral muscle endurance and left-right symmetry of each age group were determined by the dispersion method. The study protocol was in line with the ethics requirements of Beijing Sport University. Subjects and their guardians were fully informed of the study process.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to the anatomic posture analysis and muscle mobilization ratio test, the left/right erector spine muscle (LES/RES) and left/right multifidus muscle (LWF/RMF) in B-S action were confirmed to be the prime muscle. Mean power frequency (MPF) decreased linearly with time, and the correlation coefficient was R < -0.97 (P < 0.01). In terms of repeatability measurement, MPF slope (slopeMPF) difference test was defined as P > 0.05, and correlation coefficient within the group was ICC > 0.80 (P < 0.01), indicating a good repeatability. Fitting composite index, the index v=slopeMPF (LES+RES+LMF+RMF)/4 was used to evaluate teenagers’ paravertebral muscular endurance, and u=slopeMPF (LES-RES)/slopeMPF (LES+RES)+slopeMPF (LMF-RMF)/slopeMPF (LMF+RMF) was to evaluate the left-right symmetry. The evaluation results revealed that the paravertebral muscle endurance of high school students of the same sex was increased in relative to junior high school students (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in paravertebral muscle endurance between male and female students in high school. The teenagers’ paravertebral muscle endurance and symmetry showed normal distribution, and could be graded by deviation method. In this study, the indexes and methods for evaluating paravertebral muscle endurance and left-right symmetry were preliminarily established, and the criteria for evaluating juvenile paravertebral muscle endurance and left-right symmetry were preliminarily established by deviation method.

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    Platelet-rich plasma interferes with changes in articular cartilage and synovium of rabbits with knee osteoarthritis
    Qiu Hao, Chen Shimou, Weng Zheng, Zhu Yun, Liu Dun, Chen Yu
    2020, 24 (14):  2205-2210.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2594
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (23598KB) ( 37 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma has a strong role in promoting chondrocyte repair and proliferation.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in chondrocyte repair and synovial inflammation inhibition in osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: The blood samples were extracted from the central artery of the ear in 40 New Zealand white rabbits and platelet-rich plasma was prepared by the method of Hokugo. The platelet, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor in the peripheral blood and platelet-rich plasma were detected simultaneously. Animal models were made by resection of anterior cruciate ligament and divided into experimental group and control group. In the experimental group, 0.3 mL of platelet-rich plasma was injected once a week for 10 weeks; in the control group, 0.3 mL of sterile saline was injected once a week for 10 weeks. Gross observation and histological observation of knee joints were performed; articular cartilage type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinase 13 levels were measured; and Mankin score of the cartilage tissue was performed at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after injection. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Chongqing Medical University.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The concentrations of platelet, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor in platelet-rich plasma were 5.5, 4.8, 7.7, and 6.2 times those of the peripheral blood, respectively. And there were significant differences between the platelet-rich plasma and peripheral blood (P < 0.05). (2) From the 6th week, the Mankin score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). (3) The expression of type II collagen protein in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group at the 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th weeks after injection (P < 0.05). The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 was significantly lower than that in the control group at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th week (P < 0.05). All these findings indicate that intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma can inhibit the development of osteoarthritis by alleviating synovial inflammation and delaying or blocking the damage of chondrocytes.

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    Effects of curcumin post-conditioning on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with liver cold ischemia/reperfusion injury 
    Zou Haibo, Shi Peng, Sun Xiaofeng
    2020, 24 (14):  2211-2216.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2531
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (26408KB) ( 44 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Curcumin pre-conditioning can alleviate liver injury induced by limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), but whether curcumin post-conditioning has protective effect against liver cold I/R injury and its mechanism are still poorly studied.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of curcumin post-conditioning on hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with liver cold I/R injury in rats.

    METHODS: Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=20 per group) by using a random number table: sham group, I/R group, curcumin post-conditioning group (I/R+Cur group), and dexamethasone group (I/R+Dex group). The liver blood flow was completely blocked. Then the splenic vein and the adrenal vein were used as the inflow and outflow tracts to inject 0 oC compound Ringer lactate solution followed by cold perfusion for 30 minutes. After stopping cold perfusion, the proximal splenic vein and the right adrenal vein were ligated to remove the spleen, and then the blood flow in the liver restored. The cold I/R model was successfully established. After 30 minutes of cold ischemia, 60 mg/kg curcumin was injected into the rat tail vein in the I/R+Cur group, 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone was injected into the rat tail vein in the I/R+Dex group, and the same amount of saline was injected in the other groups. Blood sample was taken from the carotid artery at 6 hours after reperfusion. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transferase were detected. Then the rats were sacrificed to detect malondialdehyde level in liver tissue, observe liver pathological changes by hematoxylin-eosin staining, measure hepatocyte apoptosis index by Hoechst 33258 staining, detect expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein by western blot, expression of caspase-9 mRNA by RT-PCR, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β by ELISA.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham group, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, malondialdehyde levels and apoptosis index in the I/R group increased significantly (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the hepatic sinusoids, eosinophilic changes of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic loosening, balloon-like changes of hepatocytes, occasional patchy necrosis, and scattered punctate necrosis foci in the I/R group. The I/R group had significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2, and increased expression of Bax (P < 0.05), Caspase-9 mRNA, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β (P < 0.05). Compared with the I/R group, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, malondialdehyde levels and apoptosis index in the I/R+Cur group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that inflammatory infiltration in the hepatic sinusoids decreased significantly, eosinophilic and balloon-like hepatocytes decreased significantly, but occasionally a small amount of scattered punctate necrosis was observed in the I/R+Cur group. There was significantly increased Bcl-2 expression, and significantly decreased Bax (P < 0.05), Caspase-9 mRNA, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between I/R+Cur group and I/R+Dex group (P > 0.05). In a word, curcumin-post conditioning can alleviate liver injury induced by cold I/R in rats. Its mechanism may be related to down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, inhibition of caspase-9 mRNA expression, and reduction of the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, therefore playing an anti-apoptotic role in liver protection.

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    Effects of 6-phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 on tubule formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Cao Yang, Hu Ping, Tian Min, Wei Fang, Gu Qing, Lü Hongbin
    2020, 24 (14):  2217-2222.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2599
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF (21600KB) ( 51 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The research on neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy is mostly limited to vascular endothelial growth factor, but 6-phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-diphosphatase (PFKFB3) also plays a certain role.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of PFKFB3-siRNA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in high glucose environment.

    METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: normal glucose control group (5.5 mmol/L glucose), normal glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group (5.5 mmol/L glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA), high glucose group (30 mmol/L glucose), high glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group (30mmol/L glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA). Western blot assay was used to detect the silencing effect of PFKFB3 expression. PFKFB3 with optimal silencing effect was selected for subsequent experiments. The tubule formation was detected by in vitro tubule formation assay. The expression of PFKFB3 mRNA was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The expression of PFKFB3 and AKT protein was detected by western blot.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: PFKFB3-siRNA significantly inhibited the expression of PFKFB3 (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal glucose control group, the total length of tube formation was increased in the normal glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group (P < 0.05), and was significantly decreased in the high glucose group (P < 0.01). There was no significant change in the total length of tube formation between normal glucose control group and high glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group (P > 0.05). Compared with the high glucose group, the tube formation ability of the high glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal glucose control group, the mRNA and protein expression of PFKFB3 in the high glucose group were significantly increased (both P < 0.01). Compared with the high glucose group, the expression of PFKFB3 protein in the high glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group was decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal glucose control group, the ratio of p-AKT/AKT in the normal glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group and the high glucose group was decreased (both P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference in the ratio p-AKT/AKT protein between the high glucose group+PFKFB3-siRNA group and the normal glucose control group (P > 0.05). Compared with the high glucose group, the ratio of p-AKT/AKT protein in the high glucose+PFKFB3-siRNA group was increased (P < 0.01). To conclude, siRNA silencing of PFKFB3 gene expression can inhibit the expression of PFKFB3 and improve tube formation in HUVECs. The mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of AKT expression.

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    Plantar pressure changes in older people with sarcopenia 
    He Yuanyuan, Ding Chengbiao, Zhang Weiwei, Yan Guang, Sun Mengwen
    2020, 24 (14):  2223-2228.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2618
    Abstract ( 417 )   PDF (23984KB) ( 73 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an inevitable disease in the progression of aging society. Decrease of muscle strength and joint flexibility and variation in foot structure and function can cause the change of gait characteristics of the elderly to varying degrees. Therefore, by comparing the plantar pressure data of elderly patients with sarcopenia and healthy elderly people, it is helpful to provide accurate evaluation indexes for clinical prediction of fall risks in elderly patients with sarcopenia.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of plantar pressure in elderly patients with sarcopenia.

    METHODS: The plantar pressure data of elderly patients with sarcopenia (experimental group) and elderly people without sarcopenia (control group) were collected by Footscan 2.0 plantar pressure test system. The step length, step speed, touchdown time, plantar zone pressure, plantar pressure center trajectory were compared and analyzed. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, China.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The step length and speed of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The touchdown time in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. Significant differences between the two groups were found in the changes of plantar pressure in toes 2-5, metatarsal 3, mid foot, metatarsal 4, and metatarsal 5 of the left foot as well as in the changes of plantar pressure in toes 2-5, metatarsal 3, metatarsal 4, and metatarsal 5 of the right foot. The total length of the plantar pressure center trajectory and the short- and long-axis length of the ellipse in the left and right feet were significantly different between the experimental and control groups. These findings indicate that elderly patients with sarcopenia have lower walking and balance control abilities as well as worse gait symmetry as compared with healthy controls.

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    Long noncoding RNAs are involved in osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast production
    Xiong Kun, Deng Jiang, Huang Wenliang, Yuan Cheng, Ruan Shiqiang, Ma Xianming, Li Maolun, Ding Chuan
    2020, 24 (14):  2229-2234.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2553
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (33947KB) ( 43 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs play a role in transcription and post-transcriptional levels, participate in the regulation of bone regeneration, and are closely related to osteoarthritis as well.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of long noncoding RNAs in bone regeneration and osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI, PubMed, and Elsevier was performed for relevant articles regarding long noncoding RNAs in bone regeneration and osteoarthritis published from January 2000 to June 2019, including review, basic research and clinical research. The search terms were “LncRNA; bone; bone regeneration; osteoarthritis” in Chinese and English. After preliminarily reading titles and abstracts, irrelevant articles were excluded. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 64 articles were finally included in result analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Bone regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Long noncoding RNAs are involved in the differentiation of osteoblasts and the production of osteoclasts, which play an important role in the balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Therefore, it is a key molecule of bone regeneration. Long noncoding RNAs are involved in the occurrence and development of osteoarthritis and differentially expressed in osteoarthritis patients and healthy people, some of which are elevated and some are decreased in osteoarthritis patients. Thus, defining their respective expression differences and functions is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis.

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    Role of osteogenic signaling pathway in non-traumatic femoral head necrosis
    Xu Canhong, Chen Yueping, Zhang Xiaoyun
    2020, 24 (14):  2235-2242.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2484
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (52907KB) ( 35 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of non-traumatic femoral head necrosis has increased gradually. It has the characteristics of insidious onset, rapid development of disease and high disability rate, bringing a great burden to patients, their families and society. Confirming its pathogenesis is of great significance for the early effective treatment of non-traumatic femoral head necrosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relevant literature worldwide and to summarize the research progress of osteogenic signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of non-traumatic femoral head necrosis.

    METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Medline, CNKI, VIP and WanFang databases were retrieved with the keywords of “non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head, osteogenesis, signaling pathways, pathogenesis, Wnt/β-catenin, PPARγ, TGF-β/Smad, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, Notch” in English and Chinese, respectively. The articles concerning mechanism and application of osteogenic signaling pathways associated with avascular necrosis of the femoral head were included.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Recently, the role of osteogenic signaling pathways in non-traumatic femoral head necrosis has received increasing attentions. The abnormal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the development of non-traumatic femoral head necrosis has also become an issue of concern. Abnormal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, increased bone destruction, and imbalance of bone metabolism may be the main cause of non-traumatic femoral head necrosis, and Wnt/β-catenin, PPARγ, TGF-β/Smad, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, Notch and other osteogenic signaling pathways may be a viable approach to intervention for non-traumatic femoral head necrosis. Although a large number of in vitro and animal studies have confirmed that osteogenic signaling pathway may have the potential to regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and reverse femoral head necrosis, its specific mechanism of action remains unclear and little is reported on its clinical applications. Therefore, exploring the mechanism of signaling pathways and accelerating its clinical use are the directions of the future research.

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    Molecular mechanism of icariin effects on articular chondrocytes, subchondral bone and synovium in the treatment of osteoarthritis
    Yu Shaoyong, Liu Jianhang, Zhang Xiaoyun, Xu Zhiwei, Xie Guixin, Wu Haibo, Zhang Zhaojian
    2020, 24 (14):  2243-2249.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2474
    Abstract ( 329 )   PDF (40250KB) ( 50 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Icariin is the main effective component of Epimedium, which functions to tonify the kidney, and strengthen tendons and bones. In recent years, a large number of studies have found that icariin plays a significant role in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress in the molecular mechanism of icariin in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: The first author used “Icariin, Osteoarthritis, Cartilage, Subchondral bone, Synovial membrane, synovium, Inflammation" as search words in English and Chinese to search PubMed, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 42 articles were included for final analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Icariin can promote the cartilage differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and enhance the proliferation of cartilage cells and osteoblasts, to inhibit the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix, reduce the activity of osteoclasts and alleviate synovial inflammation caused by inflammatory factors. It is an effective treatment for osteoporosis. However, the optimal effective dose and concentration safety of icariin still need a large number of experimental studies. Currently, most of the experiments are still in animal and tissue cell experiments. Numerous clinical studies are needed to continue to explore its specific mechanism in order to provide evidence-based medical evidence for icariin in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

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    Maxillary skeletal expander for maxillary transverse deficiency: application and strengths
    Zhang Xiaoya, Zhang Ronghe
    2020, 24 (14):  2250-2255.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2467
    Abstract ( 753 )   PDF (35993KB) ( 59 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Maxillary skeletal expander is a non-surgical expansion technique of the maxilla. It is different from the traditional maxillary rapid expander, micro-implant assisted rapid palatal expansion, and surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion. It provides new ideas and methods for the correction of maxillary transverse deficiency, and especially for adult patients with the growth finished, provides an efficient and minimally invasive bone expansion.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the application and advantage of the maxillary skeletal expander in the treatment of maxillary transverse deficiency, providing scientific reference for the clinical therapeutic schedule in such patients.

    METHODS: A computer search for Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang Database, and CBM databases was performed for Chinese and English literature related to the maxillary expansion device published before May 31st, 2019.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The maxillary skeletal expander is an effective method for correcting the maxillary transverse deficiency, and the expansion of the arch is not limited by age. This device also has a good outcome in bone expansion for adults. The maxillary skeletal expander expands the entire mid-face structure, causing the mid-sacral suture to be parallel, followed by ruptured palatine suture, increased width between the zygomatic bones, as well as the entire nasal cavity involving the upper nasal bone area is widened. This device also causes less adverse reactions, for example, the teeth are inclined buccally and the height of the alveolar bone is reduced. 

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    Research progress in constructing animal models of Staphylococcus aureus-associated osteomyelitis  

    Liu Jinyue, Zhang Mengqi, Qing Mingsong, Zhao Chuntao, Peng Jiachen
    2020, 24 (14):  2256-2262.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2600
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (92280KB) ( 51 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has become the most important pathogen of osteomyelitis in the world. An excellent and standard homogenous animal model plays an important role regarding the infectious mechanism of osteomyelitis, the acquisition of new preventive and therapeutic measures, and the application of new technologies in clinical practice.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress and problems in the construction of animal models of Staphylococcus aureus-associated osteomyelitis at home and abroad.

    METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane was performed for relevant articles concerning the experimental osteomyelitis model, including review, basic research and clinical research, published from January 2010 to June 2019. The keywords were “Staphylococcus aureus; bone infection; osteomyelitis; implant-associated osteomyelitis; bone defect osteomyelitis; fracture osteomyelitis; biofilm; experimental osteomyelitis model” in Chinese and English, respectively. After initial screening of titles and abstracts and exclusion of irrelevant articles, 45 eligible articles were included in final analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Construction of an osteomyelitis animal model is related to many factors. Although researchers from various countries have continuously improved and gradually quantified the infection process in recent years, a unified standard has not yet been developed. To date, there is no single microbiology or imaging method to determine bone infection. In animal models of acute osteomyelitis, the use of microbiological tests such as nuc RTQ-PCR and bioluminescence tomography can dynamically monitor and quantify the bone infection process at an early stage. In the animal model of chronic osteomyelitis, we can dynamically observe the process of osteolysis and bone remodeling based on the micro-CT and MRI images. Advanced imaging technologies such as 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to confirm or exclude chronic osteomyelitis with high diagnostic accuracy. The use of animal models of osteomyelitis contributes to standardizing the number and activity of infected bacteria during early diagnosis and quantified treatment, which is the direction for further research.

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    Role of angiogenesis in dental pulp regeneration: exosomes and angiogenic factors#br#
    Chen Ting, Li Xinzhu, Xu Wenan
    2020, 24 (14):  2263-2270.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2461
    Abstract ( 328 )   PDF (47667KB) ( 72 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: With the application of tissue engineering technology in the field of stomatology, it is possible to construct a tissue-engineered dental pulp for the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. Formation of new blood supply system through angiogenesis is mandatory to dental pulp regeneration. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting capillaries, which has great significance in pulp regeneration and homeostasis. 

    OBJECTIVE: To review the contribution of exosomes and angiogenic factors to angiogenesis in the dental pulp.

    METHODS: A search of PubMed and CNKI was performed for relevant literature published from 2017 through 2019. The search terms were “tissue engineering, pulp regeneration, regenerative endodontics, angiogenesis, neovascularization, angiogenic, signal molecules, exosomes, factors, role, mechanism” in English and Chinese, respectively. 

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Many studies have indicated an intimate relationship between angiogenesis and dental pulp regeneration. The contribution of exosomes and angiogenic factors to angiogenesis of the dental pulp has been previously discussed. Angiogenesis is an indispensable process during dental pulp regeneration. The survival of transplanted pulp tissue is closely linked to the process of angiogenesis at sites of application. However, further investigations are warranted on the detailed regulatory mechanisms of exosomes and factors involved in initiation and progression of angiogenesis in pulp tissue.

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    Important roles of non-coding RNA in peripheral nerve repair 
    Luo Xuanxiang, Feng Hu, Jing Li, Pan Bin
    2020, 24 (14):  2271-2276.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2443
    Abstract ( 464 )   PDF (35442KB) ( 51 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNA is widely distributed in the nervous system in vivo and a significant change in the expression of non-coding RNA has been observed in a neural injury model. This suggests that non-coding RNA may serve as a potential target for resolving the challenges of peripheral nerve repair.

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the mechanisms of microRNA, circular RNA and long non-coding RNA in the process of repair after peripheral nerve injury with the attempt to determine the possible treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

    METHODS: The first author retrieved the relevant literatures in CNKI and PubMed databases published from January 2001 to April 2019. The key words were “non-coding RNA, miRNA, circRNA, lncRNA, peripheral nerve injury” in Chinese and English, respectively. Forty-three literatures were included in accordance with the exclusion and inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) MicroRNAs can act on certain signal pathways, regulate the apoptosis, growth, proliferation and differentiation of Schwann cells and participate in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. (2) Circular RNAs act as microRNA sponges to competitively inhibit the transcription in microRNA, and exert corresponding biological functions. (3) A large amount of long non-coding RNAs are expressed after peripheral nerve injury, and play a key role in the peripheral nerve regeneration.

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    Sports and cognition: a visual analysis using Citespace software
    Li Huijun, Wei Cuilan, Li Chuikun, Zhang Yeting
    2020, 24 (14):  2277-2283.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2465
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (36405KB) ( 39 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there is still no visual analysis using Citespace software in the field of “Sports and Cognition.”

    OBJECTIVE: As increasing concern has been paid on the effect of sports on cognition, to summarize the research development in this field that can provide references for researchers in relevant fields.

    METHOD: Web of Science database was retrieved as the following strategy: (TI=(exercise AND cognit*) OR TI=(exercise AND learning) OR TI=(exercise AND memory) OR TI=(exercise AND feeling) OR TI=(exercise AND thinking) OR TI=(exercise AND imagination) OR TI=(exercise AND language) OR TI=(exercise AND perception)) AND type of literature:(Article OR Review). The length of search time was from January 1st, 1989 to December 25th, 2018. Based on the 2 175 related literature in the Web of Science database, CiteSpace software was used for visual analysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In recent years, research on the field of “Sports and Cognition” has developed dramatically. The most popular countries and regions are mainly located in North America and Europe. The research in this field includes both applied research and basic research, involving almost all diseases associated with cognition. Aerobic exercise is mainly used, but it is unclear about the cognitive levels of different populations under different forms of aerobic exercises. Various classic research methods of many disciplines have been used in this field to study cognitive indicators and neurobiological indicators related to aerobic exercises. There are two major knowledge groups in this field, including “changes in cognition caused by sports” and “mechanism of cognition caused by sports.” Further cross-regional and cross-national cooperation is needed. We should strengthen the research on the mode and intensity of various kinds of exercises and seek for the optimal exercise to improve the cognitive level of different populations, and use as many indicators as possible to assess the effects of exercise on cognition.

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    Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis 
    Deng Wei, Wei Song, Chen Zhihuang, Hou Chunfu, Liu Dandan
    2020, 24 (14):  2284-2290.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2534
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (25129KB) ( 29 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have confirmed that light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate has a significant effect on knee osteoarthritis. The combination use is highly safe, but there is still lack of evidence-based evidence.

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee osteoarthritis.

    METHODS: English databases (PubMed, OVID, EMBASE) and Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, VIP, China Biomedical Literature Database) were retrieved by computer for relevant articles regarding randomized controlled trials of light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The search time was from the inception to July 1, 2019. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and relevant clinical data in the literature were extracted. The results were analyzed by RevMan 5.3.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 16 articles were included, involving 1 505 patients. The experimental group was treated with light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate, and the control group was treated with sodium hyaluronate. The meta-analysis results showed that compared with the control group, the experimental group showed higher total clinical effective rate (odds ratio (OR)=4.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.75, 6.39], P < 0.000 01), higher cure rate (OR=2.62, 95%CI[1.78, 3.86], P < 0.000 01), lower visual analogue scale score (mean difference (MD)=-1.51, 95%CI[-2.15, -0.87], P < 0.000 01), and better Lysholm score (MD=13.30, 95%CI[6.82, 19.78], P < 0.000 01). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the experimental and control groups (OR=0.64, 95%CI [0.25, 1.63], P=0.35). Light therapy combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee osteoarthritis has greater advantages than intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate alone, with high efficacy and safety. However, further investigations with high-quality and large sample size randomized controlled studies are still warranted.

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    Meta-analysis of platelet-rich plasma in repairing burn wounds
    Zhong Shuxian, Yang Yalan, Shi Yuqing, Li Chun
    2020, 24 (14):  2291-2296.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2240
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (24382KB) ( 54 )   Save
    BACKGROUND: At present, platelet-rich plasma has been used in burns, plastic surgery, surgery and orthopedics. However, due to the different standards for platelet-rich plasma preparation, the results of research on burns are controversial.
    OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the repair of burn wounds.
    METHODS: A computer-based online search of CNKI, VIP, WanFang, CBMdisc, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science databases to retrieve randomized controlled trials regarding platelet-rich plasma repair of burn wounds. In the treatment group, platelet-rich plasma therapy or platelet-rich plasma therapy combined with conventional or other therapies were used. In the control group, conventional therapy, other therapies, or placebo treatment were used. After literature screening, information extraction and quality evaluation, Review Manager 5.3 software was used for meta analysis.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eleven articles were included, involving 837 patients consisting of 420 patients in the treatment group and 417 patients in the control group. Meta analysis results revealed that the wound healing rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group [OR=12.61, 95%CI (6.93, 18.29), P < 0.000 1]. Wound healing time in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group [OR=-4.64, 95%CI (-6.21, -3.06), P < 0.000 01]. The number of layers of gauze soaked by dressing [OR=-4.01, 95%CI (-4.91, -3.11), P < 0.000 01], the times of changing inner gauze [OR=-3.79, 95%CI (-5.33, -2.26), P < 0.000 01, and the times of dressing change on wound surface [OR=-3.41, 95%CI (-5.93, -0.88), P=0.008] in the treatment group were significantly less than those in the control group. The positive rate of bacterial culture in wound [OR=0.46, 95%CI (0.22, 0.94), P=0.03] and the incidence of inflammatory reaction in wound [OR=0.30, 95%CI (0.17, 0.56), P=0.000 1] in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The results suggested that platelet-rich plasma can increase the wound healing rate, shorten wound healing time, reduce the number of layers of gauze soaked by dressing, the times of changing inner gauze, and the times of dressing change on wound surface, and lower the positive rate of bacterial culture and the incidence of inflammatory reaction in wound. 
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