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    19 March 2014, Volume 18 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Biphasic calcium composite bone cement with a negative surface charge used in vertebroplasty
    Zhang Shu-fang, Chen Rong-chun, Jiang Jian-ming, Zhu Qing-an
    2014, 18 (12):  1805-1810.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.001
    Abstract ( 411 )   PDF (1544KB) ( 480 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: A newly developed calcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate composite bone cement with a negative surface charge (genex®) has been reported to possess osteoinductivity properties. However, to our knowledge, no previous literatures have reported genex® for vertebroplasty in the osteoporotic spine.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomechanical properties and osteogenesis of vertebral bodies injected with genex® cement in a rabbit vertebroplasty defect model.
    METHODS: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were used to establish osteoporosis models. Four weeks after modeling, model rabbits had an iatrogenically created cavitary lesion at L3 and L5 and were injected with either genex® cement (experimental group) or polymethyl methacrylate bone cement (control group). The L1 vertebral body served as model group without treatment. After 3 and 6 months, 15 rats from each group were executed respectively, and three vertebral samples were taken for Micro-CT analysis and biomechanical tests.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The Micro-CT showed better three-dimensional structure parameters of the trabecular bone in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05) after 3 months, which however had no difference from the model group (P > 0.05). After 6 months, the structure parameters in the experimental group were superior to those in the control and model groups (P < 0.05). (2) After 3 months, the vertebral body compression strength of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05), but higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). The vertebral stiffness of the experimental group was lower than that in control and model groups (P < 0.05). After 6 months, the vertebral body compression strength of the experimental group was not different from that of the control group (P > 0.05), but still higher than that of the model group (P < 0.05). The vertebral stiffness showed no difference between three groups (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that genex® cement can rapidly repair osteoporotic vertebral defects and improve the bone strength. Verterbroplasty with genex® cement has adequate osteoinductivity, biocompatibility, and adequate compressive strength.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Percutaneous vertebroplasty with low-dose bone cement for acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures
    Cheng Cai, Wang Lu, Li Shu-kui
    2014, 18 (12):  1811-1816.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.002
    Abstract ( 315 )   PDF (817KB) ( 389 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty technique has become an effective means for clinical treatment of spinal osteoporotic fractures, but there is the risk of bone cement leakage.
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty with low-dose bone cement for acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
    METHODS: From September 2008 to February 2011, 32 patients with osteoporotic compression fractures were treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. According to the dose of bone cement, the patients were divided into low dose group (2-4 mL) and routine dose group (4-6 mL). In addition, another patients who were hospitalized over the same period for acute osteoporotic compression and could not receive vertebroplasty due to urgical contraindication served as control group.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pain relief and vertebral height restoration rate of the low dose group and routine dose group were significantly better than the control group (P < 0.05). The bone cement leakage rate and last follow-up incidence of adjacent segment vertebral fractures of the low dose group were also significantly lower than those in the routine dose group (P < 0.05). Vertebroplasty with modified low dose bone cement can achieve satisfactory clinical effects, and effectively reduce the leakage of bone cement and incidence of adjacent segment secondary fractures.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Performance testing of biodegradable mesh-like microporous balloon combined with calcium phosphate cement for vertebroplasty
    Liu Xun-wei, Zhong Jian, Peng Xiang-tao, Wei Dai-xu, Zhou Juan, Ye Yong, Sun Gang
    2014, 18 (12):  1817-1823.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.003
    Abstract ( 337 )   PDF (1236KB) ( 568 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures can result in many complications, such as bone cement leakage and adjacent-level fractures.
    OBJECTIVE: To verify the possibility of biodegradable mesh-like microporous polymer balloon for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
    METHODS: Biodegradable mesh-like microporous P(DLLA-CL) balloons were fabricated by electrospinning technique. Coated balloons with the same specification was fabricated by coating P(DLLA-CL) onto the same mould. Morphology of the balloons was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The balloon leakage was observed by eyes after the injection of water or cement. The initial strength and stiffness were measured by a universal testing machine. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the balloons was determined by laser confocal microscope and cell counting kit-8 assays. The biodegradation of balloons in simulated body fluid, porcine pancreatic lipase, and fresh human serum was studied by residual weighing and scanning electron microscopy observation. Burst pressure of balloons was measured after the balloon was placed into a hole in the vertebral bone. For the in vitro calcium release tests, the balloons were filled with calcium cement, tied, placed into 6atm ultrapure water, and then the calcium concentration was regularly determined.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mesh-like microporous balloons presented with good fiber morphology, thickness distribution, and the presence of pores; on the coated balloon surface, there was absence of specific morphology and porosity. Compared with the coated balloon, the mesh-like microporous balloon showed better mechanical properties, liquid permeability and burst pressure, to prevent leakage of bone cement and promote osteoblast adhesion and proliferation. In addition, the degradation of the mesh-like microporous balloons was more uniform and stable than the coated balloons, which may increase the calcium concentration in the injured vertebrae and will be beneficial to the new bone growth and fracture healing.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Preparation and properties of hydrophilic modified artificial bone scaffold using low-temperature rapid prototyping
    He Mei-jian, Wang Da-ping, Huang Jiang-hong, Zhang Ming
    2014, 18 (12):  1824-1830.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.004
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (994KB) ( 546 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Low-temperature rapid prototyping technology is a new kind of rapid prototyping technology, and it is rapidly used in the preparation of bone tissue engineering scaffolds because it can make scaffold forming controllable and can keep the biological activity of the materials, also can easily realize the scaffold with porous of three-dimensional structure and other advantages.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preparation process of polyethylene glycol-modified polylactic acid-glycolic acid/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA-PEG/n-HA) using the low-temperature rapid prototyping, and to test its performance.
    METHODS: PLGA-PEG/n-HA and PLGA/n-HA were prepared by low-temperature rapid prototyping equipment. Under an electron microscopy, we observed ultra-structure of the scaffolds. Immersion (ethanol) method was used to test the porosity, and electronic testing machine was used to determine the material mechanical properties. Then these two kinds of scaffolds with rat osteoblasts were cultured in vitro, the cell adhesion rate was detected by precipitation method after 12 hours, and cell counting kit-8 method was used to determine the cell proliferation at culture days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Both of the two scaffolds had ideal aperture range and high porosity. But the aperture range of PLGA-PEG/n-HA scaffolds had large fluctuations, and the average aperture was smaller than that of PLGA/n-HA. Some pores were closed up. The cell adhesion rate and the cell growth curve of PLGA-PEG/n-HA was better than that of PLGA/n-HA (P < 0.05), but the mechanical properties were less than PLGA/n-HA (P < 0.05). The results showed the PLGA-PEG/n-HA scaffolds had good cell compatibility.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Physicochemical properties of chitosan microspheres/silk fibroin/calcium sulfate bone cement
    Wang Peng, Pi Bin, Wang Jin-ning, Zhu Xue-song, Yang Hui-lin
    2014, 18 (12):  1831-1838.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.005
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (3302KB) ( 613 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Calcium sulfate used in kyphoplasty and vertebrolplasty has good physical and chemical properties, exerts no toxic effects on human body and has the degradation performance. But its main drawback is rapid degradation.
    OBJECTIVE: To develop a chitosan microsphere with silk fibroin/calcium sulfate cement to prepare drug carrier system.
    METHODS: Chitosan microspheres were prepared by the emulsion method. Scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and swelling rate were used to study the properties of the microspheres. Different silk concentrations (3%, 6% and 9%) and weight rates (0.5%,1% and 5%) of chitosan microspheres were used to determine the best formula which has the strongest mechanical properties. The composition of this composite bone cement was detected by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When the concentration of silk fibroin was 6% and weight rate of chitosan microspheres was 0.5%, we could obtain the maximum compressive strength, which was (39.17±1.96) MPa. With this composition, the initial setting time was (12.99±1.63) minutes and the final setting time was (21.55±0.54) minutes. The results from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the main phase composition was calcium sulfate, and silk and chitosan were also included. The composite chitosan microspheres exhibited a slightly wrinkled surface, but were still intact in spherical shape, indicating the preparation of chitosan microspheres/silk fibroin/calcium sulfate cement was reliable and the product had good structures and properties.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Vascularization of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen I modified beta-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffolds
    Lu Meng-yi, Ren Yi, Hu Wan-qing, Gui Yuan, Zhang Long-cheng
    2014, 18 (12):  1839-1845.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.006
    Abstract ( 286 )   PDF (2480KB) ( 482 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The auditory ossicle chain reconstruction is still an important method to treat conductive deafness. Although a great variety of materials have been applied, the blood supply of otosteon after the implantation is ignored. Moreover, there is no real bone formed.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the angiogenesis of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen I modified β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold which is implanted into the otocyst of guinea pig.
    METHODS: Totally 60 guinea pigs were randomly divided into experimental group (vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen I modified β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold), collagen I control group (collagen I modified β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold) and blank control group (β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold). The guinea pigs were executed under anesthesia at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively. The surface of scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The angiogenesis of scaffolds were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and CD34 immunohistochemistry staining, and then the microvascular density was counted. The osteogenesis of the scaffolds was observed by toluidine blue staining.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Endothelial cell proliferation and lumen formation could be observed after 1 week in the experimental group, and the angiogenesis reach the peak after 3 weeks with traffic branches formedbetween micropores. In the other two groups, the lumen formed at 2 weeks but no traffic branches were visible. The sprouting of new blood vessels in the pores were observed more in the experimental group than the other two groups (P < 0.05). The adherence and proliferation of cells could be examined in the surface and pores of the scaffold by scanning electron microscope. After 4 weeks, the osteogenesis could be observed by toluidine blue staining, especially in the experimental group. These findings suggest that the vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen I modified β-tricalcium phosphate porous scaffold can realize an effective vascularization in the environment of guinea pigs’ middle ear. What’s more, the scaffold also can promote bone formation.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Biocompatibility of rat osteoblasts with chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold degradation products
    Ning Si-min, Wang Dong, Sun Hai-yu, Li Shu-wei, Xu Kun, Yang Fan
    2014, 18 (12):  1846-1851.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.007
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (2493KB) ( 506 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The in vivo degradation process of chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffolds is not very clear. Research on the effects of rat osteoblasts and degradation products is less.
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the biocompatiblity of rat osteoblasts with degradation products of chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffolds.
    METHODS: The second generation of cultured rat osteoblasts were respectively cultured in the extract of degradation products of chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds (experimental group) and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (control group). At 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days of culture, cell counting was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured by the recommended method of determination of the Federation, and total protein was determined by BCA method.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The proliferation speed, alkaline phosphatase activity, total cellular protein synthesis and ratio of alkaline phosphatase to total protein in rat osteoblasts cultured in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). This experiment showed that the degradation products of chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite porous scaffolds cannot only promote rat osteoblast adhesion, growth and proliferation, but also enhance its ossification function, with good biocompatibility.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Effects of different resin cements on bonding strength and failure modes of fiber posts
    Liu Li, Chen Xiao-dong
    2014, 18 (12):  1852-1857.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.008
    Abstract ( 670 )   PDF (619KB) ( 424 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The good performance of resin cements used to cement fiber-posts has been confirmed, but the adhesive properties of different kinds of resin cements remain different.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the shear bond strength of three resin cements (Bisco One-step, Clearfil DC, 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem) used to cement fiber posts and to observe their adhesive properties.
    METHODS: Fifteen extracted teeth were selected and the crowns were removed with a diamond bur 1-mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction followed by endodontic treatment. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n=5). Glass fiber posts were cemented respectively with three resin cements, and after embedding, the roots were cut into 2-mm-thick sections for push-out tests. The mean shear bonding strengths were compared, and the failure modes were recorded and analyzed under a high-power microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mean bonding strengths were (4.69±1.85) MPa for Bisco One-step group, Clearfil DC, (6.10±0.36) MPa for Clearfil DC group, and (7.04±0.92) MPa for 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem group. The bonding strengths of RelyX Unicem and Clearfil DC groups were significantly greater than that of Bisco One-step group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was between 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem group and Clearfil DC group. All samples were mainly defined as modes Ⅱ and Ⅳ failure, indicating that the adhesive failure was the most mode of fracture. These findings showed that the bonding strengths of fiber posts cemented to root canals with three different resin cements system exhibit significant differences, and the interface between dentine and resin cements is the primary weak link.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Clinical comparison of different materials as posterior dental implants
    Yao Xi, Li Yun-sheng, Hu Dong-mei, Dai Yong-yu
    2014, 18 (12):  1858-1863.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.009
    Abstract ( 585 )   PDF (608KB) ( 1071 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that selection of implant crowns that directly impact the service life of implants and patient’s periodontal health is very important.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effects of Lava zirconia crowns, goal-platinum alloy ceramic crowns and silver-palladium alloy crowns supplemented by dental implants used in the single missing posterior tooth.
    METHODS: Sixty patients with first molar missing (120 teeth) were divided into three groups and treated with Lava zirconia, goal-platinum alloy ceramic and silver-palladium alloy crowns applied to the dental implants for posterior column defects. The clinical restorative effects of three prostheses were compared.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During 6-48 months of follow-up, the gingival edge coloring, gingival margin microleakage, the color of prosthesis of Lava zirconia alloy ceramic crowns and gold-platinum alloy ceramic crowns were better than those of silver-palladium alloy crowns, and the gingival edge coloring and the color of prosthesis of Lava zirconia alloy ceramic crowns were better than those of gold-platinum alloy ceramic crowns, while the gingival margin microleakage of gold-platinum alloy ceramic crowns was better than that of Lava zirconia alloy ceramic crowns. Silver-palladium alloy crowns were lower than Lava zirconia ceramic crowns and gold-platinum alloy ceramic crowns in the fracture extent. But silver-palladium alloy crowns had the highest gingival index, the worst gingival health and rapidest and most severe plaque formation. Therefore, Lava zirconia all-ceramic crowns and gold platinum alloy-porcelain crown are ideal prostheses for implant restorations. The former has better biocompatibility, and the latter shows better marginal adaptation.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Silane coupler effects on titanium surface modification and biocompatibility
    Gulbanu Ymam, Xu Guo-qiang, Dilnur Aji, Guzalay Abdukadr, Liu Jia-yi, Xu Bin, Li Qi
    2014, 18 (12):  1864-1869.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.010
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (2468KB) ( 483 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Nowadays, silane coupling for metal surface pretreatment has not been widely applied yet.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the surface appearance, structure and biocompatibility of NaOH pre-treated titanium sheet coated with silane films.
    METHODS: The NaOH pre-treated titanium sheet was silanized with the silane coupler (KH-550) at different concentrations (8%, 15% and 33%). The test specimens manufactured with different concentrations of silane treatment solutions were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyzer, in comparison with pure titanium and alkali-pretreated titanium sheets as controls. After silanization, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from dogs were co-cultured with the test specimens to observe the cell morphology and adhesion on the surface of test specimens.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The silane film consisted of brain shaped sheets which arranged closely. The composition of the silane film was C, N, O and Si. The test specimen coated with the 33% silane solution had the full silane film, while the silane film was imperfect at a concentration of 8%. The cell adhesion was better on the surface of test specimens treated with 33% silane solution than the other specimens. These findings indicate that the titanium sheet modified with 33% silane solution possesses a good biocompatibility, thereby improving the cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Seeding fresh bone marrow aspirate directly on scaffolds to construct tissue-engineered ligament
    Wang Hong, Tang Ming, Meng Chun-qing, Wang Han-qi, Yang Shu-hua, Du Jing-yuan, Duan De-yu, Shao Zeng-wu
    2014, 18 (12):  1870-1876.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.011
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (2755KB) ( 412 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: There are several reports about the application of fresh bone marrow aspirate being injected directly to repair partial ligament injury, but the application about fresh bone marrow aspirate directly being planted on scaffolds to build tissue-engineered ligament is rarely mentioned.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of applying fresh bone marrow aspirate planted directly on scaffolds to construct tissue-engineered ligament
    METHODS: We constructed fibroin fiber/small intestinal submucosa composite scaffold, then planting fresh bone marrow directly to built bone marrow seeding group and planting seed cells (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) on the scaffold to built cell seeding group. The control group had no treatment. After that, we detected the density of cell adhesion, cell proliferation ability and extracellular matrix secretion. Then, the composite in the bone marrow seeding group was implanted into the broken anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits, and material biocompatibility in vivo was evaluated after 12 weeks.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After 4 hours of incubation, bone marrow seeding group was significantly higher than the cell seeding group in cell adhesion density and proliferation rate (P < 0.05). Bone marrow seeding group and cell seeding group showed higher type I, III collagen secretion compared with the control group (P < 0.05), but the collagen secretion of bone marrow seeding group and cell seeding group showed no significant difference. Composite cell scaffold implantation in vivo did not cause fatal immune rejection and severe inflammatory reaction, and no significant ligament regeneration and vascularization occurred. These findings indicate that fresh bone marrow aspirate can be seeded directly on scaffolds to construct tissue-engineered ligament, and the short-term biocompatibility in vivo is good.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Absorbable collagen suture and non-absorbable silk suture in oral implantation
    Xu Hai-yang, Xu Hao, Zhang Li, Qu Xiao-xin, Zhao Bao-dong
    2014, 18 (12):  1877-1882.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.012
    Abstract ( 493 )   PDF (2242KB) ( 1006 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Collagen suture is made of collagen from animals, and has been widely used because it is absorbable, non-rejection and easy to produce, and convenient in use.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of collagen suture and silk suture in wound healing after oral implant surgery.
    METHODS: 100 patients undergoing oral implantation were randomly assigned into collagen suture group and silk suture group. A 2-0 circular needle with absorbable collagen sutures and a 4-0 circular needle with non-absorbable silk sutures were employed for tension-free suture in the two groups. After 3, 5, 7 days of oral implantation, suture threads and wound healing were observed. The suture was removed at 14 days, and patients were reviewed at 14 days. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The wound healing was better in the collagen suture group than the silk suture group at grade I (P < 0.05). At 7 days postoperatively, the suture thread was mostly absorbed in the collagen group but not in the silk suture group. In addition, material alba was invisible in the collagen suture group but clear in the silk suture group. These results indicate that the collagen suture is more proper for tension-free suture than the silk suture, which is better matched to the healing time and keeps a better oral environment.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Comparison of the artifacts on magnetic resonance imaging caused by different porcelain-fused-to-metals 
    Feng Juan, Li Wen-jin, Niu Jin-liang, Wang Hui-min, Yin Wen-jing
    2014, 18 (12):  1883-1888.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.013
    Abstract ( 514 )   PDF (687KB) ( 482 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: The patients with porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns who do examination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can cause artifacts. In recent years, researching for MRI artifacts of different porcelain-fused-to-metal materials has been some progress, but there are less quantitatively reports on the MRI artifacts of different porcelain-fused-to-metal materials.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the artifact sizes shown on fast spin-echo T2-weighted sequence caused by different kinds of porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.
    METHODS: Forty-eight lower right first molar crown patients who had MRI examination in MRI room were enrolled. The patients were divided into nickel-chromium alloy group, cobalt-chromium alloy group and titanium crown group. All patients were examined with fast spin-echo T2-weighted sequences by means of 1.5 T MRI apparatus. MRI artifacts areas of same sequence on the MRI images of different porcelain-fused-to-metal materials were analyzed with variance test.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Forty-five cases appearing to have high signal samples with clearly curved boundary zone that can be measured were selected, 15 cases for each material. Different artifact sizes were produced on the same sequence of different porcelain-fused-to-metal materials, which were (321.67±33.29) mm2 in the nickel-chromium alloy group, (263.53±34.95) mm2 in the cobalt-chromium alloy group, and   (143.67±31.13) mm2 in the titanium crown group. There were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The artifact size is smallest for the titanium crown and largest for the nickel-chromium alloy crown.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Colorimetric evaluation of dentin is significant for accurate color selection in cast ceramic prostheses
    Piao Guo-bin, Zhao Bing-song, Shi Xu-xu
    2014, 18 (12):  1889-1894.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.014
    Abstract ( 474 )   PDF (664KB) ( 608 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: VITA 3D Master shade guide is a newly launched colorimetric system in recent years, with a wide clinical prospect. 
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of dentin colorimetric evaluation for accurate color section of cast ceramic prostheses.
    METHODS: Using conventional colorimetric assay and conventional colorimetric assay combined with dentin colorimetric assay (combined colorimetric assay), 30 patients were subject to colorimetric evaluation 1/3 to the neck, central part, and cut end of the tooth. In CIE1976L * a * b * color system, a digital SLR camera (Canon D50) was used for colorimetric measurement and analysis of cast ceramic prostheses prepared with two colorimetric methods and teeth with the same name. And a variety of new colorimetric methods were analyzed based on examples.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the conventional colorimetric group, △L*was 1.22±0.16, △C* was 1.19±0.20, △H* was 0.31±0.05, △E* was 1.32±0.13. in the combined colorimetric group, △L*was 1.03±0.11, △C* was 1.12±0.19, △H*was 0.29±0.03, △E* was 1.23±0.11. Cast ceramic prostheses prepared by conventional colorimetric method were satisfactory in 22 cases, while cast ceramic prostheses prepared by the combined colorimetric method were satisfactory in 23 cases. There was no difference in patient satisfaction for color rendition (P > 0.05), but chromatic difference analysis was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05).


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Cell affinity of cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate)/collagen composite materials
    Lu Xing, Zhang Yong-hong, Li Er-feng, Wang Zeng-rong, Zhao Liang-qi
    2014, 18 (12):  1895-1900.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.015
    Abstract ( 297 )   PDF (2698KB) ( 474 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Many experiments have demonstrated that tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by polymer materials alone or biomaterials cannot meet the requirement of tissue engineering research.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biological characteristics and cell affinity of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate)/collagen composite scaffold.
    METHODS: Tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by combination of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) and collagen at different proportions (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) using solvent casting/particulate leaching method. Inner structure and apertures were observed by scanning electron microscope, and the porosity was determined by liquid displacement method. Rabbit chondrocytes were co-cultured with poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate)/collagen composite scaffold and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) scaffold. Growth curve of cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell adhesion on the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pore size and porosity of the composite scaffold were about 200 μm and (85±2)%, respectively. The cell affinity dynamically increased with the increasing of proportion of collagen. Compared with the poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) scaffold, the poly(hydroxybutyrate-co- hydroxyoctanoate)/collagen composite scaffolds are better to improve cell adhesion and proliferation, with favorable cellular affinity.


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    Biocompatibility of nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite for dental implants
    You Ying-ying, Feng Yun-zhi
    2014, 18 (12):  1901-1906.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.016
    Abstract ( 350 )   PDF (2306KB) ( 533 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Few reports focus on biocompatibility of nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite for dental implants.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility in vitro of nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite modified for dental implants.
    METHODS: We utilized sol-gel method to prepare nano fluoridated hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite powders. (1) Hemolysis test: 0.01, 0.15, 0.2 g/L nano fluorinated hydroxyapatite solution, saline and distilled water at a volume of 10 mL were added into 0.2 mL diluted rabbit anti-coagulation blood samples, respectively. Then the supernatant was detected by absorbance values. (2) In vitro cytotoxicity test: Passage 2 L929 cells were respectively cultured in culture media containing 100%, 50% nano fluorinated hydroxyapatite extract, 100% hydroxyapatite extract, phenol solution and RPMI1640. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was employed to measure absorbance values at days 2, 4, 7 of culture.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hemolysis test in vitro showed the hemolysis rates of nano fluorinated hydroxyapatite groups were less than 5%, which were accorded with haemolysis demand of medical materials. The cytotoxicity test in vitro showed during cultivation, the adherence rate of L929 cells cultured in 100% and 50% nano fluorinated hydroxyapatite extracts were increasing and cell density was rising up. Cells were fusiform or polygon, which had no evident differences from negative controls in morphology. Nano fluorinated hydroxyapatite showed nontoxic to L929 cells in vitro.


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    Application and characteristics of self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel in three-dimensional cell culture systems
    Liu Xi, Wang Xiu-mei
    2014, 18 (12):  1907-1913.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.017
    Abstract ( 891 )   PDF (4121KB) ( 846 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Self-assembling peptide scaffolds have attracted much more attention among three dimensional biomaterials due to its biocompatibility, biodegradation, and tailor-made properties.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the structure and design of functionalized self-assembling RADA peptide, and the recent advances in the use of RADA self-assembling peptide for three-dimensional cell culture in cell therapy applications.
    METHODS: Total 224 literatures related to self-assembling peptide and tissue engineering from PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI databases were screened out for this review. The keywords were “self-assembly peptide, tissue engineering” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally 48 of 224 articles about the design, fictionalization, and three-dimensional cell culture of peptide scaffolds were included in this review.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Self-assembling peptide could undergo spontaneous assembly into well-ordered interwoven nanofibers in water and rapidly form hydrogel, which physically mimics the architecture of natural extracellular matrix to ensure a real three-dimensional microenvironment for cells. In terms of bio-function, this material can be tailor-made with various bioactive short peptide motifs to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation.


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    Vascular histocompatiblity after implantation of an arsenic-coated stent
    Li Chun-jiang, Wu Yan, Zhang Cheng-ju, Tong Tie-bi, Shang Chi
    2014, 18 (12):  1914-1919.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.018
    Abstract ( 284 )   PDF (732KB) ( 401 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide is considered to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and promote cell apoptosis. Therefore, we wondered whether the arsenic can inhibit the hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells, an arsenic-coated stent can be compatible with the vascular tissue, and a better vascular intimal coverage as early as possible can reduce intimal hyperplasia.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the vascular histocompatibility of the arsenic-coated stent.
    METHODS: Fourteen white rabbits were randomized into two groups and respectively subject to the implantation of arsenic-coated 316 L stainless steel stents and bare 316 L stainless steel stents into the abdominal aorta. After 28 days, the distal and proximal parts of the vessel at the implantation site were ligated and the ligated vessel was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining and light microscope observation.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Gross observation: the vessel at the stent site was a little larger than the adjacent vessels in the outer diameter, which was expanded but had no visible thrombus. After cutting the stent, the neointima formed smoothly on the stent surface. (2) Light microscope observation: the stent was located in the middle of the vessel, the medial smooth muscle was pressed, and vascular intimal smooth muscle hyperplasia was found around the stent, thereby thickening the vascular intima. The vascular neointima formed and covered the stent, and there was a thin black layer between the stent and the vascular tissue, which consisted of arsenic and its compounds. These findings suggest that the arsenic-coated stents can be covered with vascular tissues, possessing good vascular histocompatibility.


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    In vitro biocompatibility of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-volerate membrane with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    Zhang Tao, He Zhi-xu, Ye Chuan, Liu Jie-lin, Ma Min-xian, Sun Bo, Wang Mei, Yang Hua
    2014, 18 (12):  1920-1925.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.019
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (818KB) ( 343 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-volerate (PHBV) is a noticeable tissue engineering material of polyhydroxyalkanoates family. It has the properties of low immune rejection response and good biocompatibility, and its degradation products are non-toxic.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biocompatibility of PHBV membrane material and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
    METHODS: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells at passage 3 were seeded upon PHBV membrane as  experimental group and upon conventional culture plates as control group. Then we calculated the adherent cell number of two groups at 1, 2 and 4 hours and got the cell adherent rate. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay was used at days 2, 4, 6, 8 to observe the cell proliferation of two groups. Fluorimetric method with the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33258 was used to detect the DNA content of cells at days 3, 6, 9 and 12 in both groups. After cells were seeded upon PHBV membrane for 5 days, the cell growth upon the material was examined under a scanning electron microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When the cells were cultured for 1 hour, the adherent rate in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group; but there were no significant differences between two groups at the other two periods. No difference was found in the cell proliferation and the DNA content between the two groups. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells seeded upon PHBV membrane for 5 days grew well with spindle morphology and the intercellular connections were tight and more extracellular matrices were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, PHBV membrane material shows a good biocompatibility with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.


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    Delivery of DMAPA-Amp wrapped green fluorescent protein by modified carotid injection
    Wang Jue, Wang Jing-nan, Deng Yu-bin, Yang Li-qun
    2014, 18 (12):  1926-1931.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.020
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (2478KB) ( 437 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hyperbranched cationic amylopectin is a kind of nonviral gene vectors with low toxicity and good transfection efficiency. However, searching for more efficient methods to delivery it into the body and making the genes expressed are being explored.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of DMAPA-Amp wrapped green fluorescent protein (GFP) transferred by modified carotid injection into cerebral ischemic area.
    METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to middle cerebral artery infarction were randomly divided into two groups after 24 hours: experimental group (injected with GFP entrapped DMAPA-Amp via the internal carotid artery) and control group (injected with GFP entrapped DMAPA-Amp via the tail vein). These rats were put to death and their brain tissue was removed after 7 days. The expression of GFP was detected by quantitative PCR and western blot assay, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of GFP located near cerebrovascular endothelial cells by frozen section.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the expression of GFP was much higher in the experimental group detected by quantitative PCR and western blot (P < 0.05). Additionally, the expression of GFP located near cerebrovascular endothelial cells by frozen section was also higher than that in the control group. Modified carotid injection could significantly promote the expression of hyperbranched cationic amylopectin derivates and GFP in the brain tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing middle cerebral artery infarction compared with tail vein injection, which indicates DMAPA-Amp and modified carotid injection may cast new lights on the therapy for angiogenesis of ischemic stroke.


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    In vitro biocompatibility of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffold and human adipose-derived stem cells 
    Yang Liu, Jiang Nan, Xu Yang-yang, Zhu Meng-lin, Cao Jing
    2014, 18 (12):  1932-1937.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.021
    Abstract ( 331 )   PDF (2591KB) ( 495 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is a kind of porous polymer materials which is commonly used as clinical implants, and it has good biocompatibility, and is not easy to deformation or metamorphism. There is no existence of inflammation absorption reaction, and it allows the cell migration and tissue ingrowth.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the biocompatibility of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffold and human adipose-derived stem cells.
    METHODS: The passage 4 human adipose-derived stem cells were co-cultured with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene scaffold in vitro. The morphology and function of cells adhered to the scaffold were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope, and cell adhesive rates and proliferation rates were also calculated by MTT assay.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The inoculated cells were round and bright, distributed on the surface of scaffolds uniformly, with good cell viability. After 3 hours a large number of adherent cells were observed from the micrograph; after 24 hours there were a small amount of short-spindle adipose-derived stem cells. After cultured for 3 days, the short fusiform or polygon cells could be seen clearly. After cultured for 7 days, the number of cells increased significantly, few cells fell off from the scaffold, and cell adhesion rate was up to an average of 95.7%. Meanwhile, the cells revealed normal splitting proliferation rate. These findings indicate that human adipose-derived stem cells are able to attach, grow and proliferate well on the scaffold. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene reveals excellent cellular compatibility and can be used as a vehicle for adipose tissue engineering.


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    Effects of different cervical artificial disc coatings on adhesion and differentiation ability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
    Li Jun-hui, Yu Xing, Mu Xiao-hong, Xu Lin, Wang Song, Lu Jun-zhe
    2014, 18 (12):  1938-1943.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.022
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (2670KB) ( 567 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Titanium artificial cervical disc has good biocompatibility, but titanium alloy is shown to have poor biological activity, low bonding strength, easy release of metal ions under physiological conditions.
    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of different coating for the titanium plate of domestic cervical artificial disc on adhesion and differentiation ability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
    METHODS: Passage 3 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from Wistar rats were seeded into 24-well titanium plates with hydroxyapatite coating, titanium powder+hydroxyapatite coating and bare titanium plate. Cell culture was terminated after 24 and 48 hours, and the cell growth was observed under scanning electron microscope. After 24 hours of inoculation, osteogenic inducer was added; then, cell supernatant was collected at 3, 5, 7 days after cell lysis and centrifugation to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After composite culture with titanium plates with hydroxyapatite coating or titanium powder+hydroxyapatite coating, cultured cells were in polygonal shape, and pseudopodia were extended into the micropores that were adhered closely to the material surface. Cells cultured with bare titanium plates had poor differentiation and adhesion rate. With time, the expression of alkaline phosphatase was increased in each group, especially in the groups of titanium plates with hydroxyapatite coating and titanium powder+hydroxyapatite coating (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that titanium plates with hydroxyapatite coating or titanium powder+hydroxyapatite coating can promote adhesion and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.


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    Application of intelligent hydrogel in the tissue engineering
    Zhang Ding-wen, Liu Yan-fei, Qi Peng, Liu Jian-guo
    2014, 18 (12):  1944-1950.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.023
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (1230KB) ( 1336 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Compared with traditional hydrogels, intelligent hydrogels can appear to exhibit different responses to different stimuli such as temperature, pH value, light, and magnetic field, produce two-stage structure and alter chemical structure to generate the ordered supramolecular structure by self-assembling, and ultimately cause the formation of the gel with three-dimensional structure.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the research status of intelligent hydrogels and its application in tissue engineering.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed databases was performed to retrieve articles addressing intelligent hydrogels in tissue engineering published before 2014. The keywords were “hydrogel, tissue engineering” in Chinese and English.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Intelligent hydrogels are classified into temperature sensitivity, pH sensitivity, photosensitivity, magnetic susceptibility and temperature/pH dual responsive hydrogels. The change of the external environment can be automatically detected and responded. Intelligent hydrogels exhibit a series of outstanding performances in drug delivery systems, drug delivery, repair and improvement of defected tissues, which are not possessed by traditional materials. In particular, the intelligent hydrogels show considerable superiorities in tissue engineering, including low immunogenicity that reducing inflammation and rejection, biodegradability, realizing the three-dimensional scale simulation of cell microenvironment that is conducive to cell adhesion, growth, migration and differentiation.


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    Electrospinning technology in tissue engineering: how far is it from the successful application in biomedicine?
    Cui Zhi-dong, Li Dong-song, Liu Jian-guo
    2014, 18 (12):  1951-1956.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.024
    Abstract ( 401 )   PDF (984KB) ( 618 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Electrospinning preparation for the tissue engineering scaffold materials is an extremely promising technology.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the progress of electrospinning technology in different fields and its main problems in the current application.
    METHODS: We searched Medline and CNKI databases for articles published from 2000 to 2013 using the keywords of “electrospinning, tissue engineering” in English and Chinese.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The structure of non-woven cloth materials made by this technology is similar to the extracellular matrix, which has high surface area and controllable mechanical properties. Electrospinning materials have been widely applied in the tissue engineering field, especially in the biodegradable materials and high biocompatibility molecular polymer synthesis process. Electrospinning has been developed rapidly in tissue engineering applications, especially in the choice of materials or electrospinning technique combined with different technologies. Different morphological structures and properties of the materials can be well combined by using electrospinning technology. A series of new polymers were successfully incorporated into a tissue engineering scaffold as the matrix for cell proliferation and regeneration, but there are some important issues to be solved, including how to control the interaction between the scaffold and the biological system that is to achieve the infiltrative growth of cells, how to control the pore size, mechanical properties and toxicity. This technology clinically applied in biomedicine still requires further research, especially in vivo studies.


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    Different artificial bones combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy for early osteonecrosis of the femoral head: controversy and progress
    Bi Xin, Li Duo-yu, Yang Yi, Gong Yue-kun, Li Biao
    2014, 18 (12):  1957-1962.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.025
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (679KB) ( 463 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Clinically, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with artificial bones for early osteonecrosis of the femoral head have a wonderful outcome.
    OBJECTIVE: To review the biological properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and to summarize the application progress of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with different artificial bones in the treatment of early osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
    METHODS: PubMed (2003-2013), FMJS (2003-2013), Wanfang (2005-2013), CNKI (2005-2013) and CBM (2005-2013) databases were retrieved by computer using the keywords of “bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; artificial bone; osteonecrosis of the femoral head” in Chinese and English.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It will lower the pressure of the femoral head, accelerate repair of the blood capillary, improve the blood supply, osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and thus delay or even prevent artificial joint replacement after osteonecrosis of the femoral head by applying bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with different artificial bones, such as corlline hydroxyapatite, calcium hydroxylaptite, biological ceramics and calcium sulfate bones. But now, there are still a lot of problems which need to be solved, including pathological mechanism underlying bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, obvious difference between the quantity and quality of seed cells because of individual difference, different sites and culture techniques. So, artificial bone materials are under review, and large-sample randomized control trials are required. Its long-term outcomes also lack for follow-up observation, as well as there is no a unified quantitative standard for the appropriate selection of indication, curative effect evaluation and the awareness of the operation.


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    Clinical effects of lingualized occlusion and bilateral balanced occlusion for complete denture: a systematic review
    Zhang Yi, Huang Nan-nan, Xu Ling
    2014, 18 (12):  1963-1968.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.12.026
    Abstract ( 740 )   PDF (760KB) ( 949 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Occlusal scheme is the key of a successful complete denture, and how to choose a suitable occlusal scheme is a long-term problem for prosthodontists.
    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the clinical effects of two occlusal schemes for complete denture.
    METHODS: An electronic search of Cochrane Library, Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM databases were performed for clinical trials published before October 2013 using the key words of “complete denture”, “edentulous”, “occlusion”,”balanced”, “lingualized”, “anatomic” in Chinese and English. A manual searching of 11 relevant journals concerning oral medicine and reference lists of selected articles were conducted. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the included literature. Totally, 628 papers were retrieved.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Only five articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these five articles, one study showed lingualized occlusion dentures were more satisfactory than bilateral balanced occlusion dentures in denture retention (P < 0.05); one study showed the lingualized occlusion exhibited lower scores  for uncomfortable eating and avoiding particular foods (P < 0.05), but higher scores for uncomfortable dentures than the bilateral balanced occlusion (P < 0.05); one study showed the lingualized occlusion dentures have better masticatory efficiency and better protective role in alveolar bone than the bilateral balanced occlusion dentures (P < 0.05); another two studies showed no significant differences in the overall satisfaction between lingualized occlusion and bilateral balanced occlusion dentures. These findings indicate that the lingualized occlusion is similar to bilateral balanced occlusion in the satisfaction of patients, masticatory efficiency, appearance and speech, but the lingualized occlusion dentures are better for severe alveolar bone resorption patients in terms of masticatory efficiency and better protection of alveolar bone.


    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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