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    17 December 2014, Volume 18 Issue 52 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    Calcium sulfate artificial bone for repair of thoracolumbar burst fractures  
    Long Hao, Xiao Jie, Zou Wei, Wu Chen, Zhang Yang, Feng Ming-xing, Fu Yong
    2014, 18 (52):  8365-8370.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.001
    Abstract ( 394 )   PDF (795KB) ( 588 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Calcium sulfate artificial bone acts as a kind of bone graft material within the vertebral body, has good fusion effect and can effectively correct sagittal deformity and sequence to maintain the vertebral height.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effects of calcium sulfate artificial bone in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures.
    METHODS: Forty-six thoracolumbar burst fracture patients were randomly divided into a bone graft group
    (21 patients undergoing treatment with calcium sulfate artificial bone) and a non-bone graft group (25 patients undergoing vertebroplasty alone). The efficacy of the two types of surgery was compared in terms of postoperative recovery time, visual analog scale score at the final follow-up, anterior vertebral height, incidence of ghost vertebral phenomenon and failure rate of internal fixation.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All patients were followed up for 12 months. Patients in the bone graft group and non-bone graft group were followed up for an average of 18.7 months and 17.48 months, respectively. The postoperative recovery time of patients in the bone graft group was shorter than that in the non-bone graft group (P=0.002); the incidence of ghost vertebral phenomenon and internal fixation failure rate in the bone graft group were lower than those in the non-bone graft group (P=0.036, P=0.038). However, there were no significantly statistical differences between two groups in visual analog scale score at the final follow-up and anterior vertebral height at different time (all P > 0.05). These findings indicate that calcium sulfate artificial bone for thoracolumbar burst fractures is effective and safe, which is superior to vertebroplasty alone.

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    Percutaneous vertebroplasty with bone cement for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures  
    Chen An-gang, Zeng Ben-qiang, Yang Yong, Song Xiao-qiang, Hu Bing
    2014, 18 (52):  8371-8375.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.002
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (685KB) ( 685 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty with injection of bone cement is to reinforce the vertebral stability after vertebral compression fractures, to prevent further vertebral collapse, thereby playing a significant analgesic effect, but it is prone to develop complications such as bone cement leakage.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty with injection of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement for treating osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compressive fractures.
    METHODS: Totally 65 cases of osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compressive fractures were treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty with injection of polymethylmethacrylate under DSA fluoroscopy image guiding. Visual analog scale score, Oswesty dysfunction index, vertebral height, vertebral kyphosis angle changes, as well as bone cement leakage were detected before and after treatment.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 1 day after treatment, the visual analogue scale score and Oswesty disability index decreased rapidly, which was significantly lower than that before treatment (P < 0.01); after 1 month, the visual analog scale score and Oswesty disability index were further reduced, and there was a significant difference at 1 day and 1 month after treatment (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the visual analogue scale score and Oswesty disability index at 1, 3, 6 months after treatment (P > 0.05). The anterior vertebral height and the central height were restored remarkable at 3 months after treatment, and the Cobb angle was obviously corrected, as compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05); at 6 months after treatment, the vertebral height and Cobb angle mostly remained stable. Imaging examination showed that a small amount of paravertebral bone cement leakage occurred in six cases, including two cases of paravertebral soft tissue leakage and four cases of adjacent intradiscal leakage. But there were no obvious clinical symptoms and no nerve injury. The results suggest that percutaneous vertebroplasty with injection of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement can relieve the pain of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, increase the vertebral height in the majority of patients, improve kyphotic deformity, and lead to less adverse reactions.

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    Effect of freeze-dried bone xenograft and platelet-rich fibrin compound on osteogenesis and osseointegration of alveolar bone defects  
    Li Bing-ting, Jia Ying-zhen, Liu Zhi-fang, Song Yuan, Hou Xiao-wei
    2014, 18 (52):  8376-8381.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.003
    Abstract ( 485 )   PDF (688KB) ( 555 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Freeze-dried bone xenograft has good osteoconductive ability and low antigenicity, but exhibits relatively poor osteoinductive ability. However, autologous platelet rich fibrin possesses good osteoinductive ability.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of freeze-dried bone xenograft/platelet rich fibrin compound on bone defect repairing and osseointegration around the implant. 
    METHODS: Twelve normal New Zealand white rabbits were used to prepare the bone defect models at the edentulous area of the bilateral mandible. One titanium screw was implanted in the mesial and distal bone wall of bilateral bone defects respectively. The defects in the right side as experimental group were filled with freeze-dried bone xenograft/platelet rich fibrin compound, while the left defects as control group were inserted only by the freeze-dried bone xenograft. The intact mandible specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 weeks after implantation separately, and tested by gross observation, torque test and histological observation.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 4 weeks after implantation, the experimental group had new vessel formation and a large amount of osteoblasts that were arranged tightly within the monolayer on the surface of newborn bone trabecula; the control group was found to have inflammatory cell infiltration, an increase in fibrous tissue and sparse new vessels, but the number of osteoblasts and new bones was less than that of the experimental group. At 8 weeks after implantation, a great amount of new vessels were seen in the experimental group, and dense bone trabeculae exhibited a mesh-like interconnection, part of which were gradually fused in an island-like shape; in the control group, the number of new vessels was less than that of the experimental group, and the bone trabeculae were slim and scattered. At 12 weeks after implantation, the newborn bone tissue was mature and highly calcified bone trabeculae were seen in the experimental group with formation of lamellar bone; in the control group, the bone trabeculae were integrated into the film that tended to be mature, but the maturity was less than that of the experimental group. Implant-bone bonding strength was higher in the experimental group than the control group at different time points     (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that platelet rich fibrin/freeze-dried bone xenograft compound displays good bone repair and osseointegration abilities.

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    Zirconium-titanium-niobium-tantalum alloys promote humeral shaft fracture healing of rabbits  
    Yang Tie-wei, Liu Xin-wei, Liu Yun-en, Zhang Yu-biao, Zhou Da-peng, Xiang Liang-bi
    2014, 18 (52):  8382-8386.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.004
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (725KB) ( 882 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Metal elements of traditional steel plates have a potential risk to the human body. Zirconium-titanium-niobium-tantalum alloy independently developed in China has some advantages such as no toxic hazard, low elastic modulus and high strength, and it provides a new train of thought for new metal implants.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of zirconium-titanium-niobium-tantalum alloy on bone healing of rabbit fracture end.
    METHODS: Rabbit bilateral humeral shafts were sawed and implanted with zirconium-titanium-niobium-tantalum alloy (experimental group) and ordinary steel plate (control group), respectively. At postoperative 28, 56, 84, 112 days, stress shielding rate was tested. The biological potential of fracture end was determined before and after fracture, immediately, 14, 28, 56, 84 days after surgery. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe histological changes of samples at 7, 14, 28, 56 postoperative days under light microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The stress shielding rate at each time point was lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.01). After modeling of fracture, the bone biological potential was negative in the two groups; after internal fixation, the electric potential in the experimental group was reduced more significantly than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The experimental group always maintained the negative potential that exhibited less fluctuation after surgery. At 56 days after surgery, bone union was visible at the fracture end of the experimental group, the Haversian canal was reconstructed successfully, and the trabecular bone was orderly arranged parallel to the bone axis; while in the control group, woven bone tissues were visible at the fracture end, the woven bone, the trabecular bone was in disorder, and the cortical bone was partially absorbed. These findings indicate that the zirconium-titanium-niobium-tantalum alloy can promote fracture healing.

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    In vitro antibacterial activity and biological safety of nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base  
    Xian Ai-ming, Zhang Xiao-gang, Cao Li, Xu En-jie, Peng Li-bin, Hu Yang
    2014, 18 (52):  8387-8392.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.005
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (799KB) ( 637 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyapatite is the main component of bone with the capacity of osteogenic induction. Nano-silver has broad-spectrum and efficient antibacterial activity, while hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base has either biological activity or antimicrobial properties.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the antimicrobial properties of hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base and to evaluate the biocompatibility and security of hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base.
    METHODS: Silver solution of 0, 0.5, 1.0 mmol/L was selected to prepare hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating samples deposited on the surface of titanium base. Then, Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in the sample leaching solution for the in vitro antibacterial qualitative analysis. In accordance with national and international standardization for biocompatibility testing, healthy adult Kunming mice and New Zealand rabbits were subjected to pyrogen test, hemolysis test, acute toxicity test, skin irritation test for comprehensive evaluation of the material biocompatibility and safety.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base exhibited obvious antibacterial activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, in a silver dose-dependent manner. There was no pyrogen response, hemolytic reaction, acute toxic reaction and skin stimulus response in the animal experiments. There was also no difference in the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite materials containing silver or not. These findings indicate that the hydroxyapatite/nano-silver composite coating on the surface of titanium base has good antibacterial activity for Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as excellent biocompatibility.

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    Preparation and identification of epidermal growth factor coupling bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loading paclitaxel  
     
    Wang Shu-bin, Yuan Fei, Peng Zhi-ping, Li Shao-lin, Wu Yun, Zhu Wei
    2014, 18 (52):  8393-8398.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.006
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (816KB) ( 997 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel is a broad-spectrum antitumor plant drug commonly used, possessing much adverse reactions. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an appropriate carrier to reduce the toxicity of paclitaxel, and achieve better targeting.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the preparation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) coupling bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loading paclitaxel and its physical and chemical properties.
    METHODS: Albumin nanoparticles were prepared by phacoemulsification and solvent evaporation technology, and EGF was coupled with albumin nanoparticles by chemical crosslinking reagents. The EGF coupling albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel acted as experimental samples. 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/L 125I marked paclitaxel was added to albumin nanoparticles and EGF coupling albumin nanoparticles respectively for detection of encapsulation efficiency and loading rate. The drug releasing rate of samples and albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel were measured. The stability at room temperature and serum stability of samples, albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel and 125I marked paclitaxel were detected.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the increasing of paclitaxel dosage, in albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel group and experimental sample group, the encapsulation efficiency showed a trend of decline but the drug loading rate presented a rising tendency. Experimental sample group and albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel group showed the same releasing drug trend basically, manifesting the sustained release of paclitaxel. The stability at room temperature and serum stability of experimental sample group and albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel group were both higher than those in 125I marked paclitaxel group (P < 0.05). From what has been discussed above, EGF coupling albumin nanoparticles loading 125I marked paclitaxel have good drug-loading rate, drug release rate and stability.


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    Release behavior of icariin-chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds in vitro
    Wu Tao, Wu Jin-hui, Zheng Guo-dong, Lu Zhi-qin, Zeng Hai-yan, Lv Jun, Xing Jian-zhou
    2014, 18 (52):  8399-8404.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.007
    Abstract ( 377 )   PDF (958KB) ( 773 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Icariin has stable nature, which can promote the proliferation of osteoblasts. As a result, it can be used as a new kind of bone induction activity factor for bone tissue engineering.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the icariin release behavior of icariin-chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds in vitro.
    METHODS: Icariin-chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds (10-7, 10-6, 10-5 mol) were soaked in PBS at 37 °C and shaken gently. The samples collected at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 and 90 days were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The precision and sensitivity of ultra performance liquid chromatography were evaluated by precision test, repeatability test, icariin recovery test and stability test. Icariin released from scaffolds was calculated according to the standard curve and the percentage of icariin released was accumulated to draw a release curve which was fitted based on the Logarithmic model. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The precision, accuracy and repeatability of the experimental method were
    good, and icariin exhibited a good stability that could be saved darkly at room temperature at least for 90 days. There was a good linear relationship between icariin dose (1-2 000 ng) and chromatographic peak area. At day 1 to day 3, approximately 25% icariin was released; then the release speed was decreased and 40%-60% icariin was released by the end of 20 days. After 90 days, there was still a certain amount of icariin remained in the scaffolds. The release behavior of icariin-chitosan/hydroxyapatite followed the first-order equation, and there were significant difference among all the models (P = 0). These findings indicate that icariin-chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffolds have a good control effects on icariin release, and the icariin release behavior can be fitted with the first-order equation.

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    Preparation and performance of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) nanospheres
    Wang Xiao-dong, Zhang Yong-hong
    2014, 18 (52):  8405-8408.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.008
    Abstract ( 296 )   PDF (682KB) ( 417 )   Save

    BACKGROUND:Bone morphogenetic protein-2 can increase the production of chondrocytes and progenitor cell matrix, enhance tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, sox9, type II collagen and aggrecan expressions, with the induction of mesenchymal cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, leading to cartilage and bone formation.

    OBJECTIVE: Using the biodegradable copolymer of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate)-based materials to fabricate recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres and to investigate its morphology, particle distribution, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release time, and bioactivity.
    METHODS: The recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres were prepared by multiple emulsion volatilizing method. Porcine chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. There were three groups: group 1, no drugs were added into the medium serving as control group; group 2, 20 μg/L recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2 was added; group 3, 20 μg/L recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres were added. The effective concentration was 55 μg/L for recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2 in group 2, and 100 μg/L for recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres in group 3. Proliferative capacity of chondrocytes was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In vitro release profile and biological activity were observed under simulated in vivo conditions.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The surface of nanospheres was smooth and rounded, and the nanosheres had uniform size and particle size of 231-415 nm. Under scanning electron microscope, the average particle size was

    323 nm. Microsphere encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were (79.63±0.16)% and (1.92±0.16)%, respectively. Within 15 days, in vitro release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres lasted and increased. The nanospheres had biological activity and could promote chondrocyte proliferation. Biological activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2 was lower than that of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2-poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres. It prompts that the encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, in vitro release and biological activity of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic-2- poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyoctanoate) sustained release nanospheres are basically consistent with the general requirements of cartilage tissue engineering.


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    In vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of a new medical Mg-Li-Ca alloy
    Liu Rui, Jiang Ke, Zhao Bao-dong, Zeng Rong-chang, Xu Hao, Wang Lan-ying
    2014, 18 (52):  8409-8413.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.009
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (730KB) ( 600 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Whether the new type of Mg-Li-Ca alloy has good biocompatibility and bioactivity or not has not been confirmed.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility and bioactivity of a new medical Mg-Li-Ca alloy, and to find the possibility of this Mg-Li-Ca alloy as a new type of implant material.
    METHODS: The MC3T3-e1 (mouse osteoblasts) was used to be the test cells, then cultured and subcultured in vitro at passage 3. The cells were cultured and developed by leaching liquors of Mg-Li-Ca alloy, pure magnesium, and AZ31B alloy, and α-minimum essential medium, respectively. MTT assay was used to detect the absorbance values at days 1, 3, 5 of culture, and then the relative growth rate was calculated. Alkaline Phosphatase Colorimetric Assay Kit was used to check the activity of alkaline phosphatase at days 5 and 7 of culture. And the MC3T3-e1 cells were cocultured with Mg-Li-Ca alloy, pure magnesium, and AZ31B alloy, respectively; and at 1 day of coculture, cell adhesion and proliferation was observed under scanning electron microscopy.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mg-Li-Ca alloy, pure magnesium, and AZ31B alloy were non-cytotoxic to osteoblasts, and the cytotoxicity of Mg-Li-Ca alloy was lower than that of pure magnesium and AZ31B alloy, indicating Mg-Li-Ca alloy had no influence on osteoblast proliferation and had good biocompatibility. The alkaline phoaphatase activity was not influenced by Mg-Li-Ca alloy and pure magnesium that had good bioactivity. AZ31B had a significant impact on the normal synthesis of alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts. The MC3T3-e1 cells can adhere and grow normally on the surface of Mg-Li-Ca alloy, pure magnesium, and AZ31B alloy. These findings indicate that the new type of mg-Li-Ca alloy is expected to be a new bone implant material.
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    Effects of different drug eluting stents on inflammatory factors in elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome  
    Lu Miao, Wang Xiang-ming, Wang Sen, Zhou Chuan-wei
    2014, 18 (52):  8414-8419.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.010
    Abstract ( 426 )   PDF (687KB) ( 465 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Rapamycin eluting stent and its derivative-the everolimus eluting stent can improve the general inflammatory reaction after stent implantation in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and reduce the incidence of restenosis. Firebird stent as a domestic rapamycin eluting stent is currently the most widely used in China, while XIENCE.V stent as an everolimus eluting stent is the most widely used

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of domestic Firebird stent and imported XIENCE.V stent on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels after stent implantation in elderly patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.
    METHODS: Totally 112 elderly patients with non-st segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, including 65 cases of acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and 47 cases of unstable angina pectoris, were enrolled from September 2012 to July 2014. After 72 hours medical treatment, the patients were subject to percutaneous coronary intervention and divided into two groups: Firebird stent group and XIENCE.V stent group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 between the two groups after stent implantation. The serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels at 24 hours after stenting were significantly increased in each group compared with the baseline (P < 0.01), while the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were declined significantly after
    1 month of stent implantation (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 between the two groups at 24 hours, 1 week, and 1 month after stent implantation. No cardiac accidents occurred in the two groups during and 1 month after percutaneous coronary intervention and stent implantation. Two groups had similar security and histocompatibility. The results confirm that both of Firebird stent and XIENCE.V stent can inhibit inflammatory responses and have similar clinical efficacy in elderly patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

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    Adhesion ability and biofilm formation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the interface of polyethylene
    Xiong Qing-guang, Wang Yong-qing, Zhao Zhi-hui, Bi Hong-bin, Sun Jin-bao, Zhang Qing-jie, Hao Xiao-hui, Li Yi
    2014, 18 (52):  8420-8425.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.011
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (835KB) ( 489 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have confirmed that there is no biofilm formation and lower adhesion ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the interface of vitallium, but it has not been reported about biofilm formation and adhesion ability in the polyethylene.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the adhesion ability and biofilm formation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the polyethylene before and after rifampicin intervention.
    METHODS: Under sterile conditions, polyethylene and vitallium samples were respectively placed in Middlebrook 7H9 culture medium to be co-cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis for 2 weeks. Then, two pieces of samples were taken randomly and cultured in 1 mg/L rifampicin (2 mL) for 2 weeks. The number of colonies and colony thickness in the unit area in the material interface were measured by confocal laser scanning microscope, and the structure of biofilms was observed by scanning electron microscope before and after rifampicin intervention.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The colony thickness and the number of colonies in the unit area was significantly more in the polyethylene group than in the vitallium group before intervention (P < 0.05), but after intervention, these two indexes were reduced significantly in the polyethylene group (P < 0.05). Before rifampicin intervention, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was adherent to the polyethylene interface in a snowflake-like or nebulous shape, and biofilm structure was visible; in the vitallium interface, there were scattered colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but no biofilm formation. After rifampicin intervention, the number of colonies adhered in the polyethylene interface was reduced, Mycobacterium tuberculosis appeared to be shriveled and cleaved partially, and the biofilms exhibited varying degrees of damage; in the vitallium interface, there were no colonies, but single Mycobacterium tuberculosis was occasionally adherent to the polyethylene interface, and there was no biofilm formation. These findings indicate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can form a biofilm in the polyethylene interface, but rifampin can inhibit and even destroy the biofilm of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    In vivo biomechanical properties of biodegradable polylactic acid-glycolic acid lumbar intertransverse fusion cage  
    Yao Bao, Li Kai-nan, Nie Hai
    2014, 18 (52):  8426-8432.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.012
    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (869KB) ( 826 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: To increase the fusion rate and further reduce complications, Li Kai-nan and co-workers designed an absorbable intertransverse fusion cage made from biodegradable polylactic acid-glycolic acid (PLGA) material (the patent number of State Intellectual Property Office of China: 200810148018.0).

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanical variation of the biodegradable PLGA lumbar intertransverse fusion cage in vivo.   
    METHODS: Ninety-six Boer goats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The biodegradable PLGA lumbar intertransverse fusion cage was placed in the L4/5 intertransverse segment in the experimental group; the same size lilac bone was placed in the same position in the control group. The whole lumbar vertebrae were taken to make specimens at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months after operation. Three-dimensional spine motion measurement system was used to calculate the range of motion of the L4/5 segment in the anteflexion, rear extension, left/right lateral bending and rotation states.   
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Anteflexion, rear extension, lateral bending and rotation motions of both groups reduced successively at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after operation. The range of anteflexion movements in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group at 3, 9, 12 postoperative months (P < 0.05); the ranges of rear extension, right lateral bending and rotation motions in the experimental group were lower than that of the control group at 1, 3, 9, 12 postoperative months (P < 0.05); the range of left lateral bending movements in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group at 9 and 12 postoperative months (P < 0.05). These results show that the biodegradable PLGA lumbar intertransverse fusion cage in vivo could provide initial mechanical stability in the early stage, avoid stress shielding in the metaphase, and meanwhile it can act as the scaffold for bone formation and make for bone creeping substitution. This fusion cage has better biological properties than autologous iliac bone graft.

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    Transdermal drug delivery system constructed by polyhydroxyalkanoates and PAMAM dendrimers
    Miao Wei-wei, Wang Zhi-xiong, Zhang Jun-li, Yuko Ohno
    2014, 18 (52):  8433-8437.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.013
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (761KB) ( 581 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be used as an in vitro drug delivery carrier for its characteristics of viscosity and ability of drug mixture and dispersion. PAMAM dendrimers have unique physical and chemical properties as a drug carrier.

    OBJECTIVE: To mix PHA with PAMAM to build a transdermal drug delivery system for indissolvable drugs.
    METHODS: Pseudomonas putida KT2442 was cultured in a culture medium containing NH4Cl at 30 for 72 hours, then 5 g/L octane acid was added in the culture system and cultured for 24 hours, and PHA compound was extracted with chloroform. PHA compound matrix (10 mg) and PHA compound matrix containing PAMAM and phenethylamine dendrimers (10 mg) were respectively mixed with 5 mg of sulfonamide derivative Tamsulosin to construct a transdermal delivery system. Meanwhile, an in vitro permeation device was established to study the promoting effect of compound matrices on drug penetration. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the atomic spatial distribution of Tamsulosin, PHA, PHA compound matrix-Tamsulosin, and PHA compound matrix containing PAMAM dendrimers-Tamsulosin.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: PHA and mixture of PHA and PAMAM dendrimers could promote the transdermal effect of indissolvable drugs as a transdermal drug matrix. In the same condition, the mixture of PHA and PAMAM dendrimers could satisfy the clinical blood drug concentration as a transdermal drug matrix. This mixture can make drug model crystallized well in a highly ordered manner.

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    Preparation methods and in vitro release of Resina Draconis-loaded biodegradable polymeric hollow nanoparticles  
     
    Wang Xue-ming, Xing Chang-min, Li Nan
    2014, 18 (52):  8438-8442.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.014
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (1824KB) ( 570 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: As Resina Draconis is water insoluble, it is difficult to be made into injection. Meanwhile, the oral preparation and enemas of Resina Draconis, due to the water insolubility and large particle size, have poor in vivo absorption and very low bioavailability. Polymeric hollow nanoparticles have large surface area and strong adsorption characteristics; moreover, the hollow core parts can accommodate a large number of guest molecules. Therefore, the hollow nanoparticles have a series of peculiar properties based on the microcapsule effect.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literatures covering the preparation methods and in vitro release researches on Resina Draconis-loaded biodegradable polymeric hollow nanoparticles.
    METHODS: A computer-based search was performed in PubMed database, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (1989 to 2014), China Academic Conference Papers Database (1986 to 2014), Chinese Dissertations Database (1986 to 2014), China Patent Database (1985 to 2014), Chinese Science and Technology Paper and Citation Database (1999 to 2014), China Journal Full Text Database (1979 to 2014), China Outstanding Master's Degree Thesis Database (1999 to 2014), Chinese Doctoral Dissertations Full Text Database (1999 to 2014) for relevant articles by the retrieval key words of “resina draconis, nanoparticles, hollow particles, biodegradable polymer” in English and Chinese, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The traditional Chinese medicine Resina Draconis is firstly dissolved in suitable solvents like ethanol, isopropanol or solvents, forming nearly saturated solution. Then the pre-made polymer hollow nanoparticles are dispersed in the solution, with ultrasonic oscillation for a certain time. After separation by high-speed centrifugation, Resina Draconis-loaded nanoparticles can be prepared successfully. It is of great importance to make the Chinese medicine Resina Draconis into microemulsion nanoparticles, forming “homogeneous solution” in the medium of water, which will lead to the remarkable improvement of the in vivo absorbability and bioavailability of Resina Draconis. Furthermore, the sustainable release of microemulsion contributes to little adverse reaction, low dosage, long duration, etc. Consequently, the Resina Draconis-loaded nanoparticle emulsion is expected to be made into powder, tablet, ointment, capsule, even injection or some other dosage forms. The nano-scale emulsion of Resina Draconis is expected to be injected intravenously, which will directly reach the focus through the blood circulation to cure blood stasis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, the release rate of loaded drugs can be controlled by means of regulating the thickness and porosity of hollow nanoparticle shells, and by surface modification with biological chemicals, the drug-loaded nanoparticles are expected to possess targeting characteristics.

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    Preparation and in vitro biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites  
    Fan Ke-xia, Ma Yuan2, Yu Si-xun, Kuang Yong-qin, Yang Li-bin, Xia Xun, Zhao You-guang, Yang Wei-zhong, Gu Jian-wen
    2014, 18 (52):  8443-8449.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.015
    Abstract ( 389 )   PDF (2892KB) ( 439 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: It is difficult to combine nano-hydroxyapatite with polyphenylene sulfide by traditional method, thus which is unable to take advantage of nanomaterials. There is still a lack of the research of biocompatibility of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites.

    OBJECTIVE: To prepare the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites and to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility.
    METHODS: Liquid composite technology was applied to prepare the nano-hydroxyapatit/polyphenylene sulfide composites; infrared spectrometer and scanning electron microscope were applied to analyze the composite constituent structure. Contact angle test, hemolysis test and cytotoxicity test in vitro were conducted with contact angle meter, cony blood and L929 mouse fibroblast cells.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites were intermixed evenly and closely; the composites owned good hydrophilic performance (sheet: 42.5°, powder: 16.1°). The hemolysis ratio of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites was less than 5% (1.66%), which showed good blood compatibility. L929 cells grew well in the leaching liquor of the composites. The cell counting kit-8 test showed the cytotoxicity in vitro belongs to non-toxic category (level 0-1). All these results prove that the nano-hydroxyapatite/polyphenylene sulfide composites have been prepared successfully and show excellent histocompatibility in vitro.

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    In vitro construction of tissue engineered adipose using vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene-modified human adipose derived stem cells with chitosan-surface modified silk fibroin scaffolds
    Kang Ting, Wang Gang, Liu Yi, Liu Gang-qiang
    2014, 18 (52):  8450-8455.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.016
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF (2358KB) ( 422 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: To construct tissue-engineered adipose tissues, suitable seed cells and excellent performance of scaffold materials are indispensable.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of constructing tissue-engineered adipose in vitro utilizing vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) gene-modified human adipose derived stem cells with chitosan-modified silk fibroin scaffolds. 
    METHODS: Passage 3 human adipose derived stem cells growing well were selected, and transfected with or without lentivirus-VEGF165-EGFP. To test the impact of lentivirus infection on adipogenic capability of human adipose derived stem cells, oil red O staining was performed after adipogenic induction for 14 days. To evaluate the proliferation and adipogenic capability of lentivirus infected human adipose derived stem cells on the chitosan-modified silk fibroin scaffolds, lentivirus infected and uninfected passage 3 human adipose derived stem cells were seeded on modified silk fibroin scaffolds respectively, and MTT tests were used to evaluate cell proliferation on the scaffolds. After adipogenic induction for 14 days, RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2. Besides, oil red O staining was adopted to illustrate the mature adipocytes.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After adipogenic induction for 14 days, oil red O staining results showed mature adipocytes existed in lentivirus infected and uninfected passage 3 human adipose derived stem cells, and there was no statistical difference between lentivirus infected and uninfected cells. The proliferation curves of lentivirus infected and uninfected cells on the scaffolds showed no significant difference. After adipogenic induction for 14 days, oil red O staining and RT-PCR results could demonstrate that human adipose derived stem cells could be induced to mature adipocytes. These findings indicate that after infected by lentivirus-VEGF165-EGFP, the adipogenic differentiation and growth of human adipose derived stem cells cannot be affected. Lentivirus-infected human adipose derived stem cells can be combined with the chitosan-modified silk fibroin scaffolds to construct tissue-engineered adipose tissues successfully.

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    Collagen gel dressings repair diabetic skin defects and promote angiogenesis  
    Lei Jing, Liu Xu-zhao, Chen Dan-chang, Zhang Yong-bin, Tang Shun-qing
    2014, 18 (52):  8456-8462.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.017
    Abstract ( 466 )   PDF (2733KB) ( 635 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Collagen has been shown to promote the restoration of damaged tissue wound and to accelerate wound healing.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of collagen gel dressing on defect healing of diabetic skin and its role to promote capillary regeneration.
    METHODS: Forty of 160 Sprague-Dawley rats were used as normal controls, and the other 120 rats were used to make diabetic models with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After 9 weeks, 120 model rats were randomly divided into model group, positive control group and experimental group. Then full-thickness skin wounds were made on the back of all rats. The normal group and model group were externally treated with vaseline. Experimental group was externally treated with collagen gel dressing, and recombinant human epidermal growth factor gel was used in the positive control group. Finally, the healing area of wounds and newborn capillaries were observed.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 1 week of administration, animals in the normal control group showed faster wound healing, but the wound healing rates in the other groups were changed insignificantly; at 2 weeks of administration, the healing rate of the normal control group was fastest, and the nonhealing area in the model group was larger than that in the positive control and experimental groups; at 3 weeks of administration, the nonhealing area of the normal control and experimental groups was smaller than that of the model and positive control groups; at 4 weeks of administration, the nonhealing area of the normal control and positive control groups was smaller than that of the model and experimental groups. In addition, wound healing was better in the experimental group than the positive control group at 2 and 3 weeks of administration; while the number of capillaries in the experimental group was more than that of the other three groups at 1, 2, 3 weeks of administration. These results suggest that collagen gel dressings can promote healing of diabetic wounds and improve healing quality.

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    Rat tail tendon collagens protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage  
    Bao Xin-hui, Li Xiao-mei, Tao Jing, Yang Yi-ning, Ma Yi-tong, Chen Bang-dang
    2014, 18 (52):  8463-8469.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.018
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (2399KB) ( 466 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Although collagen has been approved to have antioxidant effect, there is no relevant research at the cell level. Previous experimental studies have focused on the effect of rat tail tendon collagens to promote cell adhesion and scaffold construction.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective role of rat tail tendon collagen in oxidative stress of cardiomyocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide.
    METHODS: Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were seeded in culture dish with or without rat tail tendon collagen randomly, then both treated with various concentration of H2O2 (0, 10, 100 µmol/L) for 24 hours. Then, the morphology of cardiomyocytes was observed by inverted fluorescence microscope, the viability of cardiomyocytes wasmeasured by MTT assay, TUNEL was used to detect the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, the percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry, superoxide dismutase activity was detected by xanthine oxidase method, glucosinolates barbitone colorimetry was used to detect the contents of malonaldehyde and western blot assay was used to detect the expression of Bax and Bcl-2.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the increasing of the concentration of H2O2, cardiomyocytes cultured with or without rat tail tendon collagen were observed severer in apoptotic state; the cell viability and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly reduced; the percentage of apoptotic cells and content of malonaldehyde were significantly increased; the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was reduced in dose-dependent manner. In the same concentration of H2O2, compared with the cells cultured without rat tail tendon collagen, the apoptotic state of cells cultured with rat tail tendon collagen was significantly relieved, the viability of cardiomyocytes, superoxide dismutase activity and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were higher, and the apoptosis rate and malonaldehyde content were reduced. These findings indicate that rat tail tendon collagen can protect cardiomyocytes against H2O2 induced oxidative stress injury through improvement of superoxide dismutase activity and Bcl-2 expression and reduction of malonaldehyde content.  

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    Hydrogel containing hepatocyte growth factor promotes the repair of femoral neck defects in rabbits  
    Guo Lin, Zhen Rui-xin, Zhao De-wei, Tian Feng-de, Yu Jing, Zhu Rui-ping
    2014, 18 (52):  8470-8473.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.019
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (1516KB) ( 456 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor can promote bone regeneration and has a great potential in bone repair, but its shorter half-life in vivo limits its clinical application.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the promoting effect of semisynthetic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel containing hepatocyte growth factor on the repair of femoral neck defects in vivo.
    METHODS: Twelve rabbits were taken to make bilateral femoral neck defect models. Based on autologous paired comparison, the left side was control side without treatment, and the right side served as experimental side undergoing implantation of semisynthetic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel containing hepatocyte growth factor.   
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed more uniform distribution of vessels in the defect area of the experimental side than the control side after 2 weeks; after 4 weeks, new bone trabeculae were full of the defect area of the experimental side, but bone trabeculae from inside to outside formed less in the control side; after 8 weeks, cortical bone formation appeared in the experimental side, with the reascularization of the bone marrow cavity that was filled with the bone marrow cells, while in the controlled side, thick calluses were still full of the defect area which blocking the bone marrow cavity. Mammography X-ray observations showed that at 8 weeks, it was difficult to distinguish the border between normal bone and new bone in the experimental side, but the border was still obvious in the controls side. It is confirmed that semisynthetic extracellular matrix-like hydrogel containing hepatocyte growth factor is beneficial to repairing femoral neck defects of rabbits.

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    Release and effect of growth factors conjugated into collagen patches on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation   
    Chuai Jun-bo, Kang Kai, Sun Lu, Qu Hui, Cai Jun, Chen Ke-gong, Xie Bao-dong, Jiang Shu-lin, Tian Hai, Li Ren-ke
    2014, 18 (52):  8474-8479.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.020
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (2055KB) ( 380 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical trials in animals have demonstrated myocardial cell transplantation can improve heart function, but it is hindered by the low retention of transplanted cells. Therefore, it becomes a common strategy to generate a proper cell platform to promote cell retention and vasculature formation.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytokine release of a novel cytokine-conjugated collagen patch prepared with 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and its physiological effects on proliferation and differentiation of seeded human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
    METHODS: After activating and crosslinking by EDC, the control patches (EDC-patch) were preserved in PBS and the experimental patches (GF-patch) were immersed into PBS containing vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor for cytokine conjugation. Collagen patches without EDC treatment underwent same process as internal control. ELISA was performed to detect the content of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in the supernatant of GF-patch at 1, 3, 7 days, 2, 3, 4 weeks after patch preparation. The 0.5×106 human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were evenly seeded on both kinds of patches and the cell proliferation was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining followed by cell counting, MTT assay or BrdU staining test. Accordingly, cell differentiation was illustrated by RT-PCR for collagen I and collagen III expression, and immunofluorescent staining for SMA in seeding cells.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: 42.4% vascular endothelial growth factors and 24.5% basic fibroblast growth factors were successfully conjugated into collagen patches and they both exhibited the constant, controlled-release mode during the 4-week observation period. By contrast, the patch without EDC treatment just showed the physical bonding of both cytokines. In comparison with EDC-patch, GF-patch presented the capability to induce cell proliferation while retard cell differentiation.

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    In vitro preparation and biochemical evaluation of oxygen generative keratin/silk fibroin compound biomaterial  
    Feng Chao, Li Zhe, Lv Xiang-guo, Xu Yue-min, Fu Qiang
    2014, 18 (52):  8480-8486.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.021
    Abstract ( 511 )   PDF (2588KB) ( 524 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering reconstruction materials have gradually entered into so-called intelligent stage, which means that the relevant biological materials will be given more. If biomaterials are capable to release oxygen in vitro and in vivo, the successful rate of the biomaterials in repair of tissue defects can be significantly improved. However, only protein-derived biomaterials have been reported to produce oxygen successfully.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preparation of the oxygen generative keratin/silk fibroin scaffold and to evaluate its physicochemical and biological characters.
    METHODS: The keratin and silk fibroin solution were extracted from human hair and worm, respectively. Keratin and silk fibroin were blended at a constant rate (60/40) and mixed with various concentrations of calcium peroxide (5%-25%). The optimal concentration of calcium peroxide was confirmed by the oxygen releasing test. The infrared spectroscopy was used to check the structure of proteins in compound materials, and the mechanical test was also used for evaluating their biomechanical properties. The biomaterial was embedded beneath the rabbit back in order to exam its biocompatibility. The smooth muscle cells were seeded onto the oxygen generative scaffold in order to determine its function of supporting cellular growth.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Using extraction and purification technology, human hair keratin and silk fibroin concentration and purity were improved to meet the subsequent experimental requirements. The oxygen releasing test showed that when the optimal concentration of calcium peroxide was 20%, the final biomaterial could generate the oxygen for the longest time (P < 0.05). The mechanical test of oxygen generative films showed similar mechanical characters to those without calcium peroxide, especially in terms of maximum stress and elongation at break (P > 0.05). The infrared spectroscopy examination showed that the structure of proteins kept intact within the final biomaterial. The final biomaterial also demonstrated the good biocompatibility and non-cytotoxcity. And the seeded cells grew better on the oxygen generative scaffold than on the traditional scaffold. With the optimal concentration of calcium peroxide, the keratin/silk fibroin scaffold can release the oxygen constantly in vitro. The physicochemical and biological characteristics of new biomaterials are excellent, which can be suitable for the further tissue engineering research and application.

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    Biodynamic properties of vascular anastomosis using a new-type degradable anastomosis clip
    Zhang Qiong, Xu Shuo-gui
    2014, 18 (52):  8487-8490.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.022
    Abstract ( 471 )   PDF (1308KB) ( 681 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: vailable anastomats appear to overcome the deficiencies of traditional anastomotic methods, such as complex operation, long time for vascular anastomosis and severe intimal injury. However, their nonabsorbable needling rings impact the normal diastolic and systolic of the blood vessels at anastomotic sites, thus limiting the growth of blood vessels, which is not suitable for minor patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the biomechanical characteristics of vascular anastomosis with a new-type degradable anastomosis chip.
    METHODS: Bilateral jugular veins of New Zealand rabbits were cut: one side was anastomosed using a new type degradable anastomosis chip, and the other side was anastomosed with sutures as control. The average maximal breaking pressure was measured at the 1st day, 7th day, 14th day, and 30th day after operation.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The anastomosis time using the anastomosis chip was lower than that using sutures (P < 0.05), and the average maximal breaking pressure exhibited no difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). It indicates that the new-type degradable anastomosis chip is safe and reliable.

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    Effects of surface modification of titanium implants on the osseointegration
    Wang Fang-hui, Zhang Shan-shan, Shu Jing-yuan, Gao Yan, Sun Xiao-kun, Wang Qing-shan
    2014, 18 (52):  8491-8497.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.023
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (658KB) ( 669 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that modifying implant surface through chemical, physical, biological means can enhance the biological activity and favor the occurrence of osseointegration effectively.

    OBJECTIVE: To review and compare the effects of different methods of surface modification of titanium on osseointegration.
    METHODS: The CNKI, Wanfang, and PubMed were searched by computer using the keywords of “pure titanium, implants, plant, the surface of the implant, surface modification, biological activity, biocompatibility, osseointegration, research progress” in Chinese and English, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Titanium has good biocompatibility, stable chemical properties and high fracture strength, and therefore it is widely used in implant repair. But titanium is a kind of biological inert material, and shows poor biocompatibility and biological activities. Titanium implants directly implanted into the body is bad for the occurrence of osseointegration. For improving the occurrence of implant osseointegration, the modification of titanium metal surface is one of the most effective methods. Most of the studies have shown that after modification, the implants with osteoinduction effect can promote adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of bone cells on the surface. The surface treatment of implants is an important way to improve the performance of implants, such as physics, chemistry, biochemistry modification and so on. After modification, the surface morphology, chemical composition, surface roughness and hydrophilicity of implants can be altered, so as to improve the biocompatibility and biological activity of the titanium implants, and to promote the occurrence of osteoinduction.

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    Development of chitosan and its derivative scaffolds for tissue engineering
    Wang Teng-bin, Zhu Hui, Li Tian-shi
    2014, 18 (52):  8498-8503.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.024
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (646KB) ( 428 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Chitosan has an excellent performance, such as non-toxic, non-irritating, biocompatibility and biodegradability, which can promote adhesion and proliferation of a variety of tissue cells. Chitosan has become a research hotspot in the tissue engineering scaffold.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application development of chitosan and its derivative scaffolds in tissue engineering.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of China Biology Medicine Database and PubMed was performed for articles related to chitosan and its derivative scaffolds published from 1989 to 2013. The keywords were “chitosan, scaffold, tissue engineering” in Chinese and English, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There are several aspects about the major use of chitosan and its derivative scaffolds for tissue engineering. One is to act as a cell culture scaffold; the second is to act as a compound scaffold which is combined with other materials; and the third is to be used as a modified scaffold. Chitosan and its derivatives are a kind of natural polymer material which has unique biological activity. It has broad application prospects in tissue engineering research. To be combined with other biomaterials or to prepare modified scaffolds will be the future research focus of chitosan and its derivatives.

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    Chitin and its derivatives inhibit scar formation 
    Li Tian-shi, Zeng Wen-ni, He Jun-jun
    2014, 18 (52):  8504-8508.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.025
    Abstract ( 388 )   PDF (623KB) ( 472 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, chitin and its derivatives have become a hotspot because of their action and mechanism of inhibiting scar formation.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress in chitin and its derivatives that inhibit scar formation.
    METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and PubMed databases was performed for articles related to inhibitory effect of chitin on scar formation. The keywords were “chitin; derivatives; scar formation” in Chinese and English, respectively.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chitin and its derivatives can inhibit fibroblast proliferation, differentiation and secretion in the scar directly or through altering different factors, such as biochemical factors, interferons, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin; alter the role of immune cells in the wound and scar; reduce collagen formation and promote collagen degradation; promote the establishment of wound granulation blood circulation, thereby reducing tissue hypoxia; facilitate the growth of epidermal cells and endothelial cells to accelerate wound healing; inhibit wound bacteria, reduce wound infections and accelerate wound healing.
     

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    Antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite on in vitro biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis in different phases  
    Wang Shan-shan, Dong Ming, Wang Li-na, Niu Wei-dong
    2014, 18 (52):  8509-8514.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.026
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (696KB) ( 633 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported Enterococcus faecalis can exist in environment which is lack of nutrients and antimicrobials to cause re-infection of the root canal. Sodium hypochlorite solution is shown to have strong scavenging action as a root canal flushing fluid to eliminate residual Enterococcus faecalis.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite on in vitro biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis in different phases.
    METHODS: Biofilm models of Enterococcus faecalis were established at exponential phase, stationary phase and starvation phase, and then the biofilms were exposed to various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solutions (1.0%, 2.5%, 5.25%). The contact time was 30 seconds, 5 minutes and 10 minutes. The direct optical observation of Enterococcus faecalis was conducted under confocal laser scanning microscope.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the same concentration of sodium hypochlorite solutions, the biofilms of starved cells were more resistant to sodium hypochlorite than those formed in the exponential phase and stationary phase (P < 0.05). When the concentration of sodium hypochlorite was 1%, the reduction of viable cells showed significant difference between the exponential phase and stationary phase (P < 0.05). When the concentration of sodium hypochlorite was 2.5% and 5.25%, the reduction of viable cells in the exponential phase and stationary phase had no statistical difference (P > 0.05). For the biofilms at the same phase, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite reduced more viable cells than 2.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite (P < 0.05), and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite also could reduce more viable cells than 1% sodium hypochlorite, but it only exhibited a significant difference when the contact time was 30 seconds (P < 0.05). These results show that under the same concentration and same contact time, the Enterococcus faecalis biofilms at the starvation phase are more resistant to sodium hypochlorite than those at the exponential phase and stationary phase. Under the same contact time, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite exhibits the best antibacterial effect on the Enterococcus faecalis biofilms at the starvation phase.

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    The application of Neuroform3 stents in the interventional embolization of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms
    Maimaitili Mijiti, Tewuerbati Suerdanniya, Rexidan Aikeremu, Kaheerman Kadeer, Cheng Xiao-jiang, Maimaitili Aishayou
    2014, 18 (52):  8515-8519.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.027
    Abstract ( 298 )   PDF (549KB) ( 603 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Recently, stent-assisted coil embolization can maintain the patency of the parent artery, prevent the coil protrusion into the parent artery, and significantly improve the curative effect and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the application of Neuroform3 stents in the interventional embolization of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms.
    METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the operation outcome of 32 patients with wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysm who underwent interventional embolization treatment using Neuroform 3 stents, including 15 males and 17 females, aged 41-71 years. The therapeutic effects and adverse reactions were followed. 
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Intraoperative DSA showed overall 32 aneurysms had successful stenting and coil implantation. The operative effectiveness was 100%. Out of 32 aneurysms, 30 (94%) were completely embolized and 2 (6%) were partially embolized. All patients recovered well postoperatively. The average hospitalization time was 6.3 days. All the 32 individuals participated in a formal follow-up from 3-6 months and postoperative cerebral angiography found no intracranial bleeding, cerebral embolism or reoccurrence of aneurysm. Neuroform3 stent-assisted coil embolization is an effective and safe method with good biocompatibility in treatment of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Effect of sodium hyaluronate on nitric oxide and synovial thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis  
    Deng Jian-feng, Gao Da-xin, Liu Zhi-xin, Wu Di, Song Hong, Yan Jia-liang, Qi Xi-ming, Sun Feng-li,
    2014, 18 (52):  8520-8524.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.028
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (607KB) ( 542 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: Intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate has become a preventive and complementary therapy for knee osteoarthritis that can effectively relieve pain, protect the articular cartilage, and restore the joint function.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of sodium hyaluronate on nitric oxide and synovial thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
    METHODS: Eighty patients with knee osteoarthritis (86 knees) were randomly selected and divided into mild, moderate, severe groups. Intra-articular injection of 25 mg sodium hyaluronate was done once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. At 4 and 12 weeks after treatment, all the patients were subjected to clinical scoring according to the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure. Thirty-seven patients (40 knees) who could make joint fluid and complete ultrasonic measurement was taken as a complete monitoring group that was also divided into three groups of mild, moderate, and severe. Levels of nitric oxide and synovial thickness were measured before and at 4 weeks after treatment.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 4 weeks after treatment, the effective rates of mild, moderate and severe groups were 93%, 77% and 47 %, respectively, and the total effective rate was 79%. At 12 weeks after treatment, the effective rates of mild, moderate and severe groups were 95%, 84% and 33 %, respectively, and the total effective rate was 80%. In the complete monitoring group, the level of nitric oxide was reduced significantly in mild, moderate and severe patients at 4 weeks after treatment compared with before treatment (P < 0.05), but the synovial thickness had no difference in the mild and severe patients, and only moderate patients appeared to have thinner synovial thickness compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). Experimental findings suggest that sodium hyaluronate can reduce the level of nitric oxide and improve clinical efficacy in patients with knee osteoporosis, especially for mild and moderate knee osteoporosis patients.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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    Sodium hyaluronate for treatment of chondromalacia patella syndrome   
    Yan Hao-ran, Cai Jun-feng, Shen Bin, Wen Jun-xiang, Tan Jun
    2014, 18 (52):  8525-8528.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2014.52.029
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (519KB) ( 608 )   Save

    BACKGROUND: According to the special physical and chemical properties, the sodium hyaluronate plays a very important physiological role, such as constructing the cellular matrix, lubricating the joints, and promoting the repair of tissue damage.

    OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of sodium hyaluronate on chondromalacia patellar syndrome with different disease courses.
    METHODS: A total of 76 patients with chondromalacia patellar syndrome received intra-articular injection of 2 mL sodium hyaluronate once a week for 5 consecutive weeks as a course, with the entry point on the medial margin of the patella. All the patients were divided into two groups according to the disease course: < 3 months group (n=32) and > 3 months group (n=44). One-year follow-up was done to summarize the therapeutic effect.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After follow-up for 1 year, the excellent and good rate was 94% in the < 3 months group, which was superior to the > 3 months group (73%). There was no side effect and infection during the treatment. Five patients appeared to have pain worsened after treatment, which may be caused as follows: Patellar effusion was removed incompletely and early puncture was unskilled. The pain was relieved within     1-2 days after the break. Results showed that the sodium hyaluronate is an effective drug for chondromalacia patellar syndrome, while early treatment and reasonable entry point is the key to keep the therapeutic effects.

    中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程


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